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Victorian Naturalist 


of the 


VOL, Ll|[ 
MAY, 1936, TO APRIL, 1937 


The Author of each Article is responsible for 
the facts and opinions recorded 

Melbourne : 
BuowN, Prior, Anderson Pty^. Ltd., 430 Little Bourke Street 



No Fern-lover can afford to be without a copy of this little 
book, for in it are contained descriptions and illustrations of 
every Fern known to exist naturally in our State^ and also where 
to find them, how tp identify them, and how to grow them. It 
has been published by the Club without expectation of other than 
a monetary loss, and solely for the benefit of all Naturc-lovcrs, 

Copies can be obtained from the Hon. Librarian, Field 
Naturalists' Club of Victoria^ Royal Society's HaU» Victoria 
Street. Price, 1/-; posted, Idv extra. 




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Central 9439 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Voi. LIII.— No. I May 7^ 1936 No. 629 


The ordinary ineering of the Club was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on Monday, ApnfZO, 1936. The President, Mr, G. N. Hyatn, 
presided, and about 100 members and friends ai leaded. 

Tiie President referred to the doatVis of Miss Doris Schulz, Mr. 
J. Howie, Country M,^niber5 of the Club, and of Mr_ W. Lawford, 
a Life Mcml>cr. 


11ie Preskletil, in introducing the lecruret for the evening, Mr. 
M. Blackburn, s]>rjke of the good work done by tlie McCoy Society. 
Mr. Blackburn dealt vrith the work and experiences of the Society's 
expedition on Lady Julia Percy Island. A very interesting scria* 
of lantern tiJidcir. was shown. 

At thu end or the lecture Mr. F. Singleton and Mr. L. Stadi, 
who were both members of The expedition, spoke briefly. 

After answenug several questions, tlie lecturer was thanked by 
die Pi-esident ar^d also the thaid<s of the Clul) were expressed to 
the McCoy Societ}- ior its -work. 

The President stated that ihc Club hc^d decided to liuld a Iwo-day 
Wild Nature Show this year, ' 

From Rev. N Michael, of Boonah, South Queensland, asking 
for correspondence from nieiubers interested in the excban.q:e of 
botanical speciniens, especially Eucalypts and Acacias. 

Excursions were re^wrted on as follows; Healhcote; excursion 
cancelled; Beechwordi, Mr. W. Ingram, Yart4 River^ Mr. W. 


On a show^ of hands the following were duly elected as (a) 
Associate Member; Master A. Colli ver; (b) Ordinary Members*. 
Mi55 A. Cornish. Mis5 Joyce Outtrim, Miss D. Sachsc, Mjss M. 

i* Field Naimolists' CJuh ProfC^rJin^x, [y^j' /^f^' 


The Presirlent extended a very Jiearty welcome to Miss Garlingfr 
a visitof from the Sydney Naturalists' Club; and also to a Couiury 
Member of our Club, Mr. Hackett. 

It was annoimced that the next meeting would be held in ihe 
New Hcrlxirtutii Hall, and the subject be ''Niitional Monumenis." 
*Jhis would juaugurace a campciign for the preservation ol* Natural 
and Historic Mo«iuu]?nls. and the checking oT vnndalisui. 

The Committee invited members to submit to the Secretary as. 
soon as pos&iblc sugjEjtstJoiis for excursions fqr the forthcoming Hst. 


Mrs. Miller read a cutting from the Press, stating that elm tree 
leaves were being collected for cxp^ort to Germany, and asked for 
information regarding their iisc. 

The meeting closed, and members adjourned for the Conver- 


Mrs. V. T-I. Miller. — Pendant of Gtrino Crystal; one of the 
&emi-piec>ous varieties of Quart?., from Spring Creek, Beechworth 

Mr. W. H NicholU. — Small Copperhead Snake, from Solomon's 
Ford, Manbyrnong River, Bi'aybrook. 

Mr. A. R- Varley. — Collection of Shells and Coral from Great 
Barrier Reef. 

Mr. N. Lothian. — Flowers and fruits of Macadtinm lermjoliQ, 
a native of Queensland. 

Mr. G. K. Hyam^^ — Aboriginal stone chippings. from StudJey 

Mr. A. J. Swaby. — Luminous Crab, iro^n Port Phillip Bay. 

Mr, F. S- CoUiver. — A series of minerals from Beechworth* 
including Citrine, Rock Crvstal. Jasper, Agate, Black Iron Sand, 
etc; .ilso a series of Granite from the district 


Twei:>tj'-dg1it members^ and friends auemkd the rjvcr e.rcursion. wlucli 
Started from the location <jf the t'alJs that formerb- existed near O'tC^jnV 
Bridge. The leader described the Varra as nearly as iJQ5*ibie *3> if w^c 
before being aUered to its present state Some description of the geologv 
was attempted, and a short walk taken through Studley Park. The wnalhcr 
was wet, but the boat was covered in. 

W. HANK?. 

The R«v. Norman ^fichacI, The Roctory. Boonah, South Queensland, has 
been coil<curtft' botanical specinien;^ p^rticuUriy Eucaiypts and Acaciaa. for 
30 years, Now thnt, after imny v^'and^rinjs, lie has settled down, he is 
aiiXious to form ^n herbarium And museum o£ his owm. He would valiic ^ 
Victorian series of his favourite plants, dried spccimen« for the herharium. 
and would like to hear from any member of our Club willing^ to exchange 

THK VKiTORlAN NA rURAlJSI" \ol. i.iii 

l'l;iU- 1 

Miiw 1^30 

^93eJ LitTi.KjOHNs. Sonte Notes on the Lyre-bird, M 



By R. T, J^ittlejohns 

Durinj^ ten winters (levote<l to the Lyre-birds of Sherbrooke 
Forest I, unfortunately, perhaps, have sought [jhutugruphic records 
with such fervour that many opportunities for observation have 
been neglected. Nevertlieless, in that period t have gatliered at 
least a few facts which may not be recorded in the general and 
rather extensive literature regarding this remarkable bird. Inci- 
dentally, it has been fi.ntnd necessary to modify several hastily- 
cfmceived ideas formed during the earlier years of association with 
the species. 

Influenced, probably, by something which I bad read, I at first 
considered the mate Lyre-bird to be a creature of warlike tempera- 
ment. The penetrating "quilp qnilp" call I regarded as a definite 
cijallengc to other males of the species, and when, on various occa- 
sions» I saw one male chasing another through the forest, I became 
convinced that it was proof of a widespread rivalry f{)r mates. Later 
experience has changed my ideas entirely. I am now firmly of the 
opinion that the relationsliip between male Lyre-birds is almost 
invariably friendly, and even playful. Tlie chasing which, in other 
times, 1 regarded as evidence of a quarrel, I am now convinced is 
play. Furthermore, there Is little doubt !eft in my mind that the 
birds mate for life; so that_, except in rare instances, rivalry fur 
mates does not occur. The only definite evidence I have for believ- 
ing that the Lyre-birds mate for life is the fact that the male 
occupant of one definite ^'territory" at Sherbrooke has been associ- 
ated, during two sucessive seasons, with a female whicli carries 
a ring on her leg. 

The question of territory deserves mention. There is no other 
Australian l)ird known to me in which adherence to a definite area 
is so strongly evident as in the case of the male Lyre-bird. Day 
after day and week after week, especially in the singing season, 
one may know exactly where to find any particular individual. The 
territory of each male may be two or three acres in extent, and it 
is seldom that the bird will be found outside it. From time to time, 
however, he may leave his own area and visit that of his neighbour. 
In most cases, when this occurs, a playful chase develops, and it 
may be that other territories are visited also, the occupants of 
which join in the chase. I have seen as many as five male birds 
gathered together in such circumstances. They may dance on 
mounds or elsewhere. Sometimes two or three display at once. 
1 have not, however at any time, seen two birds dancing together 
on one mound, but frequei»tly one dancer is replaced by another 
as soon as the first has completed his "'turn." These corroborees 
seldom last very long and within half an hour each male may be 
found once more in his own territory. 


LiTTl£JOHNS, Some Notes on the Lyrc-hird. 

rvk. ^*t 


Apart from the regularity of the liabits of tlie males, as regards 
territory, there is a further characteristic vvliich has been most 
helpful in connection with attempts to film the Lyre-bird and to 
record and broadcast the song. Although the 1)ird may sing in any 
portion of his territory or on any of his many mounds, there is 
always one favourite singing area from whicli he gives his most 
fervent and sustained songs. This favourite singing area may 

Photo. R. T. LitUejoknK. 

Malt' L.yre-bird preparing nioiiiul 

contain two or three closely-grouped mounds and perhaps one or 
more logs, stumps or elevated horizontal brandies. As the singing 
positions in this favourite area are ahnost always groui>cd within 
a radius of thirty or forty feet» it will be realizetl that the broad- 
casting of the song, whilst it involves considerable ]>reliminary 
investigation, is yet a matter of less difficulty than w(»ulcl be 

During the mouUing season, in September and October, and 
thereafter until the following April, the adherence to the territory^ 
while still in evidence, is not so marked and oft-times the bird 
may not be found in its accustomed place. At dusk, also, the males 
leave their terirtories to roost, often in company, in tail trees. The 

females, outside the ncstinp season, arc not so easily followed as 
the males >)ecau£« of the lack of song, but it would appear that 
tliey do not adhere lo IliO ternturi«is of their mates or, in fnct^ to 
^\y territory. 

There are several outstanding characteristics of male I-vic-hirds 
in tlie manner of makir^ and using (heir mauiuls and these hxive 
l>ecoinc ktjuiMi to the \vriier bccaUM: tlicy hav<^ :»ffect<*cl inritcrialty 
tlie attempts which Iiave been made to film the display. In iht 
fif^t place Jt has become evident that, whilst mounds may be 
fonned, occasionally, whei-e tlicre is no screen of urdergrowdi 
dose to the j^roiiiid, it is almost invanuhly the practice lochoose 
a position surroundefl by growfng ierns, sword gn^ss or 4jlhcr 
lowly growth. Tins lact has been of considerable importajicc with 
regard to i»)ii»tOgr;iijhy at Sherbrnokc. as bracken, whirls is the mosr 
ii&nal scieen for the mounds, grows only in fairly we1]-ht are^s. 
Last year tliis characteristic was responsible, almost entirely, for 
the .success of a film taken under excellent li^^litin^ condition??. 

Apparently because of an increase in thp l.vTe-bird population 
of ibe Forest, one jnale bijd during the winter of 1934 took pos- 
Bcssiorj of a territory along the forest edge adjoirung a cleared 
fire-break. The narrtiW >trfp of fnre?tt <>ecnpied Ivy ttiis bird jiro 
\nded a suitable feeiling-j^round of soft mould, but, with the excep- 
tTon of oTte small patch o: sword gt^s;?, there vv"is no place where, 
mounds could be formed wilh the usual screen of low growth, Thii 
bird, therefore, made several mounds amongst the biackcu jjrow- 
ing^ in the tire-break itself where the lifjht available \v;is probably 
rwenty times more etticient than that in any part nf the forest propei . 

Jn June, W35. a record was made of the iiun^ber of times the 
occupant uf Ibis tenilory disp1?tved on a particular rnound in his 
lU'Ofit ptDpular smgiiig area. Tlie inouiid choseii was an old and 
well-formed one which had bccu m itse also during the pp.'vioua 
singin;;' 5ta.son. Doiin^ eight days, whieli, huwcvei, were not all 
good Kinging days, the bird di&playcd on this mound tui timiis or 
on an avemge of a litile more thnti once a d^y A month later he 
contmenced to for/n a new n^ound twelve feet from the old one, 
from which he had been disturbed on many occasions. From tiie 
time he c<mi!Tienccd the new mound his activities iticrcased greallj', 
and during a further eight days he danced ou the new mound 
tweTjty-one times He returned time after tiinc with evident anxiety 
to make the display place to his likin^j in a.s shoi t a time as possible. 
Much of the time was spent in scratching up the earth, removing 
the grass and extending Llie area by treading down aiid removing 
bracken at the cdgt:^- So intent w;is he cm this task that many feel 
of film were ex|)osed whilst the writer ^at, camera in liand, just 
outside the ring of hrack<ni and >vithin ten feet of the bird. Timte 
iiJler time the motor of the camera was wound and the camera 
operated without any effort to muffle the sound 

^ Lrm.njrifNs. Some N/ticx i?n itie /-)ti*-/iiVh?. [v«k i!t\ 

It nuitt noc be assumed, however, tlwt the Lyre-bird, even at 

Sherbrooke, is not ai> exlrcniel} war] and sus|3icious ^rrealuri: 
noniially. Prooi of warine&s js provided by an ex)>erience diiving' 
the endeavour to obtain ftlm in 1955, For many days the small 
cinciini cantertj, wllli line attached to operate the motor, remamed 
fastened to tli€ ground and camouRaged with debns fifteen feet 
Ux*m \vhat had been a very ]xipijlar mound. And ;iliIiough the sur- 
roundings iiad not been interfered with in ^\y other way the bird 
would not dance nn thnt mound. Time afrer time be [>as!£ed over 
it. raked the earth once or twice, but walked off to diij>lay else- 
where^ Eventually it became apparent that the small shining lens, 
less tli^n an inch in diameter, fifteen feet away <inc\ recessed far 
iiito a |>added box, was rebp*jnsible for his refusal to use )iis most 
usual display place. The apparatus was then modified so that the 
lens remained covered until the camera wa^ aetually set m motion 
by means of the line, In tliis way it wa.s po^^ible to liave the cnniera 
completely hidden daring the eritical petiod when the bird walked 
on to his momjd and to uncovei Che lens later when he was en- 
grossed in his performance, Smd when, probably, his vis5on was 
obscured hy the widespre^id filmy feather:^ of Ihe tail. 

This characteriptie of the Lyre-bird should l)e remembered by 
those v/ho seek to witness the display and an effort to approach the 
dinger should not be made until the di&pUy lias reached a stage 
w!\erc tl]c performer is oblivious to all else. These conclusions, of 
conrse, are based on the conduct of the Sherbrooke l)irds, but T 
have no doubi (hat the same cliaractertstics, [i^rhaps in modiiied 
form, will be found in birds of other areas. 

During prejjsrations for several broadcasts and recordings, many 
observations have be^n necessary as to the factors which influence 
the siny;jjig. From a n^a;;e of apparently contradictory results if 
has been possdjle Co cull a few definite conclusions. Firstly, h has 
hecotnc apimrent thar the sca*ion of gv^itcst activity is from the 
middle of June to the middJc of July» and that most Jnd}^^c]uals 
have slied 'cheir rails and have become silent by the end of Sep- 

The weather, also, has been found to have hsid considerable 
influence on the- efficiency of <]ie singing. On windy day5-, even in 
the height of the season, the Forest will be praccically silent except 
Jor the roar of th<! wind in tlie tall trees. Su'.h singing as does 
occur or* windy day^i, furth«ermore. is delivered pjincipaHy fron^ 
elevated perches and not from mounds. Obviously, I think^ the 
birds fear that, under cover c>f the roar of the Avind, enemies may 
steal ut>Qn tUcm unawares should tJiey display on screened mounds. 
On cabn June or July days, especially if Iheie be a light fog, sing- 
ing is almr-st continuous, and opj)ortunitlc5 for witnessing the 
display are numerous. 

Dunng those portions of tlie year when smging Is not so constant 
as in Jnne and July most pcriormanccs have occurred, according 

Photo, by R. T. Litttejohm 

Male Lyre-bird displaying on inuuiid 

Bracken imtsidc the forest proper. 


LiTTLEjonNS, Sotnf Notes on the I.yre-bxrd. 

Vol. LIII. 

to my notes, about twu hours after daylight and again about lialt- 
past three o'clock in the afternoon. 

Of the song itself so much has been written that there is probably 
little that is new to be added. There has always been a difference 
of opitiion as to the number of iiuitatcd sounds included in tlic 
repertoire of a singer of average ability. Probably the nunil)cr of 
imitations varies with the locality. Acting on the princi])le that 
only those sounds which may be included without doubt as imita- 
tions should be recognized, I have estimated that the number of 
imitated sounds used bv the Sherbrooke birds is about twentv^ 

Photo. R. T. LitUejohns. 

Male Lyre-bird displaying (rear view 

From the high-pitched musical whistle of the pilot bird to the 
sound oi" rustling feathers and from the harsh laughing of kooka- 
burras to the faint twittering of thornbills there is no soun<l, 
apparently, which is beyond the power of the bird to reproduce. 
For many months I imagined that the sound of rustling feathers 
sucli as accompanies the commencement of a flight of parnjts, was 
])roduced by a shaking of the plumage of the mimic. I did not 
<lreani that such an ehisive sound could be j^roduced in the throat 
anti I was astounded when first I witnessed the productioti of the 

TMB.l WftSOKj NoU's fro^n Pinif J.ahcfi Dixhjrf, 9 

Then llicre is the uncanny abilily 0/ ibe minifc to produce a clear 
representation nf the chatter f)f a whole flock of |>arrot> or the 
si(iiiiItaneou.s Uughii^g of a chorns o{ kookaburras. The lull Icooka- 
burra chorus, rendered so seldom tliat I h^vp heard it less than a 
dozen tmies, is an achievenicrit which itiust place the I.yre-hir<I 
amongf^t the world's most efficient natural artis^ts. 




By F. EuASMtrs Wiij^on 

Oui- Editor lecfnlly Jiandcd nvs a Tifjer Hectle collected at LaVe 
Crosby, when that locahiy was visited by a party oi Dutch 
sri<»ntists early in Aijril. I understand that about a do^en spet^ 
mens wore colleATed hy Dr. J. Router, who was probably mor« 
active hi hi!i movT^.ments than the Editor, as ujpturiug Tif^cr 
Bfiftlks is r»> mean achw^vemcnt. 

This specimen is partioriariy inlt'ri'.stinj? as it proved to 1>c 
Ckimlchi pituji Blac.kb., a species so far c^uit^" mre 111 collections*, 
and previously recorded only from two locah'ties in S»Mith Aus- 
tralia The type examples were taWcn hy a Mr. Jnng. on York 
Peninsula, South Australia, and sent by him to Canon Blarkhurt*. 
who described them in the Praceediji{/s of the Boya! y<?f Ji^/^' of 
Sfiitth Australia. No mor-e seem to have l^een reported unld \'U\ 
A. H. Elston collected a few specimens on the Coorong some i'ow 
years ar^, the previous example in my collection ])av)ng ber:n one 
ol that capture 

Tlic beetle now first recorded from Victoria js oE alx>tU lh« 
Isuald of the widely -distributed C ypsifon Dej , a beach-frequeiitittg 
► form. It^ head atid protliorax are brilliantly metallic and rugOF-e^y 
Scolptiwcd. iiiid the elytra are cream coloured as. in my example 
from the Coorong, or s1ightl\^ darlcer a^ in the Victorian specimen. 
The tdyira arc ornamented with an irregular marking commencing 
at the. base and conlnunng alongr the .'future for al^out two-thirdF 
of its length. The niaJfcdiblcfi arc yellowish, tipped with black, and 
the Ic^ts arc cither brilliant rx*ppt;iy or hrijfht metallic fjrcen, 
»ccor<lmg: in Biackburn. who evidently liad a s<rrics before bini 
when writing his description. Jn the Victotian specimen aluf 
metallic parts are coppery. 

The Editor and I visited this lake district in C>ctohe.r, 1922. and 
;althouf;h wc saw many examples of the Tiger Beetle Mvyacephahi 
Aiustralis Cbaud, no examples of a Cmndeh were observed. Po?- 
-sibly they do not emerge so early in the summer, the lakes at that 
time still containing quite a lot of water. The Megacephala wc 

10 Wli-SiON. N^r/ts Irom Pmk Lakes IVufrki. [V^ LJiti 

found Mjmctnncs under planks or lof^ of wood firmly cmbcdde^l 
Jn cn'Stallize.d salt, when K\\^y would be sCPii restiii]^" in the cliaiv 
nels which Ihey excavate. Oiice disturbed, however, they were 
exceedingly active:, and catchini>: them was not always an easy 
nr>atl<*i . rtvtin with the 7is5ii stance of a t\^X- One evening quite ** 
number c^me to a light whirh we were usin.i; some two miles from 
the laiv'c for the purpose o( attracting n'rght-flyingf injects. They 
woutd dind down in (he sheet ;md tlifin start rushing madly ahont, 

It is a ctniouB fact that so many of our Tiger iiecrtles are a^od- 
ated with^salt- Most of the Jarpe brackish lakes arid salt f>an5 of 
the tntt^rioi h^ve tlieir Tiger HeeJie iauna, Western Australia 
particularly having a wonderful variety of Ix'autiful foinis. Our 
other Victorian Tig'^r Beetle, Cicindela ypsHon, as Ijcjotc mcn- 
ti<jne'i, is a ica hea-ch dweller, found m» far only along th*: Ninety 
Mile lieJicli jn rhi« State. 

Di^tipsifiOf'fi., a»» :nrl>*iri^al geims. see^ms to jtbun salty situations, 
being a denizen of the forests m Morihem An&iralia, and the 
jutcrcstmg li(tlc Western Au'^traiiaii genus Nkkerlr-a, one of the 
rarest of Tiger Beetles, i$. I believe, fouticl on the sand plains. 

Some 3T5irs a^o 1 remember visitijig a small lake in the, centre 
of the Little Desert, south of Kiafa, and although this lakelet ss a 
very is':>Jared one, yrt here al^^o I found Mcgofi^phah iwsfrai^s. Il 
it just possible Ih^t other Cu-indcUida may furn uo in onr north- 
west, salt lake iysfeuj. although. I think, miprolxible. A new 
Ztuilund coleopterist some years ago showed tuc a ^mall Cicindefa 
that he. had taker on ^Tass lands some twenty miles across the 
Murray River fir>m Mildur.u and this specie? niav yet turn up 
in the north-west corner of this State. Till then we shall have to 
he satishe^i with claiming a Tiger Heetlie fauna of only three 
species, out of some iifly to sixly S]>eci<is known to ocrur in 

On ihe sliores of the Jake where the new Tiger Beetles were 
taken there gr^w in 1922 a small patcli of sandalwcnrid trees svhich 
T expect arc tioi there now. From the trtink of oive of Ihese I <«l' 
out £j dead, tlK'Ugh ahnost ]>erfect example oi the very rare and 
d»5tinvtively sculptured Mfiloba.\is ainwntds Carr., a jewel beetle, 
of which. T ]>elieve, only about three si^Kin^ens have .*,o far Jieea 
taken. Also, in a crevice in a tree trunk J found aljunt seven 
<*xamp[es nf the large scarab hectic. Gii^adcwii ionijipimne Germ^ 
a fifenus that was also represented by the still larger spacic.% 
C. bf^hfofhi var. irttcnnedium Gestro. 

The surrounding^ sand-hills were the tiahital of the fine scarabid 
gin)i)S, holhoi-cr\i^ aud rhcylum Hlkl>., Sloanei BIkb. atid t'omcoU^ 
Mad., were species that were captured. We used to dig these out 
of the sand, being Jed lo Iheir burrows by die ^"ermicuhue damp 
ftand lumps, which were piled up in the early irornjng. Wlien the 
sun c^me out and evaporated the moisture, nothing remained to 
indicate th^iir lurking places. 

The Nccdk flushes (Hakea &p.) growingf aioaiid the lake;? not 
Only pr(>vid^<J us with water fiuiii their root sy.«.tenis. but aUf> 
yielded several specimens oi the Longicoin beetle, SyfUfu^ portyr 
Pasc... and tlic poi-cijpiTic grass m^socks were lurking grounds of 
(h€ rinv^ large Anryctcrid weevi). Pfalidnrr: flavos&hjso T"^rg.. a$ 
well as that of the beautiful Striated Grass-Wren. Awyhmns 

Two nice Uttle St^i'ahid beetles that wc took on mallee eucalypts 
were Lfparctrus pha>mco(>tcrtts Gtrm , a dumpy litik- chai' with 
de<ip red elytra and hirsute thorax, and L. abiii>nnafi.< Mucl,. a 
rare species that I have not ^ince talcen. 

Cue tvciTing we noticed a long processioii oi small T>hcl< 
IncIomCrrny-v ancs and interspersed alJ along the line of travel 
were examples of the Trogid Hetitle^ Liparoctirnr (/c-ftmi'iiu^r 
WcsCw. Beetles of the genus Lipnrochrus -Mtt not looked upon as 
niyrniecophilus. so that what they were doing there is problemali- 
cal. They seemed to lie jus( w^ilUitig" along in the processioj). 
n<;ither worrying t!ie ants or bemg worried by them. Fully twenty 
of tliem were picUed up in vhe ?vparc of a few yards. 

We also found near the lakes two spccits of the handsome 
Tenebrionid, genus cfuilcoptcrti^, viz., clypcab^ Black)?., which also 
occurs m Western Australia, and yiO'mh Bles.s.. whicli we ^ome- 
tiines get m the \icinity of Melbourne. Tlie same family iilso 
yielded Helacu^ scapii.iforifti.'i BlacU.. one of the quaint forms 
soinctimes referred to as Tortoise JJcetles. 

Three or fc-tir e.vainples of Aphodms dxiiobonnj^nds Blackb., a 
smdl scarab that was riescnhecf from I^ke* Callahofina. in Soulh 
AiistriiHa, were collected. This insect was rede:='Cribcd later und^r 
another name by a local colcopterist, bul I am surf* of my deter- 
mination as J was able to compare my specimens wHth the type 
niaterial in the South Australian Museum. 

Ant-lion pits were seen m almost eveiy sheltcxe.d situation, 
and although we saw no nduhs at Ihe time, they innsc be very 
plcntifia! tlicrc m mid-summer Qiutc a inimber nf utce colecpier<v 
were coHt^ted in Ihis disttict, and we might have got more hut lor 
the fact that much of our time was taken up in finding otiwil^ologf- 
cal subjects for tl>e Editoi's cainerii. 

Ten members and friCiids attended the Easter excursion at Becchwortli, 
and were favoured wi!h perfect weaiher. A view from the top of Ml- 

Siante^' on the Saturday, ecnbradng ihe Hmtic Reservofir. Mr. KoscJiukOw 
Feathertop. Bogontf, Buffalo, ctc.» nght aromid to the Divide, on ihe south, 
show-d all 10 be snow-covered. We even had a vli»npso ai the Hit^h Plalus, 
in a siniilsr condition. The trees of (he district sgatn caMea for idniiri- 
tion, ;ind some iruUs uf the Arbutiii g'ive irvideiice of the genial climate. 
Mrs. V. H. MiJJer noted about tiO diirsrcnt species of birds. The tneml>*ri 
greatly ei>jo>'ed an ;dl-dav excursion to the Wool&bed valley. 

)2 "Lf-nvir. Pui^rn^ iij the Lyr^'birtf jm KfriflW/r. [y^,; ^^{ 


By F. Ltwks (Chief Inspector of fisheries and Came) 

What will be the position of Mcnura an this State in years to 
vom^J? This question is exercising \ht minds of inany people. a<5 
i-s evidenced, lor instance, by tlie stron^rly-exprcssed opj)0&it.ion, iti 
some quarters, to the transfer of several of our Lyre-birds to Tas- 
mania during (he le»si two wiiilers. The peojjle concerned ivere, I 
think, gennindy opposed to ihe tixjierimeiu because they feared 
the depletion of our vtry limited stocks, but, being undu3y appre- 
hensive, they overlooked the outstanding advantage of having a 
reserve stock oi Lyre-biid^ in another Smte should ^inyihing 
eventuate seriously to reduce tlicir nmnbcrs on the mamland. 

The Lyre-bird is found, in Victoria, only in the mountain gullies 
3t!d dense fores? of the north-eastern and eastern parts Although 
the densel)*-timbercd fern gullies of the Otway foresc should be 
entirely suitable, they have never been found there. It is possible 
that, were ihey introduced to such 3 ])lace as Turton's Pa$5i tl^ey 
would thrive oad provide another safegiiard against eJcterniit>ation 
should then- present habitat be seriously threatened. 

What now are the factors which a superficial rnvestigution indi- 
cates as favouring (he Lyre-bird in rhis State? To nie they apj^CEi 
as: — 

(1) The tact that a great deal of their territory is rough, inac* 
oessible, mounlainons country, ovuch of which is proclaimed 
ibrtst country, much almost worthless except perhaps as 
a water catchment, 

(2) The more favourable i^blic opiinon fonned in recent years 
as the result of the magnificent work of such men as T 
Tregellas and R- T. Littlejohns; by the broadcastmg of 
the song; iUKJ by the articles of n^Uure writers in oui' great 

(3) The more adequate protection given by the law in recent 

As regards (1) it must not be talceii for granted that sn these 
isolated mounTain areas the birds are nece.'is^iriJy safe for all time- 
I have known densely-timbered gullies, once the hotme of Lyrc- 
fjirds, Coachwhip Birds and other species that thrive in these 
localities, to be burnt and cleared for cultivation It seems a shame 
that th35. should be done, because, in anost cases, the result hardly 
justiftes the Ubour and ex-pense involved Typical examples of this 
are to be sceji close to the Prince's Highway, between 3-akes 
Entrance and Lake Tyers; also at South Traralgon and Jeeratang. 
and many places in Sotilh Gippsland- 

Ii/lany of the present resorts of the Lyre-bird arc privately owned, 
and one cannot object legally to what a lantlowner does with his 
vvfii prrj|xrly. But here, certainly, is a field for edticatiou. 

Again, wliilt: many of the fern gullies beloved by Meitura, in the 

forest ar<:as> art safe from fire in & I'ionml scaaon becausp nf their 
dampness, a pioIonge<l dry sf^ell will greatly incrf_Ase the fite n^U, 
and f^t't seems lo me lIu- motil: ^^crioui^. mejvir.e wImcK owy Jiahyc 
fauna lias to face in these days. 

Re (2). It i?i my belief chat the more favourable opinion formed 
in recent yeati is confined altno^^t entirely to the people hvmg in 
and around MclbouTnc. and is mainly dtie lo flie fact lli^l Sher- 
brooke Forest is ao ciusc to and easily accessible from rhe nii;lr'j}.ii3li.s. 
People in rjauntr}/ dcsrrict?, even where the birds are still |»lcntifuJ. 
show little or no hUeresv in than. Tlifs yUitudc, I think, can only 
be ncinedicd hy the educanon of rhc yoimg tinougl) the schools. 
Let us edu^aie our teiiirherg anH fhe reswft W'ill 50on be seen among 
the childre.n. 

Of coui-se, theie are cxccptiotns to this 3taic nf a/frtirg, one of 
which T came across kwt winter at a htrle country school m South 
Gippsiand, wheie th<i tiuichei and cIiiMren, and even some liI tlie 
pai'ents, were greatly mterestcd m a young I.yrc-bird in u nearby 
gully PrAciically all Ihe iorcsi and guJhcs m the vicinity Iiavc hftf.n 
Immt and cleared in tcecnt ycdtrs, tlnis reclucing rhc iirea <i\'adablc 
flor only ro thP: Lyre-bird, but also to the Koala. Kow only rhis 
one 5,mall piece of lorest guDy remains, and in it a pair of Lyre-birds 
nest eveiy year, ruurh lo the interest of jome of the local people. 
AUhough this district at one time have posse^si^d thnnsands 
of JCocilas and Lyre-birds, none of the children at the school had 
ever seen a Koala nor the dancitig display of the male Mcnvra. 
When I showed them i>ioturcs ot l)oth, tlicy were keenly iiiteicsled. 

The collector, ot course, h a ndhlets de=ijoyer of the Lyre- 
bird. These e^gt- are kcciily sought after, oitiv nne 1:5 laid in ;e 
season by each female birtl, and if'that is taken, there is no natnral 
increa.-SP from ll;<'. pair of birds eoncerneil, for that year. Kxaminu- 
lion of the records ot soni*^ ni those from Avhose collections e-ggs 
were sc^.ed lately by the Fisheries and Game Department, indicated 
cleOrly how rtuhles& collerloi^ can be in the pursuit of their hobby. 
One j«an recorded hoM" he and other collectors s'isited the Hcales- 
villc district and took eleven Lyre-bi'id eggs. Siiice these raids on 
rollpctors M-ere rnddi:, 1 ain readily understand -wlrLTe the uggs 
from Lyre-bird nests m the Dandenonj^s. which i have exyunined 
in recent yeaj*i disappeared. Now that most of the egp eollector$ 
are known, steps wdl he taken to check then- nefarious practices 
in the futuTc. Jiiuch lo the advantage, T trust, of <he Lyre-bird. 

Summarized, llic position appears to me to be that the future of 
tile J.yre-b]rd in Victoria is a^bured, contingent however, upon 
two tbi'igs: fir;?!, ^be improvenv^nt of public opinion by etlucation, 
not oTlly iu Melbourne and in large dtie^^i hut more particularly in 
the cotiutry districts, and, r>ecrind\y, by stopping the ei<»anng oT 
LjTC-bzrd gullies and the destruciion resulting fi-om bu?.h fires and 
the aetivitie.s of egg colicctors. 

14 Cmisholm, Lyri'-birtis of Thyo' ^fufcs. |_v^v till 

Bv AiEc H. CuiSiioi-M, y k z.s. 

When Jt first w^nt to QiiecnsUnd to liv«:. some twenty years 
ago, my ejxperieiKf of F^yr«-birds was Incited to the heariiii^ o£ 
one uf two in Gippsland forests. In following years J freqiienilv 
heard the hirds in thi: muunl^^iii jungles -ioutli-ea.^t of BrisbarK. 
hut to i^ee one 'jvas a rar<^ f v*^nt and fhe fttiding of a nest was rarer 
slill. How quickly tho?c hirds could di*iai)^c;ai* in the jungle, 
wanaed ptrfiaps by tl>c craclving of a stick Iteneath a foot or the 
iFtiimpiog of a wallaby's lail ! 

I lemembcT in ]>arOcular an occasion wl>en membevs c( the 
QiiLcnsland Field XaluniJisti" Club were camped oii the Green 
Miiuiitfuns that comprise the Macph-erson Range. Every mornirg 
Wc hejirrl Hie I_yrc-i)ink Ahiiuling around u>, liut not uiKe were 
w^ able to see the iiielndisr.s. It was otid th:kC the birds were so 
shy m that pnmeval region, where they lv«d rarely been ili%tin*lied 
by man. Possibly ihai shyness will wear odF in time, far the ari'a 
is a National Park and visitors (who do not carry guns) ar^ 
bccummg more and more nnmei^iis. The >>irdb in quesiion 
piTibably were of ih^ smiiller spectes of Mcnttra, the oiie wliich 
Gonld called M. albcrli, Prince Albert's Lyre-bird. Ir this species 
the tail differs considerably IrTm ihe4( of the soulbtirn Lyre-hird, 
and s<i G. M. Mathews ^plil llie genus and gave Mcnura ofbcrti 
the unojuth name of Harnwhifea-. Not content with tha(. he 
"split" ri.i^ain, chilling the "Albert" in nortb-casiern New South 
Wales Harrmihitcr aibcrii alhcrii and the r>ne in sourh-eastem 
Qi»renslaiid H. athcrti ruftK Tl wa:< fhi.s hne drsiinction that 
caused Mr. Henry Tryon, then Queensland's veteran Govcrnn^cnt 
Entomo-logist, to produce a gond jcrst <is we stood nn Mount 
Bithoiigabel, fiiirly on die h>nrder of rhe two Statef. 

"Y^ou hear '.hat biTd, sir?" he said, wiving ai) arm towards a 
T.yte-bird that was- singing a hundred yards or so to the snulh. 
**WelJ, tliat is Harnrdntt^a. alberfi albeiii. And you hear that 
Wrd?" — poiritiTig to whei^ a bird was ?iinging on the o*her ^idci of 
the track — '^tliat is Harrkdntcti aJbcrti rufaf Now you know?'* 

Nances a^ide, I <uti not iii all sure that all the Lyre-birds of fuugles of south-eastern Queewslaad belong to the. Albert 
species. There vs no douU, of coxirse, that Albert Lyre-bird.'; are 
confined to the jungles of j^ortlveastern New South Wales and 
south-eastern Ouecnsland (south of Brisbane), but no one bcemS 
to have deternuned just where their iangc cads and tiiar of the 
ironlhern l^yre-birds beg:in, and it cie^ms to me just possible that 
itrc Iwo species meet in feome places. 

Ai any rate, it the large-tailed Lyre-btrd of the south docs not 
occur in Quecn.sland junp^les it certainly h found in a( l^ast one 
|N)rtion of the northern State— in The granite country near Stan- 
iborpc. Thi& fact became revealed in 19^. At tliat tinK 1 was 


Plate IT 

MifVy 1936 

Photo, by A. H. Chishohn 

Lyre-bird's Nesi on a low rock in a gully near Gordon, Sydney 



J CniSHOLM. Lyrc-htrfis af Three Sttfies. 15 

COTiducting a column of mature aotcs in a Brisbane newspaper, 
and a boy wrcrtc me regarding Lyi^-hink wlurh hp^ savt were in 
oi>cn cr?untry. :tmong ^r-?;ir grynite boulders, neat &t3titboi*pc, 
alxHU JOO miles inland Support for this surprising statfnienl 
Ci'injc from Dr. Spencer Kobctts., rhcni ;* resident of fhe localily. 
The result was that ftfter tourinjj (m a journaUstic capacity) with 
the- thevi Prince of Wales, 1 kft the Rnynl train at Stanrhorpc aiul 
spent several days aiiioug^ fhe bird^ t>l" llie urea. 

Fnr ore vvho had searched in vain ior Lyre-birds' nests in th»^ 
|«ngl*s, i( wi^s an astonishing experience to inspect, m Dr V^toli^ris' 
company, half a dozen nests in one day; they were scatler^ed freely 
aloxit the ledges of the huge ramparts of granite, and the voices 
of the birds were often heard echohig ai»ong the rocJiS of ihat 
wild and rugged region. Subsequently .< specimen oi h lualc bird 
was l^ikcii. and it was found to bo. not the xMlxut L\Te-b?rd, 1)ut a 
repre&cnialivc uf the southern six;ciea. Q*rtain inodifi.r;«tions in 
the plumage culnurs caused this dweller in the Granite Rt'U to he 
given a name of its own — M^nuni cdwardi, Prince E<Iwart]*s 
J.yrc-bird. It is now recogni/.ed as a sub-species. Possibly il>e 
securing of further specimens would ckar the point, but »l ts wot 
of ^ufTici^nl iuiporlancc to justify the kiliug of the birds 

By this time I had realized that Lyrc-hirds are f^xirly adaptable 
— ^that while for the most part they inltabit heavily vegetated 
riteaK, Hiey can l>e tpiirc at home ainon^ nx-ky outcrnps where 
timber is sparte. Accordin^c^ly, li was not surprising tu meet the 
birds in soine abnadsnce in the Hawkesbury tartdsiuric region of 
Sydney. Ahnosi every extensive sandstone gully ucar Sydney 
has its Lyre-birds, and for anyone who "knows his y*r<\y abo«c" 
it is not especially diilBcuU* U* di^^ein'cr one or n)or«? nests during 
a winter day's ramble. Not once in a season during ten years did 
wc fail tn discover neits of Lyrc-bi rds in Sydney's glorious 
National Park, and not once in six successive years did we fail to 
hnd tl>** nest of a partindar paii that l>elurigcd lo an iM>la-!<!j »iij|[v 
on the outskirts of the populous suburb of Gordon. In Ihc jungle 
country at the southern end of the Natiuivil Faik the tiest^ may 
he iilaced ou tree-ferns, on large stumps, or at the base of trees. 
]n the main, however, they arc built into crevices of die great wall?* 
of sandstone. Once, on the fringe nf a suburb of northern 
Sydney, a pair nested on .^ flat rock on a hillside, fairly in iltc 
open, where the homo was feL=.tooned with boronia and other 
flowering plants 

Ceriaiuly the Lyre-birds near Sydney are mndi easier to see, 
and their nests arc infinitely easier to find, than is the case in 
the northern jungles. In i^ucensland one could novcr safely 
promise to take visitors Lyrc-birding ; in Sydney this has bec»:«mc 
something of a custom. Sir Phili(> Came, when Go\'ernur of Nt*w 
South Wales, inspected from year to year at Icjst half a dozen 
Lyre-birds' nefits — rather more than the average Australian hajs 


fjj" CiJiSHor.M. lyif' of Three SMcs. LVoi! liu. 

5<^fen i>r is likely lo sec. Morcovci, he often made the acqo<uii(ance 
of inother-bira& at the nests, and hKrtwten whiles he list^iia! In the 
rneludy of llu" male birds But t<> see M^nun^ in display was 
anot)v>r lualtcr Even bi the National Park tlic Sydney male birds 
are coy. and it was. only on rare occasiofis that we were aWc to 
steal upon on^ in full display. 

li will he 7ippreciatcd, fherefore. that after many arduous 
attempts to stalk male J-yre-bir^s in yueen^Iard rind New Soiitli 
VVaks. I wa^ thofoughly astonislied by the tolerance of ihe Lyre- 
buds <si Sherbrooke Forest, Victoria. My first visit there was in 
July of J93.1, in runi]>;iny with Mr R. T. LTitfeji.i?in'> and uffiecrs 
of Ihe Aufttialian i^rnadcastini^ Commission. Immediately on 
arrkvai we heard J.ynr-biids oallirii;^. and within a it^w minutes we 
cuughi H glimpse oi u fine male <li?iplaying and singing in an i>pco 
^pace — not on a mound. Sooa afterwards ai)othcr male foord 
advanced to a mound directly in front of the broadcasong ^roup 
of about i^'^i PK>ple, and Hierc, disregaiding his; audience, e^ve a 
v-onderful performance. Sut»se<iuently he sane^ twice nearby 
while i?crchmg aloft, once ojj a bmb six feet In'gb and ac^ain from 
A height of five feel mi a fallen branch Jcaning against a tree By 
this time I was immune to astonislnnent and would not have, been 
tal;tn .il.ynck if a LyrL-bii<l had come anil fed from v-'Ur hand^. 
But — -ti> think (n all those times in the jungles whcf>, for a mere 
glimpse, of a l.yrf-hird. we rrawlfd on our ^it-ymaehs over hunclveds 
of iiieks aitd Mone^, ! Certainly llu> Lyre-birds of .Sherbrooke. 
apixircntly through constant contact vrith humanity, have ways 
of their own They are the Ui»»t'St wild Lyre-biids in the world. 

'The question is somelia^es ask-ed : l>'j the sinj^dng quahtics of 
Lyre-Iiirds vary in the various Stales P My o^v»l view is that for 
.sheer melody tlieve is norhiaj> to chixjse between thein. tJnc of 
Gould's correspondents long ago declared the Albert Lyre-hird to 
be (he chief vocalist, cUimini^ thfU not only was ils soii>J louder 
and fuller than those ot southern Lyre-l>irdb", but )ts iniitatiupif 
were moie varied and accomplished. It is trije ihai rhc Albert 
J.,yre-bird produces a vonderful medley of mockery — it can 
tniilatc anythitig from the wail of the Cal-bird to the diatteiing 
of a flock of Parrots— but it cannot excel ihe superb vocal powers 
01 its sodUiern relative, "T.htvft is, however, niatter for choice 
between L^re-birds generally and (he tjglii little groo]> of Sher- 
brokc Foiest. In Oueenslnnd, in New Sonfh Wales, and in most 
pwrts u( Yicloria the T.yre-birds are faithful mockers, whereas tJic 
Sherbrooke birds are given to miprox'i.sations. 

[Those who Hesirc to rea*l furlhrr upnn this subjtrt arc rcfcrrc<l lo Ibc 
follavvinp chapter*! in Mr. Cliisholni's books : "tiiTOttte Gardens ;iur\ J-yrtr- 
birds" aiv:l '^AilStrillift'* "Mnr^ing Bir<ls" (Sirdi- (itui Gra^U Pkn-cn), "The 
"X^agic oi Mc'iiira" ;incl "Jungle Re-unions'' {Nnlurc lumtasy in Anxfralin), 
««d "I-vrc-bifd licvcli-" and "The Solitarv Lady" {Bird I'Von^cfs iff /^US' 
|y/>/ur) ^Editor! 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIIL — ^No, 2 JuDe 4, 1936 No. 630 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Ckib was held in the New 
Herbai-iuni Hall, Sonth Yarra. on Monday. May 1], 1936. The 
Presidentj Mr. G. N. Hyam, presided, and about 90 niemljers and 
Triends w<iie present. 


. L-eliers wet'C received from the Historical Socict\» of Victoria, 

Advisory Council un Fauna and Flora, and the Royal Automabile 

Clnb, ^tat^ng that they were behmd tlic Clnb in its eJTorts to secure 

bertpr protertion for National Monuments. 

Mr. T. S. Hart reported on his excvirsion to Black Kock. . 


On a 5.hovv oi hand-s the following were duly ekcted as ordinary 
memhers: Mii-s Ida Knox. Miss 5larY Knox; and as associate 
memhcrs. Elizabeth Lucas. Miss Andrev Piper, Miss [e;m 


The following nominations were n^ceived: — 

Prpsi<lcnt: Mr. S. R. Mitchell. 

Vice-Presidents: Mr. Geo, Coglull, Mr. A. H. Chisholm. 

Treasurer: Mr. J. lnj;ram. 

Librarian : Dr. C. S. Sutton. 

Assistant Librarian- Mr. W_ H. Ingram. 

Editor: Mr. Chas. Bsirert. 

Secretary: Mr. F. S. Colliver, 

Assistant Secretary ! Mr. L. VV. Cooper. 

Committee: Miss Florence Smith. Alessrs. E. F. PeHcott. H. 
lenkms, Chas, Dakv. V, H. Miller. H. C. E. Stewart. W. Hanks, 
j. W. Audas, A. S.' Kenyon. R. H. Croll. 

Auditors: Mr. A. S. Chalk and Mr, A. G. Hooke were duly 


Mr. V. II. M/ller reported that as an Honorary Inspector under 
the Fisheries and Game Act^ he liad stopped a man catching* Silver 
Gulls witli a hook and line. 

18 r-M Narurnfistx' Chib Pmrrniiiujs ll]^^' '^"^' 


It was announce<l tliat Prof. F. II. lJoy<l. ma.,, woiii<I give 
a |>nblir krture on '*11ie Carnivorous Tlanls oi the World" Af 
Jhc UiiivCrsily, on Wd'clnesday, June 10. 



The "Snhject" wa-snn explanvHtion of, and disaissioii on, National 

The President brieflv explained what was meant by the ienii 
National Monuments, and gave a nuniber of suggestions us to 
objects well worthy of being classed as such, in ihiii State Ik* 
then moved r "This Club -shall take inimcdi:4tt steps to caII a 
confei'ence of all interested bodies with a view to obtaining l^^^'i-'i-- 
lation for the proclamation, reservation and protection of NationaJ 
Monutueiits of jiuhiral origin or the handiwork of man; of a 
scientific, historic or scenic interest- for ail time " 

I'he motion was seconded by Mr. K_ H Croll, and carried, 

Mr. Sr R. Mifcbeli then gave a lecture, illustrated by means of 
the ejrtdiascope, on National Mnnuincnts in Japan, United Stales oi 
Americi, and New Zealand. 

Mr. J Railton, President of the. Tree Planters' A-ssociation, and 
Mr. Owens, the Secretary^ spoke in support of the proposed rtkove- 
ment desifjncd to preserve National Moriumcnts. 


Mr, C. Dal<?v% — Kobsil wood fouiid at Black Rock in 1866 by 
Mr. G. Kcgo. 

Mr. Robin Crol). — An orchid (Ptcrostylis virtata), flowcrintr 
for the -sixth year in the same sjwil- 

Mr. Noel Lothian. — Specimens of Bucolyt^tus Icticoxytmt. show- 
ing white and pink variations in the flowers: found at Torquay, 
March, 1936. 

Mr. A, R. Varley. — Poly;:oa [Retsporu sp.) from Wcstcrnpnrt 
Bay. Several specimens of the Basket Fun^tis 


Giant uperinieiis ot CUmat'is (^lydnoidcs are groiving on Eiicalypts close- 
to the KingVs Highway (.Cann 1-iivcr Road) and to Mai Rock Crcok. in i\}^ 
Pari-sh at Kovvat. County of CroajingitionK- At the request, of Mr. A. M. (>, 
Thorn, of Kowat, tJw* plaiitf; \vere nieasured by Mr W. Hunter, l.Hnds 
Department Surveyor, of Bairnsdale. Mrs. Thorit, in forwarding pardctilnrs. 
*lal-cs iJiai the i>Iai*ts, which have bci;n under otjservaUon for ?.omc yudrb. 
arc definitely C. f/fycinuith-x. Tlie tallest is 85 feet in (itight. another 75 
ieet and others considcrahlj' more, than 50 fet. 


Plate III 

June, 1936 

t'r'nn a imhtlinu bij M. L Jloivi*- 

" Velvet-foot " Fungus Collybia vciutipcs 

iy;"c^] Bakkktt. a Painter of Fttfitfi 19 

By CtiARLES Barrktt 

TriiiTiiphing (iver ill-health, MichaL4 Howie, when he died, had 
acajiii[)ltshed work that deservesi more than the ]>raise of a few 
botanists, concerned chiefly witli scientific values. As a -[lainter uf 
Australian fungi, the youn|^ self-taught artist excelled. His talent 
was developed and used despite a handicap that depri\'e(I hiiu of 
active hush outings. He could not g<) ranihling in their haunhs, but 
toad.stools and their kin were hnaight to him. and h? preserved 
the sliapes and colours of these s!iort-li\'ed plants. His paintings 
form a gallery uni([ue. 

Wheti some of his paintings were sent to me, I thought at once 
of the Naturalist, and later it was arranged that Mr. J. H. Willis 
and his brother-in-law, the artist, should contribute to the Club's 
journal. The number devoted to Gilled Fungi of Victoria was 
the result. A notable issue, which has done much to poj>ularize 
fungi and ititroduced many of us properly to familiar jdants, known 
vaguely as "toadstools." When the I'iftnnnu I'rnis book was in 
prei)aration, Mr. Howie was asked to do the paintings tor colour 
j)lates ; a commissiftn executed at a nominal fee. He wtaiUl ha^'c given 
them, as he gave the use of his fungus ])ictures, bar! we been 
"willing. He lo\'ed colour drawing, and worked for the joy of the 

A brave spirit had Michael Howie; and one likes to rememl)er 
him \\ith that quiet smile of his: or the eyes revealing keen interest 
in talk about his favourite subjects. From a fev/ years, after choice 
of a ST)ecial field, he gained his merit---estahlishing a claim to front 
rank as a ])ainter of fungi. H-e made no claim himself, being 
content to work, and rest, and work again. An hour at the table 
tired him. His achievement becomes more remarkable when his 
]iandica[:) is remenibered. Two liundred iiaintings. many of them 
little masterineces ; all admirable. 

Hnm on March 26, 1900, at Creswick. Mr, M. L Howie was 
never strong, suffering from a curitnis musctdar atrophy which 
])revented him from walking when 16 years of age. Being extremely 
fond of outdoor life and rambling in the bush auKjng the wild 
things he loved, the lad felt keenly this eiiforced inactivity; he 
became entirely dependent upon others to wheel him about in an 
invalid chair, Des|>ite such a handicaii. his natural cheerfulness 
and o]>timisin caused him Lo look about for avemies of service, and 
during the war years — three brothers were at the Front— he deter- 
mined to make use oi a natural gift for colouring. So he began 
painting patriotic designs on badges, ribbons, knitting-bags, etc.; 
hundreds of these were executed and si ►id readily for Red Cross 

Without ever a lesson in drawing or painting, he became an 


Barrett. A PabUcr oj Funj/i 

rVle. KKt. 
Lvol. LIIl. 

artist and evolved ii tecliniijiie tliat turned his interests to com- 
mercial possibilities. By 1926 he had orders from several large 
stationery firms in the cities for oil-painted calendars and suede 
work, the designs F>eitig princii>ally of \vildtli)vver and bird subjects. 
In IV.ll, at tlie siiL(Li;estion of .Mr. J. If. Willis (then a close friend), 

Front- a imirtlhiij by M. 1. Hoirif. 

he commenced painting a series of funji;al studies from fresh 
specimens gatliered by his future brother-in-law, and, with a little 
exjjcrience, jiroved that he liad a special j^ift in this direction. A 
serious illness in l^v^d left him more itica]>acitated than ever, and 
for months it was believed he would never be able to paint again; 
however, by resting his \Veal<ened arms on a table and moving the 
brush with wrist only, he was able to do a little painting each day, 
acliicving remarkable residts. His best work was comi^leted after 
this illness, and from then until his death, on January 21, 1936. he 


Plate IV 

June, 1936 

" Rainbow I-ungu^ " Potystknu vcnicolgr 

i^^^J a Painter of Fungi ^ 

delineated uo fewer than 200 difFerent fun^n — a c-ollt*cti*,)n of 
accurate nature paintings \\'liicli are ann>n^r ^hi- fincsr of tlieir kiiul 
in Australia. 

The Bdtany Sehoi*!, .Melhnunie Universily, on seeing' Mnne of 
these plates, commissioned the artist to supply the Schncjl's refer- 
ence lihrary with as many co]>ies as he was pre[)arcd to make. At 
tile time of liis death he had sent to the University seven Atr/xu jiaint 
in^s i>f funj^i, many species heing figured on some of the iflate^. 
He als(t yiainted lunnerous ]>ictures of Toadstottls and uildllowers 
ft)r The U'l'chly Tiaics: they were reprochiced in c*iIour. 

With his exceptional talent and triumph over a disahility that 
would have deterred the ambition of most artists, Michael Howie 
was withal a m(»dest. retiring man of charming personality Avho 
had many dislingnished frien<ls and no enemies of his own makin)^. 
He had \aried literary interests, for his was a keen mind well 
halanced thron^di intensive reading. He wrote \'erse and short 
plays of sotne tnerit, and in 1933 won sec^md prize at the South 
Street Literary Competition for au essay on Jiflm Gafsworfhw flic 
Man and His Boohs. He was an enthusiastic debater, and \^■as 
intimately connected with many phases of church acti\'iiy until 
compellecl to retire hy increasing physical weakness. 

Tlie work which Micliael Howie accomplislied in his hnef life- 
lime was ins])ire<l i»rimarily hy the love of service. His wttrk will 
endure. A few of his ])aintings are here re])roduced. r.ven wit!i- 
out colour, their delicacy and charm are apparent- 

Hy J. H. Willis 

rolysticttis vcrsu'fdi>}\ — C ailed "Rainhow Fungus" from the 
heauttfu! coloured xtMies usually ])resent on its surface^ this thin, 
leathery hracket fungus is crmimou in almost every corner of the 
earth, wherever limber is subject to rot. Usually it attacks dead 
\voo<l on which the fan- i»r r<>sette-sliaped fruiting I>odies may he 
seeti at atiy time of the year. Poncing piisis, telegraph ]>t>les and 
woodstacks are frerpietU hosts, autl occasionally the finigus turns 
parasite and attacks living fruit trees or garden shrubs. H'lie upiier. 
zoned surface is tiiiely \'elveteil, the k)V\er white and cuusisting of 
utvriads ol titiy pores frou> wliich the spores are dro]>pcd. 

RozUcs ajfs(nilirtisi.\\ — \ stout and often \rry large tnadstcnl 
(up t<i a foot hn>a<lj with while cai^s as smooth as ki<l ; it is at 
first roun<l atid h)af-like, exiianding as it grows and exhaling a 
stnmg, rather pleasant .smell. The gills are pale brown and the 
bulbous stem clad in severrd ragged eiivelopes rei>resentitig the 
]>oitU of attachment of the thick veil. Occurring usually in colouievS 
on forest soil and rr»(lier uncommi»u. 


HAkHKTT. A \\iU\\cy of i-mnji 



CoUyhia vclulipcs. — The '* Velvet- foot," so-called from its 
brown or blackish velvety stems, grows in dense clusters against 
logs ancl stumps — usually of some wattle species. Hie caps are 
at first glutinous and may vary in colour frtnn pale yellow to rich 

From a jminthift hy M. J. Howif. 

"Iiik>-i:ai/' Fundus, CoffrifutJ fustisccus 

oran^e-brovvn or chestnut. This tt^adstonl, thonjjh said to be 
edible, has a decidedly inferior and rather unpleasant flavour. 
Common on mossy trunks in tnountain j:,^ullies. 

Cof^ritnts fusicsceas. — .\ typical rei^rcsentative c>f the ''Inky- 
caps" wliose delicate fruiting IxKlies are destined to raj>i<lly shrivel 
up or dissolve in an unwlmlesome mass of slime. This grey-brown 
species has rather large cylindrical caps (2-4 inches high) which 
grow in large ch]m]>s at the bases of rotting stum]^s. Xt^t imcom- 
mon in dcei'j-sniled moimtain gullies. ATost CopriTii arc edible, but 
seldom gathere<l in sufficient (|nantity to be cooked. 

1£>;I6.J \Kltol.l>. i hi' Sun Orchid, Tbciymiiro JongijoUit Z3 

LOXaiFOIJA K. and G. Forster 


In .-/ Census cff the Fhntts of f'icforia (1929) Thclyuiifra longi- 
jolia is credited with a widt distribution in tlu' State, and most 
other puWications concerned with the flora of Aub;trahu j,dve it 
prominence as "a common species." lint it is strange lliat a plant 
( sn])pose(lly ) .^o widespread should not be represented hy at least 
a few s]K'ciniens at <>vn- \\"ild Nature Shows, or at Ckih nu-etini^s 
held durinj^' its flowering season. Since the Club's inception, no 
record of an undoubted example of 77/. louijijolia has appeared in 
The Victorhn Naturalist. 

For many years — hince — 1926 — I have sou^^lu this lonL;-leaved 
species ; but in mvu. Many representative herbaria have been 
diligently examined for si>ecimens. and collectors of Orchidaceous 
])laiits in other States ha\'e been frei|uently asked for lliis Suu- 
( Jrciiid. Xone lias been received. 

In collections of Australian plants itther forms have been incor- 
rectly dia^Miosed and labelled "77f. ioiUjijolia Forst." Careful 
(examination has shown these nu)Stly to be 77i. paucifolia R.Br., 
and TJi. an'sttitn Ldl., while s<ime few were proved to be Th. 
(/ruitdifhtra Fit/.: even 77r. media R.Br, has been re[iresented as 
Th. loiti^ifoliti. Th. f^tiiwitloni is sometin»es reci>rded as a synonym 
of tlie h'^orsters' S])ecies. but it has, th(>ugh ^iven to marked \aria- 
tion, the dejinite ([ualifications ai a valid sjiecies. 

77/. lotu/ijalia was hrst found in ()cto!>er, 1769. at Ti^la^M liay, 
by Banks and Solander, durin^^ Ctx'k's first voyage. Solander. in 
his manuscript. Priitiitifr Fliir^r Xovtr Zchnniitc, described it luider 
(he name of Scrapias rvyithtris: but as the work was never pub- 
lished tlie name has no standin^^ in botanical literature. It was also 
collected liy the two F*)rsters on Cin^k's second voyage, but in what 
locality is not srate<h although it must have been Queen Cluirlotte 
Sound (*r Dusk}" Fiay. After their return it was published in the 
Forstcrs' Charat'trris iicticntni Planfartuit, under tiie name it now 
bears. It is nitw known to ratige from the Three Kings Islands 
and the Xnrth Ca])e .southwards to Stewart Island and the Auck- 
land Islands, and ascends the umuntains to a height of 4.000 feet. 
(t occurs in all stiils and conditions of liabitats witii the exccjition 
of dense litrests. Its range of habitats is remarkable.^ 

TIl lotujifolia is recorded from Xew Caledonia also. I have 
personally examined a flower of one of K. H. Compton's specimens 
(Xo. 194fi) collected at Touine (30/10/1914). For this sjK'cimen- 
blo(*m, antl alsi* for phnoigraphs t»f Compton's material and the 
Forsters' i\pe sjieciincn. etc.. I am in<lehted to Mr. |. Ratnsbottoni, 
Keeper ai Hivtany at the British Museum, FrMidon. The most 

1. niuslrnlu'iis *■; thr .\<'u- ZcahO'tf I- Into. Chcc>cni;in, ii, 1914, i>l. 192. 

rVic Nat. 

24 NiCHOtLS, The Sittt Orchid, Thclymiira longifolin |^voi! Liu'. 

Comniou" Sun Orchid, Thcivinitm luiioijtilut 


J iy'MlMCllxs. The Swt Qychiii, 'ntdymih-^i hnffiipfin 2^ 

iiitefestiDg figvii-e re|5i'^5^iUeJ in tite ]3liotopa(>lis is. of course. 
the type specimen *A Th. Icngifotia, T\^e specimen is ahoui 32 cm. 
in knfcjth. the leaf is very long-, nhbon-like, atid the flowers miinlier 
(a-jipareifctiy) seven The figures'*^ accompanying ttie ovi^nal 
<lescription ol Th. longijofut arc apparently drawn from herlviritini 
jnatcrial. Ver}^ little detail is siiown, and for pinpnses oi diacfno&es 
tlicy ;ire practically v;ili]*tle5i.s Chee$pm;*n'f5 iigures/ liowcer, give 
a very clear idea of l?ie clui^cteristies of 77/. lowfifolia, A careful 
examnrdtioii oi lite colinun of Cnuipton's hi>ecin)cn-flo\vt*r (.Mo, 
1*^5 specimen) wan undertaken, the cohnnn ha? a long^ luhe-like 
mitl-lobe — Unlike tint iu Th. !QfiJ]ifoliahnt similar lu ihe rmd lobe 
of Lindley'^ Th. (frfstofa! But Uie exannnaritm of acUiitional malcrial 
must be ntideruken l>eforc: i»uch a slaieaient can Ik: coiisirkrcd ais 
of iliagnostic itn]Ji»rtanec. 

AJjss M. Sntherlarifl, Assistant Hotanist, Dnminion Mnsenm, 
Wellington. New Ze^ibnd. has cointeonsly forwarded fresh, also 
preserved specimens of Th. huyifolKf. cullecl*:Hj m ydv^rnl Incaliii*:'!* 
in the Dominion, hut- chiefly "'on the hills east of Wellington Ifsii- 
bour, fijowinfj on dry ridges of ix>or day-shale ^oil or rotten ^rcy- 
wacke rock. The area is pc^rily Unvler Nufhafa^uS Forest (A*. 
jt4sca'), cUffoittotth'.K an<] iruncoM. and ]XUtly ajjcii Maimka riitges, 
succeeding burnt hush, the orchids ^o\\3ng mostly on the open 

Mr. H. B. Matihew?, nf Remucra (N.Z.). so well-known in 
botanic circles, writes: "Th. (on<jijoito Forst. is a very variable 
plant, the leaf, soinetirnos over 18 inches long, and ne-^rly one iticli 
wide, tapering to a point, othei .specimens have the leaves var)- 
ing much m length and width, from a few inches to ^ f'->ot or more, 
InU are usually flat and not g^roov<*d much after leaving the sten>. 
The leaves vats- m colour also. The si^e and colour of the flowers 
is liko^vi>e vanaljle. but ihe coUinm, with its shoif dense inft^ iM 
dliit> maintains its characteristic fcalures in all the dilllerenl forms."* 

Dr R. S. Roffcrs* ut Adelaide (S.A.)^ ^vrilcs of this specie.s as 
follows; *'r havf seen FijrsterV illustrations and they arc so l>ad 
as to be practically nstlcs^ for puiposes of identjfication. Hi6 
deS'rriiMion is havdlv move hrlpftd. Omseqnentlv. for nianv years- 
almoi.1 every ThHynufm wirh hair lufti w;ib pfaccd under tlii.'v 
s|>ticies. with the resuU that a very mnch tvi/ler distrilndion w;is 
assigned to it than was Wcorjintcil We have ro ranemhor ihat ihe 
original typccanic froni New Zealand nnd it i?; nut imjx'bsiblp that 
it doe:^ not even rstvtid tu .'Vustrahu Tlie pJaait hearing that name 
in Xew Zealand does not appeiir to me: to be representee] with 
certamly hy anything J have seen ijj Anstrrilia- The leaf is very 
defferenr and there are distinctions m die colnmn shoxdd 
riake us hesitate ni neccptinii; /HiT species as identical wuli <h;d Jn 
fhc Dominion."' 
2. Char GtMr PJmH-. 9^. tah 49 
5- Mr .Mtfllbuvvs iVwarded OiCeJI^mi i^hotograplis oi Th, hlwHi^^, 

» A "Metier ui Dtt^y-otoiioy, fy'^; ^^^ 

Thus, it appears ihal this siJecies is not AiT3=vtr»lian and should 
l)e dcieteti from otii iccortb. 

Descnption ov Th. lovg-ijaHa Forst. — A variable plant, l>ot]i in 
height Ant? r6buitnt;s&. but typicdlty about 30 cm. in height. Leaf 
long and ribbon-like, deeply channelled ti>\v;irds the ba^e, Ijut rather 
flat and acuminate beyond. Flowers about 7 or 10 usually, pale 
blue or whitish, ^bont 2 2 5 an. in diameter Column shoit, rather 
Stouf, not definitely Iioodcd, margins of mitl-Iohe, corrugated ; tlic 
Coward margin? produced int<:> two subulate or tooth-like apices; 
lateral lobes erect, with shoit, den$e while U^u t\ifis. Stigma com- 
paratively s»uall. situated in the lower part of the column. Flower- 
ing during Xoreinbei and Decen)bcr. 


Th. loiujifoltQ Forst-— A ; Typ'^-^I (tpecinacn. B ; Scctiom of leaf, lower 
figure from, upper figure Ironi above. C Colvihin (roit* Irovit {hair tultj 
removed). : Showing formation of mid-lobt. c«C, E, Columft irorn' sJdtev 


Middle-aged meml>ers of the Club will remember the hu^c 
wfKideti figures of Diprotddon and a Giant Extinet Kangaroo, 
which trtcited therr cliddish wonder at the Zoological Gaideni. 
The* Zoo wc knew as children is very different from that oJ to-day. 

Few relics of our Golden Agtt remain; but nont! of thorse giji>e 
IS much regretted Wc should like tliem back only to snnle at, 
those inighty wooden figures whicli stood among gum trees in a 
paddock endosin'e. They were dismantled more than twenty year^ 
ago. Glandng llnough a collection of j)hotographs, mostly taken 
by tlie );3te Mr. Dudley Le Souef, I came upon this portrait of the 
woodeji Dipratodopt, with VVattie Parsons standing beside it. A 
famous elephant keeper was W'atiic; his son j5 employed at the Zoo. 

Crude lifc-sa^e ''models ' were those old wooden structures, with 
shajw. hilt not form, mere flattened things, painted on one side 
in "natural D>lours." They might have been cut out of a signboard 
or il)e wall of a coUage. And ycJ, in o«ir eyes ihey were wonderful 
(lurty or forty years ago. 

A pity that ihcy w^ere not preserved as liislori<: rebcs oS an age 
when childi^i were easily pleased and Iiad tlie lost sense of wonder. 
Almost they belong to the era of Dundrearys and top hats, and peg^ 
top trottser.s. Otir fr^fhers have toW us thut, as small boy5, ihey 
marvelled at those wTModei\ ftgures, Titan Kangaroo ^nd Diproto- 
rfow Tile tatter wa& the more mtrigning of the two; and one 
youngster remcinbcrs how hc shivered at the thought of meeting 
such a monslcr m the bush Dif>*al:odou. he had been told^ roamed 
over the ."^iie o( Melbourtie aJjouL a millioti years ago. Imaginanon 
peopled West Melbourne Swamp with wallowing boasts large«r 
tlinn a Rliinoccios ^u<\ WomlDatdike in form The Rangaroo was 
less impressive, jjcrhaps, because only an enlargement of a i'amihar 
animal — the Giant Red Kangaroo q^ 


Plate V 

Juncy 1936 


■'*What do VOL! expect to find in -A-'eather M'itli iW. teinperahiTc 
at fre^Mjn^ |)oitit at oariy morning^" I am asked 'And a raUici' 
dry s^asoti in Uie cou'Mry," I add. Well, I had told our Editor, 
who wia^ for liclj.ting a btiCamst frnm abmacK that 1,1'it cl>f»rrres were 
very lemtite of finding ivirnivorous plants in Mny and June when 
tJie scarcti shtjuld Ijc in iIik springtime of Victoria. .Still, I had 
found some ot thein in odd years, and not in inaccessible places, 
50 1 hopecl iliai (his ^"ight be cite of (he favourable seasons. 

Why not Iry your Noi-ih-Wcbl correspundeni s ? I liad urtjctl. 
So the North-Wcst I decided to try to investigate^ myself. If 1 
went ;ilone, no coniiwnir.n uotjUI he- disapj>oiuted if T failed, J 
decided, therefore, to junip off ai a oiiuntry railway station atid 
see what a six- or eight-nijJe walk ^vould g^ivc mc. I soon, however, 
netted the dry gra^s and couflitions when uninfluejiced by coastal 
sh'>wers of the south. One ]\i%\ as often overlooks in collecting, aS 
he fads CO re-fiud. Bm ihere is (he rhrilJ of Ihe fiud. fn autumn. 
one must not forget to be near the radbend at suuHel even if thut 
etituak a iwn hours' wait for the lelurrj trhiii. 

I like Ravenswood l>e.c.iuse of its boundless j5a<klocks, its rolling 
down*-, and Fwineih { fichrn ) -covered granitr uiUcrops, whiclv 
hide the more distant donned hills In c*-alnmu one luissei? the lush 
greeji .^ta^ss and the expi^chancy of u>a.ny floral ireasafe. Compen- 
sations are in bird life, mothering ewes, dear atmnsphcre lending 
cncliantment when the hills arc reached, and Jlitxhell's route is 
being traced Lovvarfls tlic Granii>iart^'. One is eompcllcd tn iJause 
oftej) to drink m tlu- inlc-xicating views cxtendinj^ many miles Co 
hniizons *'>i Iii^'h mountain nnigts or pc;,il\s (hat mn^t have :^t!r».^e<l 
well in the Geodetic Survxy of the early colonists, and showing that 
tlie -surroundings of Bi-nctijio are hy no means fl«f wHiJe allowin"^ 
the nonherti rivers to ttow rovvards their molhei' Murray. One 
retlecls on the ouantity of fine tin)ber ihat has been lakxn front 
these jXiitoral finu v/hich were deriuded largely fur miiiiug pur- 
i)nscs by great -"randfatlier when dclvmg iu or to iiiaVe cradles for 
the rich wash dirt 

Many fine umbrageous Red Gums {Encalypftts rosfuita) line 
the creeks, and on these I see 3 few blossoms and euuvjtless buds., 
wbiile dAvarf Ivong-Ieaved Hox (£*'- eloeophora) trees occupy the 
atony hillsrde^. Sometimes the Gums are so covered with pendant 
branches of Mistletoe, abundant iu J^tout bright bern'^.s, uitb ncbiy- 
coluured foli^u^c and slcuiS as if sap had been r..»Khed together 
with colouring tnatter, <xtA rendering it ahnutfl impossible sometimes 
to discover tf the foliage wu.s Loroitlhm or EuiaJyptus. Small 
chattering parrots that mi^ht be Bud^ericjars, are in the trees. 
Hhck-and-White Flycatchei"^ flit about in pairs and find fond in the 

28 Taogeix. Rnz'i'tini'ooti in fhc .-^'r/ftrjim LVtfrLllI' 

?uiii5.1iin<:. Flaiiic Rohitis am! mate?; are l>»i&y. Noisy Yellow-crCrsted 
Cockat-oo scouts warn tl>e flock as tliey fly ting^aiuiy cn-'er my liead^ 
while Ravens and Magpies are- rcsricsv. or gather in groups search- 
ing the cfroaiid. 

VVfiile foilowing" up a creek f notice a puich of Iirc>wriRh-ycTlow 
foliage and find it to 1>C- the Huh'fish, or Hullrush, Cat's Tail, m' 
Recdmacc, upoti which so mnch effort has been s]iani in O^e 
endeavour to cre:ate new specieS:. with want of signal success. Jn 
r>ur o'vvn Statu we find that the- snale und female flowers, which arc 
the main features, are separated by a considcraLIc spact: on r>i<? 
floral stalk where ii wil] be found the males are ar the ion, the 
Urge plusli-Iikc: Lylmilcr, rhc fcnialcN hrin^ nndernca'h. There 
would seein to be lildc in Ihe endcttvour to make capital of the 
(act that. <ltstancc seixiiatinjf tht 5»^x organs, the spike of the 
female being interrupted or its length someliniea al a hue. ni others 
Icnglhenijjg lo one foot, should cliaractcrizc different spe.cie<^ as 
SOirit: have thought. Thn.-> our Australian Typhu has heen given 
rtit^erent nam<^s like T. MMcllcn. T. Hasctic-it'^m, T. Browiii^ all 
included under T. ai\<)mh\olw r and i» is noted tliat the- reduced 
Itngth of the female spike is seen In the trojncaJ fonns while the 
lonjfer are noted in temperate chnies. 

In Great Britain there 15 one species known as 7*. tafifolia hecaust: 
of proximity and internaplion The Hower*^ of the male arc rather 
unkempt looking, nearly hare stalks, blickinjtj; out of Ih^ pretty plnsjt 
cushion, hut ])crhap'i that k modesty on the i>art of the male, not 
seelnng tn detract from hi:? consort- Really the se.y flowers are like 
ihose of fledge.N or the Cor^x, (he niaks 5npcrimpnyng tiic lemrtir. 
whose pistil organs are clotlicd in boft liairs ihixt cover th^ ovajio 
and scale*;, while it is hardly to he guessed that the velvety cases 
contain one seeded nui- Onr scienfific an.d v^ernacular names arc 
not always well chosen, but here the>- both are apt ; 7'vA^/a standing 
for a marsh and hul or bufi referring to tVjc s'izt of llic plaiit and it's 
cylinder-like female ur^'ans. When kcjit loo long dry, I'l ii. tound 
that tlic cylindci-b burst and ixkiv out a kapok-like material in a 
never-p.nding stream like mi'vt, smnke <jr rain, givin|r ri>i' In anothtir 
Greelc name veiy mnch akin to Typlxa. Our 2\pJia has been of 
use to the Aboriginal, ]>rovidtng food from one part and fish speiJi'S 
front anoilter, wlille enrlter settlers n.^ed the "ka)Kik" for stuffing 

But we liavc uutsUytd our examimlTon of the Marsh l>eed, and 
we have just reached the hilJb after two Jiours *rom starting oUU 
Autun-in orchirlii shottld ht in flowC^r. but ordy Pioro.'ftylis porvi- 
H-ota fs seen. Lcpidospirum lo'cro.le and Pchi'gommii Rodneviwvni 
are blooming. The rwmmi^ Thy.^anotus Paier-'som is not yet in 
flower and 1^ examined For a $t«lei without the tohu.^t tuhc;r.'> and 
earlier H(»wcrmg period. The hill summii or ridg^c does not pro- 
vide at this ocason too many ypocinicns of smaller lierhs or jji^ant 

■ 93I1.J T.ADCCU,, J<avamifM*ti tn ftrr 4yf»i>iii £9 

lite, Intt a beautilul Blue Gunn /olijigi! iilhacls rtnCj. sugj^esritig ^. 

(Mntliis in its bloonr I'lie saplings an? nut in floncr r.r lurd hut 
are iinj<]ue in tlieir nch colouring, varieiy of. lonni of inliaj^f aofl*. 
as 1 c<iinu SOiue eight different forms of lea^ep.. think rtf tJ>f^ di!n- 
ailty ol tr^fiu^ to icicutify by sliape of folinge. Howe\'er, witll lanilU- 
aiecl <);ii"i; i^tiiy bark on thf lovvtr trnnk anrl sinning wlriler- 
hrown of ilie upper bitujcht^s Uic cordtUe juvenile tolia^. 1 
<lo not bestitate lo claai in as une of tbc many species evolved from 
what was fonucrly v^vkia] E. rheophmtt or gonincolyx, now con- 
stituted species. Acacias arc confined to two J^pecies. Hie band- 
^ftt«n*! nian}'-paTnlkri n-erved A. 'implcrn, witli I'.'ng, narrow 12-inck 
pbyllodfis nnrrowiiig inio long petioles, glandular m jo:n to the 
rJcbly-cobiured stalk and cOmlnniiig' in i\..\ jnvenile foliage bolli 
bipinnatc and lance-falcate leatiets. Anolbei striking Jcalnre isi 
a handsome sbt-nb sb\ feet sqnarv, one rnaiss of tlowcrH. Well has 
A. i'ollciioides bocu dubbctl '*Wait a wbik:/' for it rook nie qnitr 
a minute or two ro dcciich j^nall pieces from \}\c. t>fLreni, during 
\vhich ojjcration 1 was well pricked for my iroubJe. It is dislni- 
gm'shcd by its many pednncled clusters of tlowfrs* its articulated^ 
pungent, subulate pbylludcs. It keeps, well iji ^vatci if placed in u 
v^iC while boilin{^ bol. I Jiave it looknnff as if just picked -after 
a week ill honJti. 

1 am fonpted to Itu'n down a bush road le-admg Hciiliieute way*, 
jgsi>ecralty as bere^boni I kno\v- 1 shall find in season Chcinjintha'a 
litica*tii-. io reserve that fur a Noveml>cr (jntinj^-. Ic only ^ows 
sparingly and h wisely protected ripjoiouftly buL jt is a beauty to 
behold. An hour ro li^n rcnnnils nii^. that J havr iUref mites btjiort 
snnsp.t when T tnnsi be in hail oi i»iy Tailbf-tuf.] or I sbali stumble 
along in tbe darkness in "no road This way." Willi back turned to 
bills ] dehcc-nd and notice two trappers salting tlieii t-vc*nirig traps. 
for rabbitb arc plciTtjfuI, althougli the wire netting should keep 
them nut. as rhelinrti wne -sl-!t>nld myself. J still have time to m^pect 
the soak?t ^nanatmg iron) undfr the granite tOrs, Imt find little 
CXiicpt a IJ\uiroto{yir ctjually at liome in the iurl>icl moisture, as it is* 
in chmbm^* a crevice m tbc rocL With it i^ C')l(itrulu- Mnsllt^i-i in 
flower and iruit ; -also ihc ever wdormic dowerin'j Waldonhcrgia 
with bodi bmwji and wliite ve-Ntimre underneath '\X<. tViwers of blue. 
Cassinia amutta flowers are falling fuul Acroiriclie s^^tn^U'ric shows 
no bk?onis, thongh its sfster, Astrolotna hnvjijusum, lends bnlhant 
coloring by it? scat let rubes tliai fall wlien touched. Still T bunt 
unsuccessfully for Li'i'hhnhrnau''ac' an<l Dutsom that I havc^ not 
seen trace;? of all day Casuorina siricUi*s rtowers of both sexes are 
neatly nuc, but wdl not j^ratify me. As I wait for the fain T watdi 
Jupiter r\s\n^ in the <'.i\M, and Oi'ion set iti the wcsl, while ct^larged 
by fjjp and refraction Scorpio and Aquilla seem twice rbEiir nonnat 
s.i?.c viewed in the frosty air 


By Blanche E. Mn-r.KR 

"Life rs shoiT — cnininerciai couipetitLOii ^iid the race for advanct! 
arc ketn . . . so let us away to the hilLN," itfmarke.d Dr. T. P- 

I.m-ns, plniosoplncaily, iu a paper which he I'ead before Ihc Club 
in its first year. Whecher oi* not Oie nieiiihers needed any such 
suggestion it niav be dinicuU tti Uctcrtninc, but in che lists of 
excursion;? wc liavc irrdutahte evidence of. the inre of the liills. 

Quite e:Lrly in i\\*' Jjistory or the Field NaturaUsts' Club an 
otifing was arraiig^ed ro the S'oti Vniig's. which he some- 30 miles \ 
south- west of A'Icibonnic. Rising' abruptly frani the .-urrounding 
plains, they iorm a conspicuous landmark. It was ncc€'=.3-3ry for 
the excuraionists to catch a train at 630 a-i>V Ahghling at Liltl? 
Kiver, there was still a considerable mileage to be covered un foar 
before reacliing the range. Under sutli arcumstanccs, the day's 
outing must Lave been rather strenuon?', hut as some iTiritips. both 
boranical and entomalogi<'al, werp. collected, a 5-imilar exrnrsioii 
was arranged for Cup Day. m i[\(Si following year. 

'Tor once in your life rise early," Dr. Lucas had further advi^iud 
hib hearers. Singulaily enoug]i, one memh*?r vvho wished to attend 
the second trip to the You Vangs had, perforce, lu rise ul 4 a.m. 
and walk into town from Kew I 

Everyone who lias traversed th*^ Werribee aiicl Kcilor Plain? 
is aware of tUe peculiar way in wliich the diy's normal rempei-a- 
ture hecoihe.s inteni^ified. Antuuin's bradng an miraculously 
changes to a piercing gale, and iutnmer'.s movSt gentle zephyr is like 
a blast troitk a furnace. True to form, the VVerril^ee Plain's proved 
uncongenial on the (v^easion nf the CUib's second visit, in* 1882. 
Torrential taitis succeeded a hurricane wind shortly after noon» 
and precluded the possibility of any further collecting. It must 1)k 
remembered that, in bygone days, tl^e Freld Naturahsts excursions 
v/ere primarily collecting tnps. not merely sonal jaunts, 50 ifr is 
Hide wonder lliaij in the face oi such adverse conditionf. the 
enthusiasm evidenced die prc-viuu> year w;^ned rtynsidtfrably. Nor 
did the ^ou Vangs again appcai' on the ofhciai syllabus lor pv^r 
a quaripr oi a cenmry I 

In due time, other levdcr?? found much of interest ai vi.'dt.s to iJie 
locality, ajid various reports have ajjpeared iji The Vicionan 
Natmvlist, mostly referring to the geology. iJic botany^ and the 
insect life. 

So many years liad elapsed aincc a Club picnic had Iteen held thi^t 
even rtiauy of the older rncmbers thought the idcra was an innova- 
tion wlu;n it wai- again mooted by Mr. V. II. Miller, in 1931. Let 
us j^o til tlie hills/' I sue:gestect, and after delibr.i-ation the choice 
aVlI Oil tlift Von Ywngs, \oy^ many reasons. F-ssentiidly a social out- 
ii\fj tho^e who wished to rest and chat oould., frnm the pi<:nic 

lOTaJ * Mfi-1-KK. ^'Lei hS enrA.v it? ihc Ihfts" ^J 

ground, survey a 5ca^e that is ibe fiiinimLuc of all ihat Matthew 
Flinders prophesied wiien he viewed it ]^0 ye;irs before. The 
tnergetic ones who rx-sayeri to follow the lotirist ti^ck, aniJ climb 
ro the very toji of SUrion Peak, or as it is now colled. Fliftders 
Peak, would be amply rewarded s^^ith a ijunorajua rha( embraces 
iit^^!)Cupes and landsciipt!*, pastoral areas and growing ciUcs. Piw- 
sihly o'hcrs would prefer r.o muke use lyf the da_v, and cvcxy branch 
of natural history \^^s catered for, within the eunfines nf the Park. 

Especially does the You Yangi merit a greater sliare v>f ntteit- 
tion troni die bircMr>vt:r than hns fornit-rly bifr.n the case, tor at 
iiiarks the nicist southern limit of many species of bird* Tjot nsually 
found ne;ircr to Melbourne. Tlie surrounding country f)cin^ occu- 
pied tends hj make tlie bird* concontrate on the run^c^. It k true 
such well-known lorinb ajv M."igpie^, and leavens, and .Vlagpie-larks 
prefer the open spaces. Harrier^. patr<»* the !ow-]yfng .ireas, and 
Piover deaviy love 11^=^ moist piBces- Even ui inid-ninter some 
Straw-necked Ibis may be seen on the plauis,, except in very dry 
>xars, and any iniy httle sheet of ^vatcr will attract the lonesome 
Whi<e-t';u:ed Hcrmi. The Knius whicli FUni!evs saw have )ouff 
since been absentees, and the Bustard Ihar jMOvided a >*ariai:3an 
from the consi^nt damper and mutton 01* tJic early pastoiahsts, has 
not l>eeu recorded from die ]')lain!i Foi utany a \o\^ day, althouf^U 
still a fcs\^ find sanctuary elsewhere. 

Any season of the year ?s a ^u^d time to visit the You Yangs, 
but ihe i;uT r forms tyf bird-life are spring* and sU'tiiner. visilors- 
Tiien It is that the Black-eared and the Square-iailed Cuckoos 
arrive with their better-known breThr^in, tJie Pallid, the Fantailed, 
and tlie Bronze. *J*he colourful Rambow Birds, as well as some 
Honeyeatcrs that are not i»emiancnt rcsi<!cnt5, arc 5trikmg^exaini>les 
of that oft-reiterated as.vertron that. gLin'.i-ally spr^aking, birds ncsl 
in the colde5.t part of their ran^c. Dollar Birds are other dit>tiu- 
guishtd visitors, as well as the CacKoo-Shrikes — ^hrjkc-like bird> 
with the flight vi a Cnckuo The flowering of tlie gums .syncUron- 
"\ZQfi. with the anival of the Lorikeet -i — rosvdy, irrcHponsiblc rascals ; 
asid with the Swift Parrot, who indulges in s-imilar nectars, but 
"c-aiTies his'hVjuor like a gentleman''! 

In Che Park, the lower grassy slopes provide for many i^round- 
loving birds. Whilef^es, and rhrt decorative Diamond Fifet^vils, 
relentlessly trappe<l in many localities, although on the fully i»ro- 
ccctcd hst Many species of lizards on ihe fallen leaves, and 
ran monientarily cause apprci^ei^sion in an area known I0 be frc- 
rji«»nted by .snakci;. Pcrhapi> of all the Robins, nunc is more souglit 
after than the Rtid-capped fronj tlie norths whicli ncsis in the wattle 
platUations- Tt woulvi^ indeed, be a pour day if one did not ii&t at 
least fifty species of liirds. and still h;ive time for N|>ecial 
ohservalions of favourite or uncommon t)'pc5. Thou, towards close 
of day. when llie stiadows leujgthen, rhere are vecluded pools that 
are wonb viyting. 

32" Muj-KR. '7-xf IKS rtWMf.v ta the HHls"" [vot un' 

Perhaps few peojilo other than field iial^urah'srs lealize how m> 

portatu it 15 TO a bird to have ample batliing- facilities. .No better 
TDcdiod of leaniiug the truth of this slaLemcnl can be recoiimiendcd 
tliaii tt^ fh'Ziwa car fittrly daav. lo water, and 2L\sait itvcDt?*. Mov<i- 
tnfrif is the most disturbing- thing to any wild crenturc. Jf you 
«an keep perfectly still. h\} is weil, nnd a car allows son^ Jktlc 
movement, whiclT is. not noticeable to i\ bird. Tltcre is a favourite 
spot to which \y(r uhvuy.s make, at the conchisinn of a vt«sli: to the 
Vou Yangs, where many buds assemble for tlien* e\^ning ahlu- 
Irons. Christopher J^obiiTs joyoiit- tneniones of h'S baih are airely 
<'C.hned by the Whitc-panncd Hofieycaier — tJ'jC "'Grccnie" ^sl niu* 
suhnrhan ^ardcn^ — who hutjely enjoys a Rumc ot 'Xca-Mdcs/' a 
rccreatioa ^.hared eqnnhy liy hi? snia.ilpr cousins, fhe dap]>er hrtle 
ones with the while cellars, rntr] ihose iliat affeer a hvowti velvet 

Towards sunset, numbers of Iiron;:e-vving* Pigeons arrive to 
■drink, standing o\'\ the higher liank 1o reii-tsure. them&elA^es that- 
they arc jioL in any danger, before walkhi^ in a c^tately way to 
the ed^re of the \valer. Ahvays, there is a scout on guard, for once 
?. pTge'"n <f;ir*5; tn rh*inJc, it sthloni vaiaes its head until nnlshcd. 
Tliey afe tiie Irist of the day's buds, atid lake their dcparcurc ai 
the setting of the sun. 

*'L)fc io sliort . . SO let us av^nv to the hilU." 


Af)ri(-\dtw\nl Ga^riic of Ni'w Smiih Woles; A\''.^r\•;^\\\\^ Is^iiseiim; Aus- 
fvrlioit }^ittunih'sf ; Aiistralinn SnVncc: Alistracts ; Ausirahmp Zooio^isi ', 
jlnsnnl 'h'l.jij J^rcovd; Auckland liistiiute aiitl Museum. California Univer- 
sity Fiiliii. : CiU),ierl>Ltry Museitm; Commonwealth of Australia; Dominion 
Musoutii, Welltngton ; V mu \ Entomologists' Monthly Mapaxine ; FieJd 
Cohiininaii Museum ui Natural Histon-: K.cvi' Boianic (..^rde»is DitH.-tin;' 
Linnean Society of N'ew Snnili W.-ile^ ; Lmftti'!' : Mdbourut: Public JLihrary 
;<nH Mu^fUm; Microscopical Society of Victoria: New South NValcs OcpArt- 
ment of \llnes; New South Wale? Fishcn<:i; ; North Qn-cf^hi-nd Nutiirf:}i.H ; 
Fhutpf'iv-c- Jmrniol oj Siictkc: Pomona ColIee:e. Cuircniont, Jour, oi Ent. 
Gtid Zttolofjy\ Qii^trnsiiinfi NaturnJist-, Qurrn^ilajid MitscutJi Motfim'S: llo>-5tl 
Society at >jc\v .Souih VVi^les: Koyal Society of Queensland; "Royat Swcty 
of South Ausir;dr;i; Royal Socict.v of Tasmania; Koyal Sixicty of ViclorJa; 
Royal SixSety of We3tet')> Austtrali^; Jloyal ZoolotricaJ and Acclimn. So^rftity 
of VJ<1ort3 , Sniithf;cini;*n Institute : South Aui-iraliaii Musiiuui : ^vuih 
Ausiralwn A'aluratist; S'ouff'i AusiraUoi'- Oynifhohff^-'^r . Syiricy Uin'vtn-sily 
Rcprinis, Tos-iiuut'mn 'V4rinuilis! , United Stales National Museum; Vtclorian 
M ines Oeparlment ; Wcster-i Austr.iluin Muscuiti ; Wtsfrnt /ittxtraiiun 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol Lin.— No. 3 July 8,1936 No. 631 


The Annual Meeting of the Club was held in ihe Royal Society's 
Hall, on Monday, June 8, 1936. The President, Mr. G. N. Hyani, 
]>rcsi(le<l and ahotit eighty menibers and fiiends atteiKk<l 

Hie l*residei>t stated that copies of Vol. 50, No. 12, and V"ot. 51, 
No. J, of the Victorian Natumlist were urgently wanted by th^ 
Club , and asked titat n^embcrb who had spare copies vvonid donate- 

National Monuments. — Tlie Prcsi<lent announced that ;irrangc- 
mcnts for a conference of aM mfrere.sted Societies were in hand. 

The F.ditor stated that the Sheil Book would l>e available slionly 
and that prcliniinary salts were very .'satisfactory, 


Mr. Cliarics L. Barrett hitroduccd In the meeting a di.sting"ni.shecl 
visitor. Dr. F. E. Lloyd, Emeritus Professor of Botany, McGrll 
University, Montreal, Canada. He stated .tiiat the I'rofcssur was 
the foremost authority on Carni\'orous- I-"'lants. and liad discoverer' 
several new s[KrcieH in 7\u.stralia already. 

The President extended a welcome to Prufessor Lii)yd, wliii 
suitably 3-epIied. 


From Mr, J. TT Willis, thanking the Ouh ff.>r syillpatljy 
expressed in Jiis recent bereavement. 

_ From Miss Frances lCsj3er.son, Lardner, rcgardinj^^ the Pink- Salt 

HxcursJons were reported on a.s follows :—Belgrave, Mr. G. N. 
Hyam v^zd a compreliensivc rejwrt on behalf of the leaders. Messrs. 
Qialk, Hooke and Stewart. Mr. Ivo Hamtnett aiut Mr A. S. 
Chalk reported on the Botanical Gardens Excursion. Mr. Hain- 
mctt stated diat Mr. St John was unable, through ;xn accident, lo 
act as leader. . _ _ . 

On a show of hands the following were <kily elected as Ordinary 
Members of the Club: — Miyj Eileen Ma.son, Messri. F. Fergu.s, 
H. Reeves, and W- D. Andrew: and a.s Country Alemt>er/Mr. J. 


Tlie An\iua) R(:i)ort was read by tdc Hon. Secreiaty. On tltc 
moiion oi Mr, J. W. Audas. s^cotuled l)y Mr. A. P. Underwood, it 
was received^ and on ibe ii^otion of Mr. A. S. Kenyon, seconded 
by Mr. A. S- Chalk, adopted. Mr. A. J. Swaby congratulated the 
Committee on a very fine repoit- 


The Balance Sheet was read and cxplanicd by Mr, A. G, Hoolvf, 
who moved its adoption ; this was seconded by Mr. S- R. Mitchell. 
Mr, G. N. Hyam thanked Ihc auditors and the treasurer for their 
efforts and \mt the motiorij which was duly carried. 

The President, announcini^ that only one nomination had been 

received for the ofhcc. declared Mr. S. R. Mitchell tlie new 

President, and vacated the chair in his Favour. Mr. Hyani congratn- 

Inted Mr. Mitcbell, who suitabiy replied. 
The following officers, being unojiposwl, were ^h\\y dticlared 

elected ; — 

Mr. Geo. Coghill, Mr. A. H. Chioholin, c.r.A.o.u., Vice-Presi- 
Mr. J. Ingram, Treaaurer. 
Dr. C. S. Sutton^ Lilirarian. 
Mr. W. H. .Ingram, Ass;stant Librarian. 
Mr. Charles L. Barrett, c.m.z.s., Etb'tor, 
Mr. F. S. Coiliver, Secretary. 
Mr. L. W. Cooper, Assistant Secretary. 

On a ballot being taken the following were elected as niei-iibers 
uf the Committee; — Messrs. V. H- Miller, A. S, Kenyon, M.rif- 
(aust.), C. Daley, j$.a., yx.%., E. K. Pcftcott, f.l.s., and H. C E. 

To test the feelings of the members as regards the proposed 
transfer oi tlie Club Rooms to the new^ Herbarium a ballot was 
taken. The result was strongly in favour of remainirjg- at the 
Royal Society's Hall. 


The new rrcsident. Mr. S. R. Mitchell, ther, called on Mr Hyam 
tfv dehver the Presidential Address., w'liich was entitled ^'Fields for 
Naturalists." Mr. Hyam made valuable tiui^tfCvStions to ineniher^ 
who might wish to lake up natural liistory, hut wlio be'ieved tJienv 
selves to be handicapped through lack of scientific training. 


Notes were contributed as fallows r- 

Ants as fossil collectors. Mr. P. S. Colliv(:r, MiiKliroom grow- 
ing thi-ough a pumpkin, Mr. J. W. Audas, Shed skins of Brown 
Snake.s, Mr. A. H- Cliisliolm. CaUihis sp. growing at Yati Yeail. 
aiiil Diijison Rosella's new Fooil, Mr. V. H. sillier. Strncture 
of Jluffctm sccd.s. Mr. A. J. Svvaby. Birds and P*j)>per-trcc hemes, 
Mr. T.. W Coopf'^r (This \v7i« fnrthrr 5i]^o!a"u ir> In- Mtjcsrs. Cbis- 
hnlni, CIulI<. Kenyon. Umlei wcv! fiu6 Hamnvll.) VVf^dgo.-rniltvl 
Ca^lc perched low do^vn. MiaS R. .S. Chisholni. 

Mr. H. Stewart. — Commoner species of Fungi froJii SherlivnokCj 

including Annillaria mellea ("Iloaey" Fnricrus)» Ilypohmct' jasd- 
ctfIoy>\ C or/iitarifts .^Irchcyi, Cor/in(jyiiis cininnnonitriis (hi own 
gill^, dull j^vccu cap), HvJtnun n^pavdiv^v, 7'rni-n-ctex Itloiino-fjihfa, 
Mycciia sp. ("Pixie'.s Para5ol'*). SUrvuin lohatum, Polystictut 
7wrxicr>lni- (''Rainbow" Fungus:), Coltyhw Tfcluiipf^i (''VcWcc-* 
foor')^ Clavario pyxidata^ Clavar'w. cimYm, I'ufitUna hf^patka 
("fJccf-stcak" Fungus), Pleuroiits Lrmpas (hnninous). and 
Plcurottts sub-applkatus. 

Mrs. Jt ). Kreanie. — Conglomerate of fossil Sea-UrcWinis 
{Lovcmia forbe.y^) Eroui Beauomna. 
Mr. L. Wil6<in. — A fa-iciated form of Casuarinn stricia, 
Mr. Noel I.nrhian.— Pbotog'raphs of Acacin armata growing ouf 
of lava cliffs at Anakie Hills. 


Mr. W. H. Ingram remarked that, as a pro[)osal for the trann- 
fcrcncc of the Avjuarinm wa.s being- considered, the Chib should 
take stej)? to brinsr before the authorities the desirability of Imving 
the Aquarium at the sea-side, preferably St. Kilda. It was decided 
iKai tlt«* matter be referred to the Committee tor consideration. 

The iticetiiig was adjourned for the conversazione. 


To the Members of the Fiel<l Ntauratists' Club of Victoria 
Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Your Committee has plea.sure in submitting ihc fifty-sixth 
Annual Report, 

The membersi)ip i^ as foJlow.s: — Life Members, 10; Ordinary 
Members. 240; Country Memliers, 77 \ Asfiociate Memhetv.. 29; 
totub .LS6. 'J"hi.s rej^reseuts n decrease of 5 on the figiu^es of the 
hst report (I'J.SS). 

We record vvith =;orrovv ihe death of five members of the Club . 
—Miss Doris Schui? (1931-36), Mr. C. F. S^vinbun? (1929-35), 

Mr. F. PiCcher, a Fonndntinn Member (I<S80-35). Mr. William 
Uwfwrl, a f.ife Mcmhci- (1928-36), and Mr. J. Howie (1935-36) 

Thf Club cilso paid its Inyal and sorrowful tribute on the i>assing 
of our late King and Einperiir. George the Fifth. 

Att«;niJunccs -it the mee<in^"> luWC bfc^n \\'<tW $ii5ta.ine/I, U>e scr^t- 
ingoccoiitino<btion lijivingheen fully tax<?(l ort most occasions. Tlw 
second room j.s n>cd for tiK: dis]>Iay of exhibits., winch have been 
varied and intcr<:sting, 1"ho CoTiimilt'ee wouM lik-c co y<3r- even 
nioi'e exhibits, which gre;itly add to the interest of llic nicciiujjs* 
The coniribuiian o^ "Nitlnrc Kotes" by menihcvs is ai^o vciy 

One meeting (M^y, 1936). wijs heUl in the new Herbarmm Hall, 
the r<'.maindi:r weie held at the CUib Rooms, ]^oy;il Society's H^^H. 
A comprehensive scrie.s M lectmcfi has been given durmg the 
year^ and the following contributed: — I^rcsiilcntial Addresiii 
("Science Marches On"), hy Mr. A. 5. Kenyoti, m.m;. (avst.) ; 
"The Master Mhviic/* by Messi*;?. F. Lewis, R. T. Litilejohns. antl 
A. H. Chishohn, c.r.A.o.u.: "British Wild Flowers," by Mr E. E. 
Pescott. I'-x.S.,: "A Xortli Queensland Night," by Messrs. A. N 
Bun7s and F. 5, Colliver: "The PcHiiicction of FIowcts." by Mt.^ 
E Coleman; "Animal Life in tV.c Anlnrciic," by Dr. R \l. 
Priestley., m.c. u.a., (Vicc-Chancellor of the University of 
Melbourne). "The Western Grampians/' by Rov C. F-* Lang. 
**The Centenary oi Cliarle^i Darwin," by Messi's. G N, Hyn^T, F, 
Chajjman. r.r..s., A. D. Hardy and F. S. CoHivcr; "Common 
object? of the Sen-shore/' by Messrs. E. E. Pescott. Chas. B<Trrctt, 
C. J. Gabriel, A. J- Swahy. and others; "Nature in ihe New 
HeLH-ide.s/* by Mrs. J. L. Fcntou Woodbvini . "Our WVk and 
Experiences on Lady luha Percy JsJand/' by Mr- M. Blackburn, 
Jun (Hon. Treas-iu'cr of the McCoy Society) ; and "Kjitioniil 
Monuments." hy Messrs. G. N. Hyamand 5. K. Mitchell. At the 
July meeting Mrs V. H. Miller gave an intercstnig* precis of tlie 
Club's Annual Meetings in f>iiM ytnrs. 

The epidiascope was of great \^lue in allowing lecturers to 
illustrate their p^ipers by slides, phcttigraphs and other material 
projecte<l on the .screen. 

During the year the order of Business at Meetings was changed, 
the "Subject lor the Evening" now being number two on the 
agenda; tJiis change seems to be popular. Tvvcaty-;our excursions 
^vere held in ihe year, three wcic cancelled throug^h various 
causes. They were g^enei-iilly well attended, and gnve :i gi'cat deal 
ci£]}]ea£nr€ and mterest to the meivihers who were pre,^erit. 

Volume 52 of the Nnfnrohisi has been completed. The Coin- 
n^itcee iKfies to return to ti)e high standard set hy Volume 50, as 
regards sixc and illustrations; hut this dcpctKls on an increaiie of 
membership to tialancc the extra cost. Many jupers tjf popnUf 
and scientific interest appeared in tJie volume anil it is hoped that 


Plate VI 

July, 1936 

i 5* 

••"'j^] yhtiUMtl Report 3? 


suitable papers and i>nt«s >vill I>e forthcoming front members and 
olhers tlvuing tlie coining vchtl 

The Vidarian Nuturnlist is the le^^ding jniMiOition of its kmrl 
in Australia, and it is tive i^onst.anl aim of the E<iitoi to make it even 
mor*^ compreiiensivc and valuable. The deniajid (or il Irom over* 
se'3S is very g^atifyiiig. 

The- Chih has contnmcrl its aclivity in preserving the wild life 
of An;^tr;*3ia. Throngh our memlH^r>;' iqinrts of \'^nda!isiu and 
breiches o( prolechuu Acts hav<;- been made lo the Comnnttce from 
time to tinje; these have Lccj) referred to tlic proper anthmiti^*^ 
for action. Matters that have l>e<fn inc|uired into include : — ^Ptolec- 
lion of Rock Shellevs, Park Pfo^er\^ifion at Keantnaris, Proposed 
National Farki, RaU^ray Posters sliowing the Picking of Wild 
Flowers in a Protected Area, Alienation of portion of Beacon.sfi^Id 
Reserve. Resexvation of Roadside near Knwat, C.ubJng of Trees 
Oil Hiitne Highway, Duck Shooting on West. Melbonrne S\vamp, 
The You Yangfs as a National Park. Tlic Boulcx'ard through S^ncl-^ 
fey Parle, and Vandalism at Macedon and Flind^ri. 

f)!ning^ the. yeai the CInh tnade efforts to have tile Kestrel and 
Kites placed on ihe fully protected list. A¥hile not wholly 5.ucce55- 
fuL we have tlic satisfaction uL kno\WiLg that now the Nankeen 
Kestrel and the Black-islioulJerLd Kite arc fully protected. The 
question of hcttcr protection of the birds ot {yvcy is still before the 
Committee. }t is hoped that the whole of ihe Metropolitan area 
will he declared a sanctuary fur I>ird life. 

We report with saiisfaction that the Rock Shelters at Langi 
Jirhan and Victoria Valley are nmv endowed. The. Cvdotie Fenc- 
ing Company, the Forests (.'oiinni.ssion. the -'Vnthro|x>logieal Society 
and the Field Naturalists' Chih have jointly home the co^t of this 
impoilant national woi'k. 

The Club still has three sitb-co-nmittecs in operation, they arc 
(a) tjcological. (b) Park.Landi>. and (c) Nraurc Rci;crve?. In 
conjunction they formed lh<^ "'National Montiments" muvetncnt 
started at the May meeting of tlip Club at the. Herbarium HalL 
W'e believe ihi^ movement vt-ill have far-rearhing effects, NtmvrentS 
societies have promised their doiest co-operation. Tfie Commit- 
tee asks tlia( meml>ers will advise it of any objects or places con- 
sidered worthv of procIaiTiaticni as "National MonumentV' should 
the necessary legislation be obtamed. 

Co-uperaHon witfi kindred societies has fieen maintained, al- 
thongis we rep;iet to stare that the Leag^ue of Katiue Lovers has, 
through the ill-health of the Rev. George Cok. bee^i forced to 
disband- We are represented on the Council of lite League of 
Youth, and will co-operate m iheir efi'nrlB to interest the youth oi 
Victoria in nature a'td civics. 

The South Austi-alian Naturali:^ts' Club, The Ni»rth Ouccnslurtd 
Natmalists* Club, the Queensland Naturalfstfe' Club^ the Rangers* 

38 Aniut^l Rcitart [vJj; JJjJ^i; 

League rif Kcvv Soiitli Wales, the Ai-arat FidfJ Natviralists* Club 
atid tlic Victorian Abori^nal Group lave been assisted by itic Club 
at thcar annual shows. 

T\Mt Vietorian Advisory Council for Flora and F^una, xy'^^h onr 
Mr. C- Daley as Secretary, js still active and their Animal Repoit 
shows much ^ood work dvne ; yonv Coiiiniittee ajjain voted £4/4/- 
towards th«if expenses. 

The Wild Nature Show was again held Vhis ^'CAr ^nd vvai opened 
t>v Dr. K. 1:. Pncstlcy. jai.c, r« a., i>.5c. Vice-ChanceUor ol ihc 
University of Melhaurne. 

The St. Kilda Town Hall was engafe^'cd for tliree 'lays, and a very 
comprehensive show was stagf^d. The atc^ncl^Mictis wtre not Cjuilc 
up to ex]>ecl£ition5, but a grjiifyiiig feature wa;-^ rhal more than 
26 seconder}* srhool^ ?ient clas^^es of scholars to sec the cxliil^iu, 
and moit of them had questionnaires to answer. This 5l<ou-s tiiat 
particular efforts made to h^lp such clasj^e^ .•should h^. well worth 
wliile in future shou'i.. Wc must also endeavour lo provide exhibits 
6f (re-'h interest, and avoid undue repetition, and thus maintaiti and 
increase attendances. 

The Memorial Plaque 1<> Baron voa Mueller has l:'cea erected 
an ^ good position in mc entrance hall of the Hcrhanum. 

The Librarian reports that numerous books aiid jjaniphleU have 
been bound during the year, a numl^er of voiumes and parts^ includ- 
ing the Chron-ica Bolarncn, have been pu ix based : and overseas 
exchanges have been recjfies^ed fi-cmi and granC(.-^d to China. Canada, 
and the Union of Socialist Sovin Republics. The list of exchanges 
has been reviewed: dunng the year various sets and parts of 
foreign publications iiave been presenred to the University, Royal 
Society or Public Litirary, on the undeti.raiiding' lliaT they be nude 
a\^ilable to members as required. Another Mature Book. The 
Shells of Port Phillip, by MV. C J. Gnbrieb Oi\ tlie lines of the 
'Tern Boole/' is readv for publication, and v\nll be aA^atlablc ro 
members shortly. Advance sates for this book arc v^^vy satisfaciory 

Di-'ring the year vve have, welcomed vii^itor? from overseas and 
iiitersitatc naturalislb clubs, and we have aUo licen pleased to sec 
some of our own Country Members from tin^e to time* 

tjn several occasions the Club has an-an^ed for exchang<is or 
correspondence between people iTilcrcsted in like sui^jecCi; and 
we record with piea«.uTe tliat oversea.^ naturalists have been 
interested atid that pleasure and profit ro both sides i$ evident 
tluough ti:e Club t efforts. 

Several .minor alterations w <he Kule^ have been effected l)y 
special general uieetings., the most important of these bcaigari'anjgccJ 
to allow ihe Niiinralist to be classed as a '"Scientific Pul)licatioa'* tor 
postal piu*p'>.>e.S- This will save die Club a subslantiu! ?iniount 
The Club has ro thank Mr. L W, Cooper. Hon. Assistant Secre- 
tary^ for his efforts in securing" this conce^siun. 

Grateful acknowlprfgnu'tits also <ir^ twu\tt io rht* F'»Du^vin^ bcnc- 
faciors: — Cash donal ion, Mr J. K. Dixon, the ShcM Coroj>firiy far 
the very hnc display of Wild Flowers staged at the last Wild 
Nature Show; s^itts of books, Mi^s Raff, The Argus Oflfici;;. 
Messrs. R. O'NeiK C FreDch. V. J-I. Miller W l-I XichnlU. and 
Mr. Broiuby. 

Tlianks ure aJso due to the Meilxmme daily press for gcuKTOua- 
assistance in bringing the Cinhs activities Ijefoj-e the general 
fniWic, riTid ^l?^0 for the pr.>niinencc they give to nauind Tjiytory 

A c<"n|«chenajt.*e expression oi fhanks is extended ro all mem- 
bers And friends oi the Club who tiavc give>i of Ihcir time and 
energies toward the advancement of the Cluh and its activities. 
Their reward ht$ in the knowledge that their eHofts aie ol no litrle 
national iii3|>ortaacc. 

During the yenr 11 Ordinary C^ominittee Meetinjc^. \\"ere held 
and the attendances of officers was as foHows —Messrs. G N. 
Hyam, W. H. In^raiu, V. H. Milkr, L. W. Cooijer. F. S. Colhver, 
11 , Dr. C S. Sutton, Mr. J. Ingrain, 10: Messrs. S. R. Mitchell. 
Chas. D^lev, H Jenkins, 9: Messrs A. S Kenyon. T. W. Auda^j. 
C. L. Barren, 6; ~Mr. Geo. Coghili, 5; Mr. A. H. Chi'shohn, 4 

G. N HVAM. President. 
F. S. COLLIVER. Hon. Serjx:«;irv 

Twenty-eight ineii^bcis A»id vi.iirnrf jonmcyod »o S(i\*vbrfK>!ie on May Vu 
^Cit fine weather ensured aii fiiJDvablc uxcur-iiuii. On arrival the party 
brolcv up into Stcliojis nnd iwrncf railed ifx* Im^^h to Ibe W^f of the m-iiti HraIc 
ai»d soon -scventl prriut>s nif Lyro-hirds^^ mounds wwc found, some wldi 
recriit scratcliings. Shortly nUcrwards tlic birds thoinstlvcs were obscrvttj^ 
OJie inale di^rp'aying on a mound aud L*cu<ii)tv his ltt;dr^.T^ lu a firn: repertoire 
of iniiiutry. The. liwyS online reiili-ed in 27 addiiioDal sptcies hciiig abided to 
ihC hsi C0i»u>ilod I'or Shcrbrookc Forest The total nfiw ii 150 distinct ^pcricrt. 
An intcTestiiifi fi«d wOfi a i>aicii <ii /bm)nUi. 01 a specica not deteniiined. but 
resembling Amoifiro Miohilif/yrmix, a I>iglily-*icve1i>pnd filled form, with 
^<rf<*ctly shaped aiiiuilus and voUti. Tlie addilioTu; 1o Ihc liM aJreaJv 
puljlis^lnid ate a? follow: — 

Avtuit'Oa .91). (shinties hio\^n and ir.nTcly wart?d. hire '^m.ill form ot ^, 
jitrohrhformix) . Ctiioccm contra f (simple tlulii.L (.'ttittliitrrlhis mjmui'u 
btiUiormrs^' CUwitrut ochroceo-sohpoi/icoht'. Coryui) soirokii^s (re^l, gelatin- 
ous Disromyixto) . Crcpidotiux sub-hnusivUmis. Dartyoimtra 5|i. ; ( yoltoy, 
getatiiiL>U!i. ijilealc). Dasysi'ypha hchnodcrina <5mall, woolly Diaconiycele). 
OdsytcyflfO- pter'i'ot^iiyll't tniiniit<-„ ypi((5\v i:ii|i.-. on flf';^tl fern *.tf*iiiv), 
sryptia sj>. ? (I iivnij whlco. will» gtisttiiinit; p^P^"*"**) Ht'loiiimi difiiufin. 
Hypouiyci*s rhryxos^cnttuv (goMcn. parrtsitic on Bokti). J.cpwta pomniut- 
/o'(i. Myccna mp</it'tt't}frnfa. Mytctni ivl'vii:iro. Myrcvo icK-'vrhtKt. Otnfru 
5p.? (super ficial, white, and cnnttirtcd). Picnrotus Mth-applifotftx (hoary, 
g?ej. wiih gelaiii'iOLis layer ajid eriukltd niargitt). I-'i^lyponts rltipidhtni. 
Pnr'm uiittHtiiyorn. Porh -vhuifU PiUocybe snh-irYn<iiiU)X(i (hhiC ■stcitV) 
Kussula pCifvfQfa, Rusxith tyano.mufhaf Schachnt vtcntslnnsf' J'ypfiuia 
jrturm (lonK clubs on lea-yes). Xyiaria Itypoxvhu (toniHinl (omi). 

W. IL ai.d S. 


Siaienmii of J^cceipts mid Expcndihtr 

•ViK. NAt. 
Vol, LIU. 

\2 MONTHS ENDED 30th APRIL, 1936 

Balance at Banks, 1st May, 1935 — ■ 

Stale Saviufis Bank . . 

Less E. S. ^ A. Baiik Overdratt 

Subscriptions — Arrears . 

Current , . . - . . , 
In Advance . . .. . 

Wild Nature Exhibition Receipts 
Cash Sales of- — 

yicfoi'tuii Naturalist 

Plant Census 

Fern Book, etc. .. . , .. ^. . . . 

Badg^es , . , . . - r . . • - ■ ■ 

£29 6 

205 18 

10 11 

£5 14 

8 6 
2 16 6 

1 7 6 

Adverlisement in Victorian NahtrcJist ... 


Baron von Mueller l^und — ^amouiit collected to- 
wards erection of Memorial Plaque 

Interest Received — 

Best Fund ;£! 7 9 

Savings Bank Current Account .... 7 L'i 
Commonwealth Loan J4 

W2 7 2 
12 10 

£245 16 
161 16 3 

K> 6 r> 

2 17 


16 11 3 

23 9 


Vict'or'ian NatitralL^i — 

Printing £162 17 6 

inustratmi>- .- .. ... 77 3 7 

Despatcliing 20 3 9 

£260 2 10 

Wild Nature E^thibUion Expenses 106 10 8 

Reprints , . . - 

Library . . - . - 

Postage and Freight 

General Printing and Stanonery 

Donations — 
Victorian Council of Fauna and 

Flora (2 years) , , , ^ , 

Lanei Ghiran Cave Protection . . 

4 5 6 

8 17 S 
6 B 

£8 S 

Renls— Royal Society Hall, £16, Connnittee 

Room, ±4 , . , . , , . ..... 

Caretaker , . - - . . 

General Expenses, Insurance, Bank Charges 

Baron von Mueller Plaqne 

Badges and Die - > ■ . ■ . - 

Rafaiice at Banks, .30ih April, J936— 

State Savings Bank 

Less E. 3. & A- Bank Qyerdraii 

13 8 

1 10 

7 7 9 
17 17 

8 4 10 

m9 2 
9 1 6 

£459 17 2 

461 7 7 
£921 4 9 

461 6 1 

459 18 8 

£921 4 9 


Stafeith^nt of KcCcipls ami Rxpciitfintf^ 


Mn)i APRIL. iy36 

Arrears of Suhscriptiom, i90, cstiniateU la re^Ujce, .siiy . . . . £50 
Wild Nature SItow tickets uiip;iid ,, ir ^» iv ,, ^ yi f i. 110 

Bank (^urrpni: Accounts — 

Sute Savings Bajik . , ,,.. ^469 2 

ifj; E. S & A. Bank Overdraft ....=... 9 I <i 


State SavijiRs R.Tnk, Special Trust Account 

Tuvcf-tincnrs — 
E. S. 8f A. Bank Fixed Dqjosit , . + ♦ . ; • i 
GarniriDnvvcaUh Bonds ._. .. ._. ^, -:■: .... » 

Library and Furniture, at insurance valup . . . 

E^sidiascope an*:! siand, at ^'alualion 

St'3ck on hmvl of — 
Plant Census, at iMtuatiOin ^ .. .^ .. 

Quh Baf1gc.>. at. valuation .. . .> 

Feni Book. 1.6^^2 at 1/U m o </ n •- - 


Late .Mr. Dudley Bc5t Fuiul . .-. 

Char-a-banc Fund ...,..,, ■,,,,.. 

Special Trust AccoutU * n n •> ^ n 

Subscriptions paid in advance . i :o: >: 

±459 iS 
12 15 


.. 350 Q 

472 13 I i 



70 () 

fl7 2 

« .1 7 
89 1 

114 6 

£1,508 I 6 


2 15 

12 TV 3 

10 H 6 

Eva«ninc<I and found correct rni SHU June, IC*;Vi, 

:f76 1 y 
J DMGRAM, Hon. IrcaMircr, 

The Hon. Editor, V-ictorian- Maiitmlist. 

Sir, — In a recent issue oi The Maturaiisf I rrad witli interest Mr J. W. 
Audus' article. ^'THrouf^h the VVhipstJck Scnih." I was well acquainted 
with the WTiipsfcick some 65 years ago. Our house was on the Eagleliawk 
road Above Cilifornia Gully, and rrotn cm- l>ack ^ate aa'oss the gullies i< 
was not more than a mile to the foof oi Lighiniuf^ Hill, Avherc the niallee 
guma slatted^ A band of happy pdioo]lK>ys. most of our Saturdays were 
sjv-nt wandering' over the hills amonij the bush, collecting insects, watching 
ihe l>ird5, gathering fitinn and all kinds oi specimens. Tlie engineer on ttie 
Nelson Rcc< Mine made me an insect bov which I still have. 

R. H. Nancarrow. who T think belonged to your Club, Bad a lease al 
Neilborongh, where he had a mine, and lived on the cdg-c o^ the Whipstick. 
He fed all the wild birds, had half a dozen irutgt>ie5 which knew their names 
wheii he called them, painted the bush Howcrs, and kiirw the wild life of 
the >crnb. He used to visit our house, and (aught me much bushcraft. 
Another of yonr members, the late William Thorn, oi the Lands Depart- 
nient, was one oi our band of bush boys ; and another oi my boyhood friend.s. 
Ch3Tle& Daley, used to join us, or as he lived on the other side nf Bendigro, 
\vc useti to go with him up to One Tree Hill. Mr. yXudas rccaHed many 
oM-liuK memories in his account of the Whipitick scrub. 

Waltpr VV. Froggatt. 

By ^^^►-RT Hall 

Corrfdors may explt^id d56ms*?lve*. e.g., hy six. areas: — 

1. An 3tii h Oiscoveii2«d in nins?, amongst the top foliage of a 
tree unci again in the ground bciow that tree, but not in view 
between. On the main trunk there is a lon^, closed tube so that 
the anls may travel up and clown unseen in lh»rir corridor, 

2. A fish uKiy travel to the \\es( and return to the east annually 
as is andicated in corridor 5 of the map. 

5. A bird may regularly migrate north-south as indplied in 
corridor 9; or it may travel 1,000 miks in an oval; otj as a Lori- 
keet, from forest to forest ieg*tlarly as ihey flower in rotation. 

4. Some marsupials jaurncy along extensive valleys on thefr 
v^nnl]al change of -feeding ground: while othci*s have hillsicJc 
corridors fn dense icnib, 

5. A Nutmeg Pigeon, e.g., daily flies across country in scsason 
E.-W., independent of volley courses or land iuhs.m:5; it linatly 
crosses an of seawater to an island nest. 

6. Man, as with the Kula custom of the several island groups 
of S.E. New Guinea, is the western argonaut of the Paciiie, 
having definitely his corridor of the sea. Warring as they have 
done foi' centuries amongst thcnuelves these Papuans regularly 
Jiave one week off per year for peace; their corridor of peace. 

Corridors greatly *?xist by reason of winds and tempei"^tures 
ajid in (he se;i by floaciiig meadows, Fir.s(ly. under no power is 
the lowest organism of the nieadow seen; then appear bacteria, 
fullowed by diatoms, proto^on and micro-crustacean life: one acre 
being proved tu feed a« much as' 100 acres of land meadow, 

A corridor is the mo.'it fascinating and essential feeding-gtound 
tor life in the sea; and, 3 am sorry to say, it is not tree of tragedies, 
on a large scale, for niany birds. Tliese occur every few years 
when the wind sets m froin the east and keeping ihere, as it did 
isvo years ago. 

Briefly : — 

Corridor 1 round the Pole, containing the Sno\v Petrel. 
Emperor Penguin, McConnick Skua Gull. 

Comdor 2 is \W snbantarctic ribbon where ibe Great Skua Gtdl, 
Spectacled Petrel, and Kinrr Penguin, follow its line. 

Ccrridor 3 More faniiliar types. Has its Crested Penguin, 
Short-railed Petrel, ?md Richardson Skua Gull. 

Corridor 4 branching for two sides of Australia has its minor 
corridors at 4a and 4b, passing annually between certain islands 
and devoted la the Humpback Whale. \v\ tlie crescent of 23 the 
Wbiptad {Ma^ruronus) comes up from the south and the y^rripis 
toiiiho comci. down from the north, though just touching \\?, convex 
face in force. 

Conidoy 5 ts fi^h arnl moliusca lerniinatingas sliowtt iiT the map. 
At 5a the worn away or siibsid<:<i neck divided tlie innlluscaii world 
of the \vK&t from that of the ^asr. The roiulliiig Uass btrait is. now 
a iliice 1 runk centre of rcinarUable iiUeiest.. where over 100.000,000 
P^Crcls ancc nestle?, and where the barracou^. e^c. daily ate sojne 
-}5,000.000 young inoinbers of the herring farnily a^ nhey came m 
frotii corridor ft, and later. 

Corridor 6 in the long, cominiious ovjtpo^t of 7, from vvhkh it 
has drawn its supply of Iwrdsr, ;ind at 6a nmde a great ^tJort to 
change th<: colour of iheir clotlws before passuig them on to rite 
farther west ; 6a. and 5b, tliough \vitb an entirely different euology, 
seem to have some common enviromnent ot great age- Sis. is one 
half of the great Irunk corridor in the .soutli. being pa.r;inel with 
the northern great half with birds. Corndors II and 5 with, fi&lt 
bear to each other in disposition but not m species. 

Corridors 7. 9, iO, ^. correspond in their dislribiuion of birds 
and fish; 9a <>nd 12b of 12 :*re ministere<l to by different aLtions 
of tlie S E. trade wud, 9:i gelling its full .^hare of moisture, while 
the dividing range keeps 12b dry. with ihc Gult fam^ed for eight 
nionthvS off a long, dry sandstone range. ?ind us boUom resiiltnijc; 
from a 6?*nd detritn.s. This two corridor (9-10) parallelism ior 
1,000 miles Jus produced sonie Iiketiess of iiome life amongst tiicm- 
sclves ivilh a <liilerencc in other corndors. FJg birda travel tlirough 
the mid foliage; ch^jctodons through the* mid coraJ. 

C^rrtdor ]3 is an exafuplc of ihc uceani-c type where we hiul 
the swordfish coming south outade the Gixat Karrier Reef and 
passmg to the continental f.o«st rhrough tlie numberless Swain 

Comdor 14 is freshwater m which Oh'gorus swings. Over l!|t 
range at the head of the Darling, a second fish of tins family lives 
in the .sea for i,0(XJ miles within ehe Great Carrier Reef. 3n<\ Avhat 
diftereni Ijves they lead. Amongst insects the native: bee has no 
corridor west of 14. OwU by night in a clronght use this corridor 
wlicn the mouse pb^ue has again appeared. Th$ Masked Sw^iHow 
iTses it by day when following south the grasshopper plague com- 
ing as it does from Queeni^iland iiuo Vicloria each few years; say 
from Bourke to Hendigo. The Dcruciit Ri\^ cx>rridnr is con- 
spic.unus with galaxie^^. Last acason one Conner bought 24 tons 
of them as whitebait, being fry. Most of us know the Cnaimber 
Herring of the Yarra corridor, all our rivers being seasonal corri- 
dors for brcedmg pnr[->ose<. hy those s|>ecies so inclmcd in the maiii 
trunk corridors; others being purely anadromous. 

It may be seen tliat tlie north west has two great trunk corridors, 
11 and J 2. the first devoted to fish and thv second ro birds. There 
are several frc'>lnvater fish with their lateral corridors and u few 
sea birds with thcir§- The land and water of I la are different 


Hatx, Faufidi Coniifoys . 



to the land and water of 12a and there is a distinct range m colours 
between them, 'i'he DampieT ciurcni goes farther soufh than tl>e 
cnoist air of the coiridor 12 and gives the Abrollios Islands a 
tropical effect in a teni)>erate tenninal corridor. Area 11a is a 
desert above high water mark, loolciiig hke a submergied dcsei t 

]^4ap Ulmtralitig Faiiual Corri^orr 

t6n iniles out at low \v:aier mark. T?ie valuable large pi'avvu has 
a corridor liere so there must be plenty to cat. The toothless 
humphnck whales find a nch planlvton ofi^ the Lacepede IsiAnds* 
their northern tenninns. in the northern tenitory of 12 the hawks 
keep their chess-board corridors of the air worlang coUccdvely 
all the year, while the duck fan>ily of the same area n>ovcs to its 
distant suppleuiental, corrfdor which contains fresh water. 

TJie fish terminal of 5 in S.W. Australia has its other terminal 

ill 23 and Kass Strait in particulai-. Arta 23 ?<= a cuuibiiiaUon ot 
2. 3 and S, tJie 3 being r^-presentcd in its most c<tsteni cross vvami 
cnnent, S [»y llie hloclc of a iiorlh-soiUh aiiit'iOvy i>lT<?anv 'J'he 
fixfd and visitiu;? Penguins and Petrels nsit southern Tasmania. 
Of the fish census in 23 it i? quite ]jo=siblc it -will be extended by 
20 per cM^iiC. vvith a kntJeticv to Antaictir oiigiu by an cxCnct 
conidoj'. MacJOCVAtLs of corridor 2 in 23 i« th^ prospect of an 
Intenestmg wat<!r world bred o£ the subanlArcliC ii5 the plankton 

fn the co1<l wat<ir nirrcfit uf 23, itotcd by ils sabantnrclic moi- 
lusca, there has recently been a tragedy of the pbnklon. It sank, 
due ta d>e wrong weather, and the Short-t<tilfd Pcnel, h;iving 
nothing to eat. died all round tlic coast. It was also a gixax 
iiicouveiiience to the byrritcoutn., which dnc? not want to stiiy more 
utntiths tlia.n usual in deep water. In the present season Melbourne 
is ->hort of fish because the fislicvmen. cannot c;^kh nisliorc. The. 
fisb are probably on the ontsldrts of the cmitinf tital shell*, wifh the 
plankton halfway down at 15 fathoms. A KViOwle.dge of the bathic 
corridor.s of the pctcJi {Dactylopufflu^'j would be: ^vc!cQme. T]ie 
D'Entrecasteaux Channel of "iasmania i?. 60 niiles long and it is 
usual for plankton to use ibis corridor, witli Ibc terracouta follow- 
ing tt, during' December- April, going S.VV. Tlii*! year dni- plutiktcnj 
cxtlonr rxheme of the channel. wHth the waste produor oil, has been 
much subdued <ind accordingly the fisb of our taluks. This corri- 
dor i<i JiQw 10 lei (May) while the adjacent wurmej- toast h 
ccnnnted with barracouta. 

To explore, e.g., the ^ouLbem h<ilf of corridor li, is to see the 
swacniinq^ of the muliet (Mugil (.lol^tda) as aduif^i jioing north- 
On the south coast of New South Wales only there is u vorridor 
joining and bftnijyi absorbed in Ihe Bass Strait, the ycjiow-eycd 
mullet {A^ jorsten). In the coutianalioti of this corridnv at 10 
there are several tropical mullets. Some Hsh. a^. the flat-tailed 
cUuUcL (fa'hmli), rc^iUrly ^o into the continent uiuj come out, 
thus making an internal corr»dor or series of tb.em of gieat economic 
value. Tlip AnstiaiiAn Salmon (Arripls) has its corridor cnntnine<l 
in 8 and 5; the unusual. 

As birds of 7 tn the countless Umicolii pass nnith in Aj.iTt], so do 
the fish (hcnitig family) burning out of their pvers pass, north. 
There are many lanes leading into both 7 and S, the corridor mabi 
roads, and Anstrsba h scarcely mapped A knowledge of surface- 
fish corridors is srot by our experience of flcxitiitg nicadow.s, more 
<3r less the result of winds a«d ternpetature. Without a. trinomial 
sy5.te.m hovv c/m we do justice to Australian distTibnuon of it?4 
aninial? In the great Pacifit: bordering us we knovv tJiat the 
awordfish lia^ its rnany roads, but how iitile do we y-nlce up the 
colour schemes with the c^:onomic corridors. Japan is now prr>b- 
alJly doin^ fine work in mappm;^ what T M'Onfd c?d! her fish 
Janes and corridors. 

*t(S Hivi^u, fatiml Corrnht's Lvoi^wn. 

The liiflo-Paciik corridor 15 is wHI icinescnted by <Aiii>tralian 
fiblics oti the M'est <:oast of lixlia, wliilc in ?jncjeut days our fish 
IfaFAcd throut*Ii lit*? open Piinama iiUu cbc Atlantic. 

VV^ knoxv tJiar the grciil interior, 16. of Australia has riiaikcd 
its liirds Willi lufoti*?. htit we. do not know the ^lainping of its uiany 
floral ]:incs oi' byways. On the approncli of fle.vastataig <3roughts 
riiifcreiU birds si>read rytlimiciilly i)Io«>g Jhcii" sties? corridors nUo 
better lands. Land corridors oi flie more highly developed arimak 
are cut- ;icrosb; hy river toi'i'idors and iHb, wVh l>irf]&, e.g., afe OUT. 
lo do a compensating^ diuy in a full ccoromy. Where ther^ i? a, 
iropical forest on shore there i-s a «Tr>3)it;il forCit at sea; where 
there is the desert- looking land there is the d&sert-lookniij .MUt 
Both po^uilations havr: i»ints of utdity and beauty jntere^^t. The 
SLit and Ijiiid conidois al! round this r^land continent are sjiiiced 
to work in with the cconoany o( each other 3i)d the ai>s<raci »*)mii- 
thing that ap]>e;irs grryter Jhitn ;ind huWl in, nnr ca>nuniy and our 
strueimx:. In Bass Strait, e.g., we have the so*eaIIcd filterable 
vim$cs.. the primeval units of life. The h)Slonc3i ch;*mc^er oi the 
smallest planlcton in any corridor !itraiusc of many invisible origins 
m the ocean is more than interfsnug, Vnt it is loo far away hacfc 
from tlte cconcunics ihat arc touclmig and appcaUng" lo us Even 
Ihe adventure of ideas seems too far fnrward to meet tlie necebsily 
ci the present with its research into the worksliops of nndescrihed 

Throughotjt the net of minor cortidors on land junctioiiing with 
those of the sea, not yet appreciated, there stands conspicuousiy 
the branching system ot the major one of the Limicoline birds- 
Weil may we wonder why they annnafly go tn Siberia. Has it 
nmch or nothing to do with an Aij.stro-Ajijatic 3<lan of rmirition 
rxisting many eenlurte*; ago'f* Does tJie endocruie system demand 
a periodic ebange of diet (hai cannot l>e got in any one continent 
any more than the passcrnjc birds of smaller corridors can hve 
llieir winter wJiere tliey spend their summer? Intcrrciationships 
are changeable on dciined lines. 

Coastal valleys hai'c iiwch to unfold lo iii jn$l as the 100 fathom 
line has hidden valkxs d^jtng^ iatriciite work. So dots the (^reat 
internal calcic Australia, by tising its torridors, rleliver to the sea 
iis liuv. Ml return for ||)e es-!-^niial ioijme that a njcdrcinally 
star^.'ed Auilraba needs fur pea<:eful cu-opcr;uion of a people as 
well as for ihr robust health of a group of lower avrimals. If. e.g., 
100,<XX) Ojrmorants bring ni daily an iodine coutribatinu from 
1.000^000 fisJi, jt is not vasted on a land needmf^ at. to i-elad to 
plants growing healthily. 

Followmg this trend of thought it might appear tliat the 
.^0.000,000 birds of the Sandpiper family go lo the tundras to get 
the essential foods that the roasts of the southern h^niif?phere caianot 
supply. Corridors, truly, njight v,-e!l be interesting fields of 
research by the bio-chemist in an/n)al uutrirmn weit'arc* 

ijj^g^J Fichis lor \atnr<i!ists 4T 


Prrsiiloiliitl .Idtln'.-is t>\' Mr. (J. \. Hyaiii given itt tltc Aunuol 
}icctiny, Jittu\ 1^36 

Last year \\x revived a cuslom vvhieli for niatiy years i^revinusly 
had l)cen allowed to la]»se, tliat uf the Presidential^. This 
is a feature that shiuild, as far as possible, be continued. After a 
l)eriod as President, the member retiring from that office sliould 
have iibtained such iini)ressions oi the Club and its work as to be 
able to ofier sujif^estions fur the future. FurthernH>re, it ^\\-i:<, an 
annual opportimity of considering whether the Club is liviuj^^ u\^ 
to the ideals of its founders of fifty-six years ago and whether it is 
mee*tin^^ the ever changing conditions of modern life. 

In seeking some ins]>iration for tlie subject of tins ad<Iress, 1 read 
the whole of the Animal Reports and Presidential Addresses as 
]>ublished in the Xatnralisf. The messages omveyed in thctse 
addresses are a])])licablc to-day. It is worthy of record that 
addresses were given every year from 1884 to 1891 without a break. 
Then there \\'as a lapse until 1^02, when they were ;;dven until 1910, 
They lapsed until 1920 and continued until 1924. when they lai)sed 
aj^^'iin until last year. The chani^in^ conditions of social hfe must 
necessarily affect boih the Club and its members in their j)ursuit 
<if natural lustf^ry as the years go by. Nature itself is by no means 
static* Imwcver it may ai>]>ear so in relation to tlie normal s)>an of 
a single human life. It is these altered fields that I prop*.ise to 

The original objects of the Club remain unchanged: 'i'o jirovide 
a meeting place ft>r a body r»f peo]>U' interested in Xatural Science, 
to help one another to study what lies arouml them. The Club 
does provide a meenng i)Iace where the expert and tyro can come 
together for their mutual i>rofit and ]>leasure, and also ])r()\-ic|e.s 
facilities for the interchange of ideas amongst those interested in 
different branches. The Rev. J. J. Hallev, in his address in 1885, 
said that tlie Club "domesticated science" and in tliat way had 
justified its then short existence. Past ])res]dents have stressed 
the fact that the major ]>ortion of the Chi1)*s activities and work 
must lie in the lield, and that members should observe for them- 
selves. The latr Dr. T. S. Hall, in PX)2, said that '']>*ip*-'''s given to 
the Clul) shifuld he introductory and exi)lanatory and should 
assume no previous knowledge of the subject on the ])art of 
hearers." Prof. Ewart, in 1910, said that "The Club represented 
a 'Hack to Xature' mo\ement in science, whicli cffuld be i:>rofitably 
joined hy many laboratory W4)rkers, who, when in the field, could 
hardly distinguish a cnK*xlile froui an earthworm." 

To these objects present members can not raise any material 
objections and our present need is to adapt them to present-flay 
conditions. The early days of the Clul) were necessarilv a i>eriod of 


I'ii'Uis for Witunilisfs 

Lviit. Ltn. 

Mr. G. X. Hymn. 
President, Field Naturalists' Club of Motoria. 1935-36. 

if^'g J I'trtds far ,Valrinr/iJ/i* 49 

discovery aud classification;, a work whicb tn-<fdy is appvoachii^ 

<;f>m|-»letiou, Sy-steniatic nonieuclatui'e ai^d niotplinlrigy tJways vvi 
luv'c ail iiiipoTiaii! place. Imt nt modern times ii is iiecessarily -a 
iiuicliuii of i)rat'c£siona] sciimrists and of lu^titLtions Hucti as the 
luiiver-sitft'-s. mnveuris av.^I nnrional hfrlariums niH-.t'r than the 
mdo-peiiiicu; ^luateur worker. I.^i-ge collections uf type >|'cdmcn3, 
Jiteraturc and laboratory laaJtici arc iitceisary for the proper puj-- 
Miit of this work 'ihis obviously points to tlie fact that the day of 
indiviflnal collections is pasiing and that msieria!, partici^larly of 
new species, should be in the hands o[ some suitahh* nistitution for 
the benefit of any worl-x't^ ;\c any tnnc. The corollary of tins is 
in;»t ihr tnt*rt* giiHieriug- of a heferc'gnnr.dus rotlection of spcdin*in» 
in The field, ot Teconiing in a ntorc or fes$ casual w-iy of specimens 
seen, is a ratl>cr nsclcss pursuir for nicnibctiw 

The keynote For heir! naiurrJisis should he ohservarion. Wc 
badly lad; the kno'.vlcdgc of life hutcnries of aliuosi all of the 
species of our nch flora and fauna. As an rxamjjle <*f this great 
ilcld foi naturalists, 1ft me instance »hn work recently done on the 
life history of the Lyre-bird by Tregallas. f.ittlejohns and others; 
the P}alypni; by Ecidie and Burrell ; on lUiiivc be».^^ by Raytrieiit; 
on pollpni7.£iJion hy Mrs- Coleman. Nniie ol these worker::'; would, 
J think, lay claim to greae acaden'iic distinction but tlieir work 
will j?robab]y live I'or ^^\ tnne. The sole requisite for this class of 
wortv ):? the abiltly to patiently ol>servc aud a'jcuratcly record. 

Then there i3 the study nt ecolo|ry — the relationship of a species 
to its haHrat, tn it> physiographic, dimafic and soil conib'tlons ■ its 
relationship io other Rjxicies or even relatinnslitp of fauna io fiora. 
In bo»:?*sncal ecology "t resolves irself mto a study of vegetation 
"Tather than a uicrc ieciion of the flora. It wiW embrace the ebb 
and fiow of a vegetation in relation to tfu- constantly changing 
forCat cover, clearings, erosion or other facto;*? of envirnnnient, 
including the operations of ''man the destroyer/' It can be studied 
on the basis of a square vard, a 3<juare mile, a county, state oi 
oommonvvcalih, and again its major reqtdsile is patient obserA/ation 
and accurate recording, coupled with tlic aid atturdcd by the 
systematic botanists, physiographers. geul''.-»gisis, 7oo!ogi&ts, in our 
•various institution.s in arriving at final conclusion.';. 

Here js an almost untouched field ^o far as member- of the CUib 
are cnnrerned;. and it has the addrtional a<]vantage of inlrorlucing 
ivorkers m any one field to the j-jroblems of ^vorkets in other 
fields, and thns a\oid tUe evils of ovpr-specializatson. Ecological 
wurk Can also be aViproached Iroui ariy aspect, botanical, Jtoological, 
physiogjraphical or geological. It can be carried on as an inCeiive 
study or msTXfly as cai^iuil ob.seTvatiuns. I would refer intercvSted 
nienil>er$ to Tansley's bcoks in our Ubrary lor more details and 
where they will find enconnjgement from records of really useful 
work l>y boy scoots and school hoys in ecological work. 

50 fields jor Nitiuralish IvnK \,}l\. 

For those wHo have a liking for sijeciali^ed work: let me SKigg<'.sL 
the patient ohservatjoii r>f the life Itisfury of a species or g<iiiuSr 
whetlier it be of flora or fa\tna. For ovhcr.s Avho like to n/ain let 
us h;ive prdiininary survcvs i>J district 15oiti .iikI fauuu iUid let each 
member en^ieavoiir to oUain at !eai-t one co-opcralor r>T discti>ie. 
To all workers, I say, let vour fcllow-incinhers U^tow lUe rcsuhs 
of yoitr work by exhibits, nature iiotei ^I'id papers. Other siudies 
and interests that occur to mc that can be well itndertakcii hy any 
of our menil>ers. whatever their pitvioiis knowledge may Ije, are 
uiarioe biology, particulariy of Port Phillip and the neai*er coasis; 
riiL- study i>f [rcshwater sponges and Freshwater life generally; 
mo.ssc:i an<l hchcns, the i>h*)tographic record of our iiora, the 
changing oi onr land surlaces. tlieinvasinns of introduced flora. aH 
oi -whJch iiave been neglecled 1 here is also the s»rienoe of Pheno- 
logy, or Rural Bmloj^y, this. h'Ke eco!oc>', requires |>atien< observa- 
tion aiid consists lu the rccordioe^ ot various phases of liie, particu- 
larly in relation lo seaso'jal and meteorological conditions The 
vahje IS in the a\eragt comparison uf such rccurd.s over a term of 
yejirs, tn arrivmj; at lienndicity in natural phenomena, such zs 
floweiing periods, hird nngraiion. influence oi chni'»te on growth, 
and many other factors. 

These are s.u^'^^estioiis for individuai luembers. Let ir»e cojiclude. 
wiih some remarks on the work of the Chib as a m hole. We can. 
I think, lake courage fiom lUe obvious facL (hat the Club has 
justified Ji^ fifiy-six years existence and that we arc working mure 
or lei.ti< on the lines laid down by the toundcrs I think that for 
the future rhe Clnl> ha^i even inuie vahiahle work to pecFoim (or 
the eommnniiy. U is obvious to everyone that we are becoming 
more and more standardized and aiecban)xeJ, not only in material 
rnattcrs but u!so in aesthetic and outlook. The one anti- 
dote to this that I sec is moxc contact mth nature — pifieval»ly uild 
and unturned iiattinr, to counteract xHs lopsidct:d development. 
Mi^rely fl}ing arouiid the rountrv'Sidc on rnntor tripb. the xvcek- 
ending at guest houses, with tt3 attendant organized gamcv will 
T40t ]>Tovidc Ihis. but wi intelligenv. interest in nature will, and this 
i^ whiit the C!lub pnjvides fur Our txcuiiions shmild be instruc- 
tive ojkI not merely picnics, and i appeal to nur more C-Kperi; 
memhers to J«ake (hem ^o- 

We have aUo iruich work altead of tis hi the protection of our 
fbra and fauna and the provision ot more national par'ks where 
man can regain his iosr birthright. VVc must fight the undue 
■"improvement" of these and filcliinsr of them f<>r goK Ojui'^es and 
the like We niusr ve that due protection and appreciation ii 
^iven of whal wc call "national monnmeut.s" and ednc<itc the pnblic 
to appreciate them Wc iiiust endeavour to enrol alJ persons w ho 
think on Mnntar liiie5?^ and thus increase our weight in ihe com- 
i«nnity. I w-ould like to iec Ihe Club undertake e.vppclitions into 

\m,^ ^^*^°^'^- -^tf^^* on Sotftr CHx on<f Sfthmimn i/irjff St 

various district* for ilie jjurposc of 5iu veying rlie natural flora inul 
fai»iaa)kd to i>u1)linli the results of suclv Mirvey. In t^c year li^Pl 
alone- parties of Club memijers visited the Kent Grotij.' ol' I:&Iauds. 
the Upper Y^rra. find Mt. Wellington <lj5tnct, and tlieir recoi'tU 
art! still vHlnitl)lc. Thei^ was also ;i cainp-nm ;xt Morningloti iti 
conjunction wiih the Education Departn^ent, \\lier(* Jefijiiie insli'uc- 
tton in field work wa'& givwi Iiy v^riouv expert lueiubci-s uvet a- 
period of one we^tU. This scen-^s iu ine to be wortliy of repcntio". 
Wlien one |>eyuj^es the fifty-two volumes of the A'atanihst one can- 
not but be proud ot the past activities o: tlv:r Club, anfl this js tem- 
pered \>y the thought thai po^s-ibly llje ntixt fifty-lwo 'vvtII not 
be 50 notable. On fiutbei considenation, in view of the. innncnsft 
amount of >vork st»U to l>c done and constantly cliunguig conditions 
bringing up fi-esb prublcnis the cncoura^uj^ vjtrw 15 that die Clnl> 
can he still .greater i;* ic does not hJ;« so luyny societies do. re^k. 
oij lu- pa&t greatness, uithout much attempt to br^ak into fresh 
l>asturts — or should I s^y "Fresh fields for Naturalists.'* 


By A. D. Harov 

The adai^tabifity of several allcji specie*^ u-liicli have fjecoine tirtti^rAlircrf 
has k-d to tlie retreat 01 iiative species, nio&l: iiiari.vd]y |icrhai>b m lltt asc 
of tlie parro'.s, the Rosella and Cnnwoit RoseUa having largely yield^fd to il>c 
IrtjdiftTi Mloali and the SldrliOg, whicli have ui-uryoi their ncjlioff places ih 
old gum trees. Pcrsoiu hient on park and gar-ien ioiprovemcu^ ofleji shuw 
lacV oi pcTspeCUve whidi ni3.y becoint app^rtnt when loo late to eJJea a 
n^inctly. The rc-niovsl of old giinis from natural \fcoodUnd parks \> a case 1)^ 
paint. Nat only the trocs^ arc removed^ but also the birds which rdr <in 
Ih/iTiJ for nesting hollows. 

The To\vn Plaiinijic AssociatfO't of Victoris is alive to the situation. 'Tbp 
replucement ot Eucalypts I>y decidnoui Ireo and f'shno- is appar'.nitly Um 
ohiective oi the Parks and Gardens Cotnrnitfoc, and ihe ctltxctis of 
future W'H thc'Ctorc luwc to aitmif- their ear*; and accusto<ii rhcir eye& K> 
the notes and iornw oi the Sparra^v, Starling . Minuh and Blackfjird, where 
their fathers kutw the Md^trie, the Willy Wsglail. tl>t Hfti'iiionion-j Thm^h. 
and the Yellow Robin." .\ similar wamingr is voicod at tir.ics hv other 
Asiociatioms and feenis to be g-^;ncrfllly rtcC'^niz^ a,? wcL iciindcd. \VilhotM 
doubl. however, much ^ood Is done in il-ie tnctru[«htan area, by ll>e *.*:A\et\g- 
ioQ Minah, by the Sparrow in gutter ajid garden, and by the iuscuiivoroiis 
Starling and Blackbird. 

To 53y htirsh th:itgs About thc« Uwu-itnprovers would i;avaur oJ ingrati- 
ludc on loy pari, so J iea.v« it to the orchardiitt. I Jiavc 5C«n sotMe fine 
examples ol community ititcrea displayed by ihr-sc alien*- Here t< one 
■of three Spe<ics worK'ttig tn liarmony. From a hotel window at 5c?xida1e 
1 watched a V3c;iMt allntnicnt adjoinTug. uycd as n gsass paddock. A flock 
■of birds dcBceiTcIed ai one cud and iniiii<.'tiial?ly hcgfux an advar.c^ in it'TcguI^r 
front forTttation. towards tlic other end. abotit <eventi.'-fivc yards away. 
There wcro ahout twenty Minahs. iwenty SMrltng^; and a dozen Spyrnjws. 
Tlic Minah^ and St:irling» Ovcrtiinicd ihr insert harbouriner cow manure, 
chiv^, cic. the Ut^cr bird:- devoured Knihs and tli« Wht, and the bparrO'ss wi 
their gk-amng accounted for much iniall vermin At tiie end ui ih* 
paddock the birds roie ''m xna5'-c." whirled in a qnaritT circle, and flew off 
m a Akraiigl-.t ':ontsc to anr»tliei padC.ock. A.s '.he ji?c ot *be flock opp^rcmly 

loMeivcd tfio Minalu aiid StatUnc^^ became iflclistinguichalMc Uon^ one 
juiolhcr, but the litit^ i.-fot? were \h<: Sjarrow^ 

Next mornui? at almosr {irccis^cly chc f^nic tinic they igaio ai'rivf<l, 
twemy, twenty and ten, hikI nwihndioKy iWf*pi iKt neld as before. '.Hit, 
<>t*caiiie of tlic poor <atcrt, occuityt'^gf atoiit h^K tK*> time. Ih i)vi evoiing 
1 saw a Hock in fiiglU, buT disu*^!. ainl countul forty hr^e t!ot« and loi 
Ifule dots-^ihe sparrows; evidiintly the satiic comntuiiit}. Witus and 
"pi'sts" l>ut ttoing work uj value to ihc Sut.e. And the ?*;4rfi>ii flvii Iwvc 
bucH largely evicted irooi »hc suhnrlisn :^rea? C;iti \hcy present a clcAil 
Sheets? No!, f^or of '^urcuknt fruils m Oic orchard *nrt in? sceils oE Tlie 
Etjc-'xb'pti the Parrot.^ take roiividerablc lull. 

Durii-.g tht pai? few weeks .some Cnn^^n Ro.tellv. have visit«rl my gardirii 
xM have Kitteiv mcst of tht flowers jrom 5 la}! ^um tr^i.'. Tli<: dani-aired 
flowers on the ground had iinmaturi: (>o3lovi and no -^it^ci of ncaat. so T 
<:oncIutI«i thit they had hvctn destroyed in a spirit of mischief This H\Xitt 
of Pirr:ft'5 i.> t»ot resented, for ill*? Tree {IiHCtifyf^r-si/ A/*i'.v/**t.i var. hciv*'^' 
pftyt'fo) hears S3iili;*ry uinbcK i"-! ijjrk crihi;on fic\vc^^ loo fftr b*iclc 0:1 tlitf 
ivaincliej! to provide- for ta^le di=coration, and so high on the ircn! as to be 
inr uut of reach. So it Ibe rich, red cti*\> of Cratnc^-us -vMTii/a/r? l/crries and 
a t-irrcenraec of the >tra.wlXTri<:; arc for ilic BML-kbirds, surely iht E.j>h. 
flowct"> nwy he ^njoy-id l>y ihe Parrots I Tl'cce i^'ould he Ifi^s complaisunce 
if Uie crimson und bhie beainie-. were to 5inn!arl> deiirr-r llic bl^oi-n^ of IhC 
Scarlei-nowering Guni (f. fidfii/i'.Tl. biiJ that i^i^itici ilKv do no: visiv 
ii Tilootns V) siiriimtrr, is Uift Wdlllc-Wrds atc W'eJl BWAve. t|to Pcirroti 
oioie diicrty iti antunm 

It js in intuniii, toC', that Tforicyoat^fji rare aUfflCtOd by an ^orly tnOWering 
■?rotea. but [ havt nut icen a bird aiuicijwte th« season by pnc rfav. The 
UrjRc. iiirrV chalices may be open bnt tac^IerJcd until the feast is spread. 
The first sign ni iiectar .-;> nchroinxcf. '^ith &.q ai-peai'ancc 9I the t'^e^t*. 
A tabic Attractively ")aid'' but lac^nig food is -af no ust to htiiiery visitors. 

'Thii Cnirt^cii Roscllat- are Inss sb.y than thefi' nccajion^iily seen riLIies. 
Tl-^y come dow.i fro»t\ it>c 18U ewn to ibc 'uw ^jrauc^iCs nf \hc 7n:oit??rdii 
a?iif in fricnilly rnanner remain long; jnst beyond smi lena.tlt. rhatferin? in a 
htifua^'c o( which I rc^rcL ihtre \z no irtenirftlatian. It there :s a in^lliec 
cofrtbiiation ilian Cnnison Rose3!s attd the feathery, idh green foliage of 
a Jffiaro'ny'ftT I shcLjId lilcf to kcc ih Rirt whvn <.harincd \j\ the luctiire T am 
troubled widi roo">llecrion of my wife's aviary of ])fo-war Jay^. Therein 
were about thirty Parrots, includjiij.; Ps^"th<>hf-^ !'•((■ nrol'nujhK, ^\'\'^k\^ u<?MC<J 
under a rock in ihe sajidy floor anil rcarc^l three yoimM- 

J,n the antiiniu. >oinetinics f^trt rcgxilarly thtt Crunso:! l^osellas. are 
',y be ^Wn ia l.hc dci:*'*^u0ii-5 Mttc^ of ^he Treasury Gdftfci.'s. The laUcr are 
jirohably thcee wliicJi have nested in (l:c cicr — iji the •nc*ij(iy-tbrobhinjtf heat*t 
<ti the ctty ; uncc iM a 'lit wcM of the Myer £ti-»ivji*ivini, and \\\ othtr )>lacc^. 

MiS'f Cyntltift Teagwc tOid n;c ihat in ^ bol*^ in (he niasonjy of ft waH 
Apposite thtf rvindo\v of z fourl^t floor room where* ihc was ciigat^ed in archi- 
tectural work. & |>atr of Ko'->kabntra5 lOiM-d a ilcbitn^ |dftce: t»Ml \n (he 
foIkn\/ing «;e3.'ion *hc«c w^rc foi*o?tallcd by a -piair of Cnn>4o.i 'Rosellas. T4tc 
huildsoj^ is of? Little Colhnj Street and Ific :*ttuauor. an ideal o;^e lor 
Mmahs or Starhn^s (vlty dweller*.) yef 4lrang:€l> triv^u^h found and occu- 
Vif'd by native, frccw b>rd.^. 

SorticiimCii when cnwAgiM i]> SlcJIar oljaCrv'^OOriJ T have had Oocaw0>1 to 
fla^h a tot'cli-bgJT to read an aiigrlc a^td jl\e fla^h f»as freqticntly dis- 
riirbed a ntghc hir/l u'hich then floated pa&t mc with swift, ncisoless nioiion ; 
loo ^hosily \C' be identified, ft -A'aN T)rol>Ablv the Tawriy-iihQulder<id Frog- 
-moutli, which j^ fr«ifC|ucntly scon and hc?.rij in tbi? loraiiiy. ( have i^roAvn 
ti-j like jts n>0'Vjtonoa:; call, which I inaintiiin i? not "Com Ooni" (Lcach'i 
-c-r *'Hoo Hoo'' fsevejal aq'.hoynic5.). but an ftnpK'XJniAtion t<i "Mor-Pork 
rather than lathe Cockney and Ansirjlian counJ "Mautv Pawb" made when 
roo\ic«tlng n^ore swine fle«h, sonjd>tnig ^aetwccii t^e two. So that t)>er4 

may tic iiu <lDUlit m to what 1 liave «ce» |>erc}iecl witliiM .^ few ysrcl? o( mc, 
flncl )iearJ nllcriO^' ns u-y at uikrvaK civa.ig'mK^ 11 sccwidj- I h> stop vvalch) 
over a ptfnod of fialf ?»* I'lOur of rtioro, f can hti^i dcscnbc il .15 a fjti>J of 
ikrh* nhtinafi^. Hlmost blH>J< in silhoMet'e, with b'^nV, body Jind tail i'l ali;^n- 
ift^l'it. (ofTittiiii wilb Die f>i*3nch an aiipj* pi alicul -25. ilt^rec.i aj:ci rc-?eitlbiifl^' 
^oiliing so fflKcJi as a bit of loose bark. "Jlie hird tlut crieit "Il^io lioo" 
rwirioiis authorities) c^» be hcftfC ai<>o Oyi is Usually ai & ioiuidoraDlii 

T rlo no* know wlicihcr n<*cUir-caiiiit: birds avoid ilowcr* wlieru M.anv bco 
art coIicaiMg I'utl-.ef than ihc Bco-r;ili-i oiirt Woc'rUSvvJin'',»w) htif. I l:l'iltk 
Ihut there i>^ some recoynitinn cif sjiiicrcs as ^ pcii'-'tal rulr. Whni 
hirtlt. ajcl hce», :uc -ccUiii); nectur or pollen (rco"* lii*:! same blooms ilic hmU 
arc <rdf'i,v j1 wor(< aitO the bees mitth later; tlic floccliafl »;<• Oawtiiiu«l unri 
there is food tor n'l. 

A JaiSil I'l under wa»f made by a Mopakc in a R;nr(Ie.n at Kc.w some yea^^ 
:U!0. Jl \^'ai ?< Uil>e bird w}i>ch i}tjrui6 Ihrr (Iav u?-ua)ly iHTtiifd apaJnAt 
an upright stinn]i, hut which had bfcoroc acr'jslomod ^o The davJight In 
food was butchtfr intiai, mice ^r/I f^^nlun pcHtf, Our iint t<vj sunny iby it 
3a»ti|'*«1 -I be? ai'id ''ouod ll tu be guod, (lien a:iol)icT. ai,-d iiotne mure, jrrcidti- 
*|ly *t|i|3rwAi*htnti Lhc srairrc of ^iippK* — trie hivf* — :inr^ rhcve, ?ny neijL'hhf"iiM 
■iiifoniied T>ic- ihc bird d-Kovcrcd th;<t Uy lapping with iti, hrak a qukVcT 
issue r.^i bczs \\-^^ ohtaiiicii but the ca-Uniity lay in \hc ^HCiXS$\ prL-idiuy 
Ihe f)w.t juxircd oul nt grci<( unm^urs aihI sumt; iht* bird M deAth. 

ciniong" our wild domcsTics or dot»e^iicaicd wildlings are "T^Jtic^-hi^S c*nd 
Thnj':hcs. These arc iiivarubly m close aitcndancr dnrin;^ j^'^irdeniny- 
operaiions. bo eater arc they '.u hel^j- Cire»^ilv dauni,' ihey cuuie wiDiln 
B row ysnts <jf ri^c feeding c^t, whtcl*-, bo»'aiJsc wImtc and iiKap^ldc -ol 
Cacnouticiyc can be .-.asilv vvilchrtl ur4til. salisliwl, he ivitltdraws foi Uic 
"siesta" w'licli may be tnjoyeri close by. Tberi a Thrti-ih pcunrcs on rht rnn- 
haots, whtrh K'.^y hi- ^ ln.nt^ or 3 liltlo milk ilt .i ^Awcr. "J'hc TliTurOies 
here arc very loud cii niilV and h;»ve grown rather ca^g^e5i^. Qiice in a 
while Mic CMI i'. nut sIccpii'.RT ■jOHnrfl)-. then i.bcR- may Iw a Tlirush the Icsf;. 

li ii Prtireii f((W/?iVrd whi<l; atfracts l)tc VVhtte-phnnct? Ho:it>ea'.er voi 
"Oremie'* or "Ring-n^fk" 35 Mciifiiuiua prtvcih'nt^ is viwioujj'.y rnllcd), 
and when ihe Cnnisfin BoUicbi'iiiih, Cnti-.Uviuon <'n*<rv'»/a/u<. is in b:oi:":n 
Ibi;; HpncyC'ltcr is Mgaii> oi> t^c ?^cc"C- Hoth ihc tarpc ^"H the Mnall ITonuy- 
caters thaittJir their ihct with Utu ^c■a.riJ(:. Tin*. WatDt-l/irds which ied their 
two yOi^Uii, cne^ 10 ihe Jjcorlct-nowcrniR Ctui' rilcari-d my ri'N^e hiislios of 
aphis 'r.r ihHr i:i-iUri^bnii')H. a»i<l ihr Uiognccks ari' kji ioihl fit thosf: fi^irdru 
pes Li aj oi iitclar. 

One unzxling thiiitr is rlitf iiiiLouscintiv IoiJciirne!i& :^f bird*. In ciptwiiy The 
Ccckatno :ind Parrof 5cei>i quite haiijiy and crmtrnrcd wUh htimnii rfrtni^aity, 
ftpth wbiic can'id ut irce lo rfiaiir. l(id<?*ixl Iwo oi iUt «<m»jc se.y — of ci'l'C' 
so.-v— may Oglit wtkn newly inrrodurod, bvi ?o, too. will Mos^nm^. A 
Ptw yr^rs ajgi-i siiy ilau^Iitur. sorry (or iKc lonehncst ut a genllti foiialc 
J^iit^iail wliidi liad lo?( its :imu\ f?re=r-nterl -f io > fiiond who «ko h^ij ft 
)f>ncly ^crpalc. The "h<>-;t" ;i1tw'.k4:d the ij^**-*^'- iirniediaicly iud within a R'w 
bour5, had killed ir bcfc>rc ihe owicr w.-^* Awarc 01' vi/liar w^-tv bapijening. 
But 111 an aviary of Pi*rrots roola.iijtve i-nor-,*- thao tw^'ni^- birds I'nKirr.- thir. 
HtM >iircir-.s} the most be^ico^e sva^ ^ coclr Crimson f^nr.c'la. He was vlx' 
bnr.v, uikI a niityderoiis c*\yc. An occa-sionijl (iL-atl bird tjii lltr sanfly fl-^'Oi 
horr witMc«.j: In '.ibscfvtd wltrtch':, wliich >vCi*C i;t'Adc Lhi^lly nt U)f.- •.■i?riy 
jturnipi^^t' inorninK^. The innMcrcd Mrd in 5ir\-cTi) uasei had lej; boiici and 
sknil brr>V<-.n and part 'jf th<; l:raiit niis^inf;. Oruiihalisnt. I ilecidcd, bui 
uevcr taui'.bl the bi^tJ in lltC act. B-idgcriuar'; l'av\: Intlcti ofT th^ lout- vi* 
Cannrie*-., hni ivd tu, and t'Toclr^luo* ;»i^d Punol^ arc fend of a cbiopl/one. 
Till" N"i*w 2calap.d Kea Vi^;c-T frcsit I'at iVvnn tlic living. ;iiniti^l. SnM. widi 
the jiO>9it.v,hly of a rat baviitj^ tnaitleO ihc ijoad Piirrot. theinurder charur. 
rcnnnns. bul an open verdict sbjiirls TV.^iwnni; Utn cM.-ioibrtf'sm. "Vhc onLv 
i;vidcn<.^:- no! on osili— war. ili<ti of a cl^.tld who said he ^nw Ihc CtfinfOti 
Jtoficlla pickinjj- al Ihc dcaO l>'tix). 

SI /t. IK .<f. Lfir^. [Z:^^!t. 


In the dcaih of Professor A. 11. S. Liicn"^. al iHc ripe n^c of 
HS years, the Ouh lias sust.iIneO the losb of one n[ iIk- must rli.w- 
lineftit.she<i scM^nti&ls tvct conncctLd wifh its fiisinry. 

Artluir Henry Shakcs|x:arc f-ncus was liorn :il StiMlfArd-rtn- 
Avun. Knglaml. in J3W. His lather tho Rcv- Samuel Liita.s 
!■'.(;, s., from whoivi ihev^ii iuheiivcvi lii-^ tusUi for -icholavly pu^<.nll^, 
His early <fducation was at New Kin;^swtM"j<;l Seltoor Hmh, 'I'hriicc 
lit pixicceckil lo Oxford l.InivLT"^ily. whciT In: w;i.H an cxlii?>i<iniicr 
i.if Balliol CollejTcf- Jfie yniinj;^ SUuknl. vvoHaug <lilig'CVltly. g«iiH7(3 
tlie degree of iNlaai^r of Arts Jt Oxford, ami flial- uf Bachchr nf 
Science at L(jndoii L"'ini»nL^* to Mcllxiainu- in 18S^V lie ' en- 
hJ''J^<-d ^^ tiTiclir-r for s(*nir)r <:i;t-ssc^ in tiic s»il.>ject5 oi Science and 
Mrirhenialie.s jii Weslev Coiloge, ;IjkJ nat lonj: after wa^ c^lfn) lec- 
turer m Ka'.nnd Science at Triniiy. Ormond, ntul Quctiu's (rollc|.vc^. 

Etirly ill 1893, On .ni.i]».m»tmcnl as Headmaster lo Ncwinj^'tnn 
(."oilc.t*tf, in Sydn*^}', Mr. Li<e;tS" l<ffl Mplhniirne lo take np lus ncw 
duties, -which he capnhU performed nnlil 18i>8, when lie itcccpLed 
Uic pcisiiion of ^'fa^hcm:ltics and Science leachor, /nd became 
Hcittlm.-jsfer of Sydney CiTitlnmar Schuol M> hKo was up])t^infod 
h'xt.nrer in Physio'j^rajihy at lh<f Sydney University, l-lo letired 
from his loiig and suoce^sfnl educational c^ireer in 192.3: hnl Utcr 
accepted appoiiurn(*iH as Frofe'^sor of McUhtmuiies n,i \Ut 1*hs- 
niaaian Lniveisity. where he remained <\vo years 

The close connection ov Professor Lnca*< with die "^ieUI 
Naluralists' C.liili was in fhe Hi si period of it*, existence. coJn- 
incncingr with hrs arriva? in Victoria in 188.1 In the follnwinpf 
)Ccir he became lb? first editor oi, The Viciariafi Naiaralisi . which 
position he fillttl uniil Itis depardire lo Sydney in nccember. 1S92. 
ill ]SA4 he. contrii>iitcd the fii'st of several CNcetlenl pafK^rs (o the 
CUifv. »?jUillcd. "Comujon Objects of \\\o Sc;:i5>horc,'' a sphere of 
nature study in vvfiich Ik* wub nv^st proficient. Elected a.s Presi- 
dent. ]SS7-*^. lie gave Iwf^ hflpfnl and fhoughlful Pve.sidcutral 
addresses In die yejii* 1891, with lus fellnw-seie.n lists. Dr. A. W. 
Howiti, and Pjolcssor A. i')(*ndv'. lie visifcH the litHedcnown |>cak 
of Wt. WeI»ing.ton. in Gippsland. widi its- liidden lake or rarn, 
Tali Karng'. the various die^^ncs advanced for its origin being 
W'ell considcrefl. On dcp?rtrire to Sydney the Club iticnil(^r$. in 
grateful ifcojinitJoii of faithful service, loyally and unself»shly 
tendered for nine \ears. nmdc a present^ition to Thr Niiluroltsf\K 
fir-ri editor, unci eUeted him as an hunrjKiry member of the Quh. 

Fnjm ijtnc to rime nirfmi»h rhi^ intcn'ciiin;^' years, as opiKirtMiiily 
served, Pvol. Luca^ was .^lad to revi.sir the CUih. and h^ occa-sioually 
contriliutcd a Heienlifjc paper to Thr Naiitrnit.^t. the la.^^t being on a 
i'<:inaikahle Anstraban seaweed, -which hz cillcd '^^n Oce;in 

BoOi^^iin e<l»i canonist and a scientist Pro fcspnr !-ncas w:»s jn the- 

i<iii,} I'RSiOtrti-. Plantmi^ ^UtstKitwa Vives "* 5S 

iojtivost TTink. His interest aiid enthusiasm in Katura! Scieiico 
covered a wicic* i'<iiigc of ^iubjects. iir.d ht^ was <in irKJcinb^al'le 
fidrl worker atul collector. Tn New SuMflt Wak^> fic \v*is Curator 
oi^ Algae at the Jjotamcal Gardens, bong rightly coniiidercd Ihe 
most competent aiithoniy in Australia upon tW Hubject, Lis 
ardciiC Jcsifc, which Ik. ilid ii»uch iu ;uhtcvc, licini^. to t*jllcel s]>rd- 
mena of every spectCH of scuweed nn The Ausrrah'an !^>l. In 
the ^ubjc^'t^ of /'ootogy and BotajTV the Jt-cen scientist csirvitd out 
u:uich useCttl research. 

Having a ]ias5-.iou toi ^riencf;, Professor I.iioJs actively f^iippi^rt^ 
all sociene^ cugagx-d in fosteruig its Ttursuiv. 'J'hu< he waB Presi- 
dent of the Liniiean Society. 1907-9, and on its Council up to his 
(Jwith. Hii w;is also tm th'' t"<.iuncil of the AustrjiJian no'l Nti-w 
Zealatnl Association for th^ Advancement: of Science, and om 
lUc Council of the Royal Society (N.SAV.)- l^i Oxa Field Natur- 
rilisti'' U\]h of Sydney he was a useful niember of como'jittec. and 
I'oi a tertn ue^'.upii-'.d the Preisideatial rh:iir. Tie r.ontriluited inHuy 
jiaper.s and leclures on scieiuihc Mibjects to societies and inslilu- 
tions. Wilh liih cioic friend. Professor Dcndy, he pubhi»hcd sonu: 
yeai^ ;jgi> n jjopulwr ^lan(lar^l wurk, hskcI witlely in .schools dF the 
Stare.^, lntroduct%on to fiatany. Then, wirli the late Mr. Oi.ulley 
ic Souef, he issued The Animals oj /h.^iroha. followed by The 
Birds aj yiusuMr, hoth adding to Ihe Uiiowled^e of (he TialUryl 
history of our fauna. 

L-'rofeci?^or Lucas travelled a i^ood fleal. and wais a capable Jin^^uist. 
He was an exci^-Herit and .sympathetic, (encher, modtr>>l and nouk'- 
what reserved, but kindly and helpfid, never wearying in the 
purbuit QV di.-jMjnuiiHnoh ot* knowledge, and coninuiuding Oie full 
reaped and cstceni of hh iiiany co-wuikcnj and friends. For foUi 
nionthi. before his diicca^e he liad with unliriny zcsr been engaged 
on research worl; in V^iLtoii;i and rahiiianiLi. While retuiTiini^ tn 
hi? home at Sydney, he Ivecamc ill at. Albury. and <hcd in the Jocal 
hospitTtl. his funeral tn the Nttrthcin Sui)url».s Crematnvlum. Syd- 
ney, being allende^l by a numerous r.onr.ouri-ie ot people whn knew 
his worth and riononred liis memory. He lefi a laniify ol llirce 
daui;tLters — Mei-danies Conis JoneSj J. J. O'Kceftt, and Miss C 
Lucas. » 

C. 'Dmaiv. 

By Et)WARi> F.. PEScorr 

I mtt a fticiKl recently who had iu&l paid a visit to Mount: 

Arnpib.^. He wuh; very much perrurbe^l al Iht pref=ence of a 
flniuishinj^ young spei'iincn oi Finns irtsHpttf: right in I'roni uC 
the mount. 'Mf there were ever auvttitny niorc mit of pluec — ^iuy- 
tlxinj^ more of an anachronisuj, ic is ihib pine tree * ' hi: isaid - 
Hien he added, "1 wished J had brou^it a tomahawk with me." 

t«i Nil*, 
V,,,; i.jji. 

There arc himdre<is of suitabk Austnilian irces waiting for their 
nghtnil lipritagc. whuii is ti^. y^j flenierl them 1'he Unic is ript 
for the FuMd N.-^Hirai»5i.s' Cub oi Victoria to enter upon h vigorous 
cuinpaigii for th« i>res<rY:ttion ;in<l planting- of our own Irccs. J am 
afraid 1har the r.irc of chan'i|>ions of AMPlralinn tvecB hn^ hntn 
iollowcd Ity a race of ajcn whu advocate the cutiso of miporied trees. 

If aiiyiae has the oppunuuity. \eA him fiikc a w;dl( ^long* the 
Y»irra fiotn thf hoafsheds to the Anderson Street Hri<ltj'e 'J*he 
long roM' of graceful and bcauiiful irces oT Enfolyptus rocHoUh the 
Rivet Wliite Gxim. ivill surely convince thcin that hen: is h tree 
Mjitahle to any' sihKition. If tin-, walk he cont,;nned h;u:k ijlunjcf Hje 
Avenue ro th-esratcol the Bntanic Gardens, leading from the King'V 
Doniaui. the three njagnificent parent trees of these youn^'er uncf- 
will Ih*^ seen, in fill their druojuti^ lovchne.s-v. 

I. el 05 ^^0 );'ack over iht* river nnd coming loward^ the City, i^nd 
halting nt I-tatmaii's inonument. and note the two fine vigforouii 
i.;|]ceinteos of the 5]">o(te<.l Gum. Euinlypin^ woruldta. Another 
Jiiie nid K|)eiimeij of this s-])ccies is ^^rnwinj,' in ihe (.it<'h)nj; Jii;iailM! 
Gardens, lieautiful in hahit anO foliii^^e, ami wonderful in hark 
colouration Vo the Si-ioUed Gnm 

Let us nuw ^1,1 tu Iht- Au>Jrali:in Itnnlcr ixiM\ mtia ihar trtx. 
oommon in Quee.nHland, and very rare iii mhivatitm. I'liiuic-rsiti, 
tl^e Ausirahau A^ih, The large, boI<l |>inn?itc io5iaf;e. iirni the ^'.ronJ;c 
U]iright hal.iit of tJic ItOe, nmke il n tree of iliytinctii»n for chltiiTC 

Now let ]{<■ get out to Cantcrhury (int), leavin^^ the stunoil '^n ihc 
north siOe. walk lowardji the slreet, Jusl below (he cieclridiy 
elation on the left stdt; ib a heauliftil and eonipacl speeinien n{ 
that very rare tree of Int<'lcwoo<l. iJie "Ironlmrk Uc^x/' The cnm- 
inon luuiip i;; unfortun.'iir ; one eunmicuiorutini; it.v sprties lunnc 
would have hecn hetter. 1, reier \o Eitralypiiis Bhuii'hjintiitKO^ Jt ts a 
low-growing gmu. vc:ry f«h;iiu*ly in hahit. antl i-ompaM t;iOwm)*. 
quite eijtial lo any shapely tree thai can he seen i^nywhere. I only 
know of two of these Iree.s— the nther ih in ihe ls*ii:h*non<l .l^rlc. 
near the Curator's residence. 

Close to this tree is a hue sample of the red-flowered IronbaHc 
with dec); ciilourcd flowers Ei(colypll4K fftttoxylon rosat Another 
similar tree ia ia the Camheiwell j^ardcnis. I'liese trees, hesidcs 
hciuff very sbajjely. gi^ve the rit?ie*i of red flowers I have ever 
scat, of this \arifty. 

Pilio.^fioniui i4ndM}alufn. the east Cippsland sjjecies, tnay he .^cti 
(IS a speciu'cri in aln.i05.l any park: but how very rarely do wc yee 
the drooping dainty species. P. pkHhrocokic.'i. 1'he masscii of 
bloom on the thin pendant hranch!e(.> in spring are delight fal, In 
the Canlfield Tark 36 a very fine voinvj; ipecnncn oi /■' ihoiubi- 
foliuni, wlhcb. aiwrt from henig a fine tree, giveii abundarjl tiiasses 
of orange-colnured be-rries in winter and >priu^. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. Llir.— No. 4 August 5, 1936 No. 632 

The ordinary monthty meeting" of the Club was held at the 

Koysl Society's Hall on Monday, July li, 1936. The President. 

Mr. S. R. Mitchell, presided^ and about ]<X) members and friemJs 

MTre present 

The President announced that, since the last in-tcttng". the Club 

had lost through death an old and valued Life Member, Mr. A. H. 

S. Lucas, and gave a brief account of his. connection with the 

Club. Members then stood in silence Tor a nnnute to mark their 



An illustrated lecture, ''Austrah'an Vanishing* Birds." was given 
by Mr. A. H. Chisholm, He menuoned e^ich main group, 
of birds and briefly dealt with the species tliat apparently were not 
holding their own under present conditions. It seemed that only 
two species ot birds had become extinct since the whil^ occupation 
of Auf^tralia. Several other species, including the Night Parrot 
and Ground Parrot, had become cxceedingh' rare. 

The Pre&idcul, and Mes^irs, A. D. Hardy; V. H. Milltjr, A. H. 
Mattingley. J. A. Kershaw, A. R. Prou-iloot and A. S. Kcnyon 
S])oke on the lecture, Mr Miller staU^d rb:\t lie Iin»l see.n adver- 
tised a trip to Norihcrn Australia, and one of the attractions 
offered was '■'Wild Turk^-y Shootuig." Tins mailer was referred 
to the Committee For investigation. 

Tlie President expressed the thank?^ of the Club to Mr Cbiiiholm 
for a very interesting address. 


National Monumenis. — The President announced that a com- 
bined meeting ot all interested societies would be held in the 
National Herbarium. Hall oti August 12. at 8 i).tn. He invited 
ail TiK*vnber£ to attend 

TIte Aquariutn. — The Hon- Secretary roport<:;d thai a-lctier had 
been sent to the Premier stating tliat i^l:oukl the r\q\;arium be 
shifted, (he seaside, preferably St. Kilda. was, in the Club'5 opinion^ 
th<- best place for it, 

Reorg'ani/.ation of the Zoological Gardens. — Mr. G. N. Hyam 
nnnounced that he liad attended a deputation to thtb Chief Secre- 
tary, who stated tliat legislation would be introduced to improve 

Wild Katuie Show.— "Die Presicfenf announced thai the Show 
Committee would cotiBht of Messrs. S. R. Mitchell, V, H. Miller. 
Chas. Barrett, L. W. Cooper, W. II. Ingrain and G. N. Myaeii. 
Mr. Hyam tq ^ct ajf convener. 


From A.N.Z.A.A.S.. inviting membfirs io participate In (he 
J^anuary meeting at Auckland, N.Z. ; and enclosing nomination 
ionris for distribution. 

From Ml'. F. Lewis, "Chief Inspector of Fisheries smd Gamc^ 
regarding the pioposai to have Greater Melbourne declJUT.d a 
sanctuary. In his opinion very htilc good would come from this, 
as the area iiffcrcd na hrccding grOun<bi furtliermOrc, out of 
seajson shooting was already hemg dealt with under the present 
laws. To police such an area would be impossible. 


"Reports of Excursions were ^^iven as follows r — University 
Agricultural Deparimeul. Mr. L. W. Cooper (ior Miss Raff): 
Broadmcadows, Mr, A. C. FnJStiek , National Museum for 
Ethnoloffy, Me. A. S. Kenyan i National Hcrlwrium, Mr. J. W. 
Audas ; University Geological l")epaTnnenT., Mr, F. S- Collivcc 
((oi* Mr. F. A. Siugievon). 

On ?i $how of hands the followinj^ were duly elected a?^ ordinary 
oitrmlxTS of tlic Club: Mrs. Geraldinc Wilkinson, Mcssfs. A. E. 
Cottlthard. John S. Russell, and A. Grassidt. 


The President announced diat a oj\yy nF the boulc .? Vedr on 
the Great Barrier Reef, had been presented to the Ctub by Miss 
Agnew, who v/a§ accorded ihe thanks of the Chib. 

Mr. A. H. Chisholm stated that large numbers of ihe Kin,j^ 
Orchid v/ere being oftcrcd for sale m the niarkef;. As this specie? 
was protected, both in Victoria and New South Wales, he would 
rnak-e inquiries and report further to the Committx::e. 

Miss Chtshohn referred to the loss by fire of Mr. Lancaster's 
fchell collection, and asked Avhether the Club could assist hnn in 
any way; this matter Avas referred to the Committee for cort- 

The President stated that the Club wa5 represented at the 
Melton Tree Pianliug, and also had been invited to send delej?at€5 
to the 100th anniversary of the discovery a£ Mt. Arapilcs by 
Maior Mitchell. 

The meeting was adjourned for the conversazione. 


Miss Knox. — Kenyte from Mt. Erebus (colk^cted by members 
of the Antarctic Expeditjon) ; Ainmonite ot Crciaceous age, from 
Nth. Queensland > 5K'?lls. Spimlo. fsronii, from Queensland ; 
Dendrkes, from LilycJale- 

Mrs. Hill. — Ivy Violet (Viola hcdcra^ca), garden grown. 

Mr. T. S. Halt. — Stamens of several gpecit.'^ ol MsMeuca^ 
specimen of Misil-eto^, showing winter colouring- 

Mr. Kobni Croll. — Ptcyostytis concinni'i buib tal«u (frcdn priv3l<r 
1)ropeftY) at Black Rock. It has remained in Ihe same pot for 
seven years, and Ihi? se^ison has produced nine bloom?:. 

Mr. E- S. HiWik.s. — Small East Victorian ,l3at {Nyciinomm sp.), 
picked Up dea-i., but still warm, at Wandong. 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel.— Fan Shells und Scallop Shells irom various 

Mr^ S. R. Mitchell. — Mineral Specimens: Calcile {stajaetic) 
fiom caves at Beluhela. N.S.W. ; Aragonite. from Lisnoic, 

Mr. A. C. Krostick. — Specimens of Adamelliie from Gellibnuid 
Hill, near tJ road meadows; coloured raici'o-drawings of the rock 
under crossed nicols 

Mt. F. S. Collu-er.— ^Leg bones ot Diuomis i'mximtiS Owen 
("lent by the Ceolo^ncal Survey of Victoria) : Dinornis rubui:t\i ( ?) 
Owen: Dyo^n-onen^ nc-voi^'-hvllmt(Iio-c from W.A.; D vtintn-, tossil 
from King Island tlast three lent by Dr. G. 15. Pritchard). 

Corrcction.^In Annual Rcporf. donations for Mr_ R. O^Neill 
read Mr. W, J. O'Neiil 

TTie Club'3 ci^m^/aign for rlie bcner jT-Mcctwn and reservation of Narionsl 
Monuments ls progressing. A mqeliiig will h« hc^d at the Hulioual Ker- 
bariur.i on August 12 at S p.m. Delegacy iroiii about 25 jociciies will be 
present. Invitaticms Iiave tieqn accepted Ircmi ail the uitural history societies, 
Tourist Bureau, P.oyal AutoiTicdiile Club. Hontitary Jws-ticei' ASaociatimi, 
A.N. A., and many others. It \s Iiopcd to ioriD a strong commUlee im Ihe 
I>iirix>=.c <ii coJleciMig data and draitir..g- a Bill to pri^sent \'i, the Govcriinic-nt 
zt the meeting from amougst tine delegates prescut. Club members who arc 
interested are iiivhed to attend. 


The >how Con;miCtee lt=i5 held a prelinunary meeluit; a-id suygci-t!: thai 
the title of the show .>h3lj be "The Field Naturalists.' Club's SJ.^t Annual 
Show."' Tlie Show Committee hopes to have the co-operatton of all meiulicrs 
iind can find a ulacc rn th< oruauirali'jn ior ev<fryonc. Thrs paiticulariy 
applies to new member*. The Committee tvould urge that all those who an? 
willing to help cither by servicer, exhibits, or both, should register their 
names with tl;e Honorary Secretary. Sugye&liojis as to )u)provcnieiit5- 
and inlcjcstint; exhibits src aUo wclcomctl as ;1 is th<^ Committee's wish 
that new features should, be added io our displays shall not become 
stereotyped- Menabers who have friends in the coirntry v/ho would collect 
flowt^rs <>r C'lhtT tutcrcfi^mg iiAturnl history «.i>ectniei"»s would greatly assist 
if thcv could arrange ior .supplies for the *ho\v. Admission tickets will 
be iAv<iiUt>fe at the August ttieetiiitj. 



"The (oUdwing list of alterations and additions to th(t Flora of 
Vt'crnrict includes' all those made since the publioaLion at the Flora 
in 1930 10 tlie present date and may i>e of interest to those engaged 
in field work. 

Ry the courtesy of Mr. F. J. Rac, Dirttctor ol the Botanic 
Gardens, the list has beeri checked from the record?, kept at the 
llerbarinni. If any readers note onussion.s, information in regard 
to thcni will be welcome. ■ 

Additions: Hym£'nof>hythmi pcHatnm (Poir.) Dc^v.. Sialktd Filmy Fero. 
H. liilataiuvi- Sw., Hand5C?iiie Filmy Fern. 

Addition: Asplcnmm ohtusatmn Forst., Small Shore Splefeimort. 
Alterations: 5'/^iV///<:.r Jjirsutns T.abill. to .9- in^nm.< TJanVs ct Sol. (Ixahtm 
incrme For St.. fil., 1786). 
£ly!rophorU'S criicnlatHS Beauv. to £. sjriratMs- Camns. 
B7'ogrn.<tis tnurUa (L.) no<*m. and Sr.hitlt. to 7?. jat'Omca 

E. Brcji-'ftii Ni'ecs. to E. ehngafa Jaiq. 
Poa BiUardicri Slciid. to Paa cacspiti/sa G. For&l v.'*r. 
Biihrduri Hook, f. 
Additjgan : *Phhuin sid>ul(ilum (Savi) Asch. uncf Gratib. 0\ tcnvc 
S^il>a incnyija HcghcSj Incurved Spear Grass. 
:S\ ciaiior Hughes, Stout Soear Grass. 
A\WraJi\on5 '. Dactyhcicniiiin acoypHnvi (T.,) Richt , FiJigcr G^3S^- to 
D. Tadu!fin<f Beauv., Button Grass. 
'^Sch's^nus caiycinu^ Coss. et Dur. to S. barbahis Tucl. 
Additions ; *PcntaschisHi' mroides Stapf. (Vtrnacular name?^). 
DoMthonla niuiijlorii Morris. Alpine Wallaby Grass. 
D. RichftrdxonH Cushmore, TalS WallaUy Grass. 
D, DutUmmu'i. OshniorCj Loose Wallaby Grass. 
Alteration: AmphihromMS ncrvosvs (R,Er.) Hk.f to A. A'cc^rii 5tCTi(). 
Addilious : A, ffraa'lis P. F. Morris, Graceinl Swamp Wallaby Grass. 
/K /hrhrri Hk.f-. Pointed Swamp Wallriby Gr-iss. 
Awphibroimis -rccurvatus Swallcn, Dark Swainp Wallaby 

A. N'cesir Sleud., Swaiui> Wallaby Gra&s, 
Attfratton; */-olium hyhridutn T-i.ins=ilcn. to A. suhHlamin Vis. 
Addition: '^Agwpyron pmcewn. (L.} Bcattv., Jti32. Sea Wheat Gra^iii or 
Coast Coudi; ayn. {Tritic\mx jimccuvt L.. 1759)* 

Alteration.*.: C.'v/i*?ntjr squni-roxits T,. t*> C7t OrtstoHt-^ Roltb., 1775. 

Ciadiuni glom-erahim R.Br- to C*, yM}pnos-\iv\ (SoUud) 
Dotniu., 1915. 
Addition.';: ^Omiihoriahim nmhaflatuw L., Star of Belhlcdicin 
^Gladiolu.' hyzantinux M'lW., Turkinli Corn FUr. 
Family Bunnamiiaceae, Sarcosiphon h'odivayi Schltr. 
(Thismia J^od-tntyyi F,v.M.), Ftiiry Ljintcrns, 

*Intro'iKced aliens. 

■J^*^;] EwAfiT. Phro of Vinofia 6\ 

A<idili<ms: CUi^stdiPia ttMentahm Lindl. TanR:le OrchM. 

PrasophyUum paliiduvt Micholb, Pallid Ltclc Orchid. 

F. TadgeUiaiium Rogers to P- alpitmm R.Br. 

P> intru:atuvT- C. Stuart, var. ciliaiinn (P. cUiittum "Ewax* 

and Rees}. Omit P. ciliatnm from specific tank. 
P. pyri)orn\r- Coleman, "Pear Leek Orchid.'" 
Thelymitrd Murdoch-a^ Kicholls, Crimson Sun Orchid. 
T. nuda R.Br., included und^r T. l&itgifoUa. 
'l\ tr\mcata Rogers, Truncate Sun Orchid. 
Microtis vrbicuhris Rogers, Hooded Lcck Orchid- 
Cnh^'Jc-uia tesselata Fitzgerald, Paved Caladenia. 
C- Pciti?rxomi, var, trng^t^fico. 
C. Uiielata Rogers. Sentinel Caladcnia. 
Attcralibns : C anf^ns/atj Lindl. replaces C. icsiacca R.Br. 

Spiro^ithi'i aiiStralis Lindl. to S- sinensis (Perj.1 Ames. 
Additions: CryptostyHs e-rccia R.Br,, Erect Tongue Orchid. 
Furostylii gracilis NiclioHs, Slender Grcenl>o<:'d. 

Alteration • Ca-suariha hpidopkhia F.v.M. to C crisiafa Mitjt 

Addition: CreviUca alpcstris Nfeissn., Dallachy's Grevilleaf 

Addition: N'otothi:^os subouret^s Oltv-, Golden Mistletoe. 
Additions: Chcnopodmm myrioccphahim (Benth.) Acllen, Pig Weed. 

C. puvtilio R.Br. Common name? 
Alteration: Salicornia. pachystachya J. M. Black to S, Bfackiatta Ulbridi. 
Alterations ; Mcscitrbryanfln^mttm ae0iiht<iriim Haw. to Carpohrotns 
acquihtaus N.E.Br. 
^'M-i!S^!mhryantlu!mum- cduJc L. to Caypot>rpti(S editlis (I,-.) 

*AI, crystailimttn L, to Cryophytuin. cfystaUinum N Bi*. 
*M. an^^tilatmn Thunb. to C. aitotm N.Br. 
A/. aHilmh Sol. to Disphymci ait^halc Sol. 

Addition , ""RanuHcukts S<^rdot4S Crantx. "Pair Buttercup," 

Addition: Tctrathecc gland\^hsa I..8b-» Glandular Pink-eye. 

Addition: Pfogmnthas Pcrthoc F v.M., White PlaeianlTi. 

AUeration: Hyinarianfhera dentaia R.Br, to H. <ingu.xtifoiia R.Br. 
Alterations: Eucnlyptn-s austraHm\(i R. T, Baker to £. amypdalhut Lab. 
E. Intiitietofuvt- F.v.M. (ayil. H. polyhractea R.T.B.). 
Umbel) if erae ^ t 

Alteration : A^crclla cnnsxioixa Benth. to Osi:hatsia cmr-eifoHa (F.Vr'M.) 

Addition '^'Oencyntftc pmpi'ietloidt'i L.. "Meadow Pars-ley.'* 

AlteratiDii: GanUhcria hispid^ R,Br. to o. appres.^ A, W. Hill. 

Addition: Ajttga. grandifloni Stapi, Grt^ater Bugle. 
Alteratiouf ; Mentha gracilis R.Br. to M. dii^wanca Sprcng. 
Lycopus (iu^irafis R.Br, to L. ci*yopaem L* 

♦Introduced aliens. ■: 


EU'AMT. nor<x &f Vkfom 

LVol. hlH, 

Bigrtoniaccac - 

Alteration : Tccoma au^lfalh R.Br, to 7", pfitiii/iniiui Skeels. 

AUcratJotit C/jprnsma BiHardicri Hlcf. to C. quadn^da Rob. 
Additions; '^Gatiiim irtconic With., Corn Bcdstraw. 

*G. diiKirJcaiHni Lam., Spreading BtUstraw. 
Additions : WMenbertjia vincac flora Oecnc, Aiistnil niHc-bell. 

f-^'. Cakmoi, N.E.Er., Small Bliie-bell. 

W. mntUcatilis Benth.. Branching Bliie-f>ell. 

W\ qracHis Schradcr, Sicndcr Bliie-bcK- 
AltcratiO"- Pratia crccta Gaud, to P. concoior (R.Br) Druce. 
Additions: firachT/come lissocarpa Black, Creeping Daisy. 

i'itiadinia tncgaccphala Black, Large-headed Daisy. 

l\ ^enmssrw<i Black, Slciidcr Dai&y. 

y. pterochacta Black, Wiiig-sccd Dniiy. 

Lt'pforhyiH'hf4.i medtus A. Cutin., St;»lk Button?, 

*Onopordon lUyricum L., Woolly Thistle. 
Alterations: ^Vfntaurea IHcns PalL to C, re pern L. 

^Xanihritm stnmtarmn L. to A'. PHtigiws Wallj'.> Nooi?a/ra 
Additions : '^Chondrilla junccn L.. Skeleton Weed. 

*Xanlluuin cahiormcnm Greene, Califoniian Burr. 
•Introduced alien:;. 

The followinf:^ amended key to the Victorian orchids has becti 

* pneparcd by Mr. W H, Nicholls and Mr. R. Bond: — 

Key to Genrrq oj l^ictariqn Orchids 

A. Stetns epiphytic or fhizotnic, creeping oji trees 

or rocks ........................ B^ 

Slems tuidergrouad; oflen tuberous; less oUen 
rhizomic ..,,,.,.,.....,... .^.. ,. C 

R Labcilum movably jointed to tlic base at the 

column; iu median lobe not fleshy .. .. .. OENDI^OBIUM 

LahcMum attached firmly to tin; "basi: at the 
column; its median lobe fleshy .. .. .. ,. SARCOCHILUS 

C. Pfant leafless, at least when in flower, or the 

leaves reduced to small scales or bracts ., ,, D 

Plant with one or more leaves when in flower F 

D. Flowers rather large; while, pink, purple or 

spotted; the lahelium entire or tri-lohed .. E 

Flowers small, greenish, or, if purphsh, nal 

spotted : the labcilum recurved and ustially 

tap^^nng _. .. ..._... PRASOPHYLLUiM 

Flowers rather small, Rreen, whitish, pinkash, 

or purplish: labellum hammer-shaped SHICLILAEA 


F. Scjjals and petals more or less united to a definite 

tube GASTl?Or>Iy\ 

Sepals and petaU "spreading widely ._ ., ... *. DIPCJDIUM 

K. Stem with a single leal ,i. <^ J5 i. L 

Stem with two or more leaves i. vv' -i .1 -.. G 

G. Labellum tri-lobed :^. ., ,, jy« H 

Labelhim without lateral lobes <* -4 ... ,'. ^i. I 

U. Petals prominent and stalked j .. .'. ,'. ^. DHJRIS 

Petals minute and sessile , ,. , ORTHOCr-RAS 

J. Flowers small, arranged in a definite ±ipira1 . . SPIRANTHES 
Flowers meditjm to larffe, not In 9 definite splrftl J 

Aiifc. -f 

EwAKT. fhra of Victoria 













.-- .J *,- 

Labdluni long and ihick; tfic uihtrr sugmtivb 

rcflcxcd Hnd incorrSpiCiiOiiS ., ., ,,. .. _• i t. 
Labelluin flattened; ofttn sinal] .♦ ». .. ^, .. 
Flower forming a green or brfiwi\i»h hood; leares 

i-evcral . : : . . ; .- . . . ; i . : ; ; ; , r : . ■ 
Flower not forming ^^ hood i kavcs two. tippojite 

IjCaf elongated .. :. .: .. : 

Leaf almost as broad a& long .. c» vv ^ ; — ^ f 
T_.eflVcs flat or channelled -- . ; •* .'. rv -v 

Loaves leek-!ike, or onion-IiU'e .. .. .. .: -. 

Labelhim not distinctly different from the other 

perianth ^cgracntE . , 

Lal'tlluni distinctly diff^^renr ironi the other 

perianth seg-ments _, ._. *. .. -^ 

F}r.werine Sterns thin, not flesikjr -j 
.Flowering stems stont, rather fl<:shy 
Flowers brown, or g^rccnish-brown .. ri .ii-l*-. 
yiiAvers not brown,, at least inside ... 
I-a*5ellum with a. distinct, crt^ct aftpcndagt at 

the base - - .... . . • • . . . - . < * . .^ . , ^ - - . 

-Mo such appendage preterit .1 .. -.1^ .e. .. 
Plant under 6 inches Wt^h . ,. «_, -•-•-.*_• i^ •? -ii" 
PldMt over 6 inches hip:h .. vi iV •! .- h-* <? 

Le<T> flat: lahellum hairles.s .. w .. i 

l^af channelled; labellum lisually wtth long hair? 
Midrib of leaf prominent :. .- .^ .. -- ;. -■ 
Midrib oi leaf at>sent or indistinct .; >. ij .. 

Dorsal sepal short and hroad ; flowers very small ;^ 

Ubellum curving dowii , .. .. ,- 

Uorsal sepal narrow and taptring; flowers sidalJ 

to medium; labollum curving upwards .. .. ,. 
FJower sing^le and very close to the leaf .. ■. ; 
Flotver not very clo&e to the leai: one to several 

present . .. , .■:. . - - _. . 

J.czi flat, ijrominenl when the plant is in flower . 
Leaf channelled or rol'ed to kitne extent; Entail 

.*tid indijitinci when the plant is on flower .. 
Flowers aiid stem thickj rather flesh/ -, ;, ,; 

Flower- and .=len; not at all fleshy . . 

Periaiitli set'metitfi fleshy; flowers rarely <ipcning 

much . : - • 

Perianth ^cginctits^ not fleshy; flowers openiiig 

{reeJy ' ,-• ' ' '■-••• 

Colun*n wiih tiroad wings , , - 

Column with narrow wings 














, . . T. 









PaiH:o 3^. Vol, LIU. No. J, July. 1936. NafuraUsf:— 
i)(H"»'.Vi"t>rtt H'- ^ fyellow, gelatinous, pileatc) for Daery4iwitra sp. ? 

iyeltny, gelatinous, pileatc). 

Lefiota pttrvamtuhfa for L. paramt^thla. Rujsida cyancfsonthn ? for 

A', ryrtnoj^unthis ? 

Owin&- to pres.inre on space the original report on the .SherbrooW<? Forest 

v'as condensed, which restdted in an inadvertent omiit.ion. Kor the sentence 

"The day'& outing resulted in 27 additional species being added to the lisl 

compiled for Sherbrooke Forest" substilnte "The day's^ outing resulted ia 

27 species ol FiaiRi b^»n^ added to the list compiled tor Sherbrooke Forest." 


6A NrCHOlLS. ^ Nc^ Tnbec'cg Plm^ [y'^{ 


By W. H. >1jchoi:lS 

Av Easter visit to the liistoric You Yonga Rnnge, near Lara, 
Victoria, reveaJed botii the introduced Tree Tobacco (Nicotuma 
gtoMca- Graliani), and the Aii:?rui Tobacco (Nkotmm sHOvcolens 
Lthm.) in abundance. Boih specie& had responded i'(itv)arkably to 
rhe receiit beneficial rains and were in splendid condition, And the 
finei-t show of bloum so far seen by us (Mr. F. J. Bishop and the 
writer) . 

From below th^ steep south-western slojx: oi FUnders' Peak 
we noticed the wonderful infioresencc of what appeared to be 
the alien form. Some of the pUnts seemed *'toQ good to he tnie/' 
so investigation was decided upon. We were soon among plant*^ 
of a natural hybrid, tlic result of an undoubted union of the two 
pre\'iously nientioned speciies. 

Tlie plants ranged from about 2 Eeet (5 inches to over 4 feel 
in height, with fragrant flowers in abundance and intermediate 
in form. 

The colour of th€5e hybrid flower^ ranged from olivc-grecn 
througli h'ghter shades to cream and stcely-whitc. thus giving the 
specimens quite an ornanientctl bearing; aticl T venture co suggest 
a desirable acc]uis3tion »o OLir home gardens. 

The dark-green foliage was also intermediate — both in hue and 
m lorm— but lacked the "bfoum* so apparent on the foliage of 
iV. glaucn. 

The flowers of these undoubted hybrids grow on very long 
slender, erect stems: the panicles of bI<K)m We-re thu$ far above 
the leaves The llowers arc ir^gtanc. 

We found this new form well estabh'shed on the ^outh-wei^i-srii 
and also on the northern faces of Flinders' Pejik — wherever the 
native aud the introduced fonns flourished. Ownng to its oiUislaud- 
ing chai'acten sties and to the fact of its being well eslMbbslJCd. ii 
is deemed worthy vi classincation under the name of Nkotiamj 
flludcrdcnsis (sp. nov.) m recognition of its habitat, 

Pianta- glabra, circa 75-lZO cm., iatn. Folt-a ovato-lanceolaw. vet 
Icpiccolnia, Mnrginihus, xindulatis. Flores numeyoM, vi'^^ides vef 
albi; corolla lotiga; lobt paimiies, ba^cs loborum diloM. 

A glabrous shrub about 7-120 cjii. in height. Leaves large. 
dark green, ovatc-Ianceolate^ upper leaves small fanceolate. margins 
undulate, Calyx with narrow lobes, the corolla 2 S-3 cm. long, 
green, the lube about twice as long as the calyx, the cOrolla dilated 
Mow the 5-lobed rim, rim spreading, sometimes r^flejxed, with 
short obtuse lobes. Capsule ovoid, enclosed by the base of th<^ 
calyx. Tlie type specimen is in the Herbarium Botany Peptn 
University of iMelboiu-ne, Habitat^ Flipdevs' Peak. You Yangs 
Range, Victotia. 



Plntc VII 

August, 1936 

Three Species of the Tobacco Plant 

A. Nicotiana glauca Graham, B. N. flindeTsiensh^ sp. nov. 

C. A dissected flower of A\ fiindersiensis, D. A'. ?itaveolem Lehm. 


Clark, Habits of Land Crayfishes 


By Ellen Clark 

Three kinds of crayfishes are found in Victoria. Tliere arc 
aquatic s]>ecies, such as the lar^c s]>iny crayfishes t^f tlic Murray, 
Yarra, Glenelg and Thomson Rivers; seini-a((uatic, tliose hvinj^ 
l^artly on land and jiartly in water, such as the common yabby 

Land Crayfishes. 

1. j-^iuiiwns I'ictorii'usis Sm. ami Scli., natural size. 

2. /:'. jossor ?>., sli(j\vtng^ tiiethod of carrying eggs, natural size. 

whicli is found in almost every waterhoie around Melbourne and 
in the country; and the terrestrial crayfishes, or Uuid-crahs as 
they are sometimes called, which are found almost all over 

The terrestrial crayfishes are very destructive, and therefore 
of much economic im^iortance. The fact that tliey are not entirely 
dependent on standing water enaliles theni to s]:)read over vast 
areas. For the ])asl two years observations have !*een made on the 

66' Clark. Htjhifs of Laiui Cray/jshcs LwIa. lui! 

life history and habits of various species in the hope of finding some 
method of exterminating them. Observati(Mis were macle in glnss 
arjuarium tanks to watch tlie methods of hurrowinp^ and the food 
requirements. Field notes were made at Ferntree Gully on a prop- 
erty containing several acres of orchard, grazing ]>addoeks and 
heavily timbered scrub. Two creeks, which are permanent for 
most of the year» run through the property. 

The orchard, which is on a hillside, is riddled with Indes of 
Engaeia victoriensis Smith and Scliuster (Fig. 1 ), The hnrrovvs 
are from six to eighteen inclies deep in most places, hut on the 
highest level some are considerably deeper. During the plough- 
ing season many yabbies were turned up daily. 

This species forms *'connnunity burrows.*' In an area of three 
or four square feet all the burrows converge, making a large 
cavity below, in which is the central pooL When one of these 
community i:»ools is formed at the base of a fruit tree, the result 
of the undermining is the dying olT of the tree. As the yablnes 
are vegetarian as well as carnivorous the roots of the trees prob- 
ably form a palatable morsel. The burruws are usually indicated 
by cone-shaped mounds, formed by the nnid excavated front the 
burrows. The cones vary in size from one-half to three inches in 
diameter and the same in height. Sometimes, however, no cone 
is formed, the otdy indications being round holes aliout one-half 
U> two inches in diameter clustered within a few inches of one 

E. vktaricHsis is found only on the higher and fairly dry ground, 
but on the flats ami in the creek another species, B. fossor Erich- 
son is abundant. The lioles of jossor are usually single shafts with 
only one occupant, but a few holes were found to contain t\A'o or 
three sj^ecimens in side branches. The holes, altbcHigh single, are 
often made so close together that as much dantagc is caused as in 
the case of the "comniunity" burrows. Unlike E, znctoricnsis, 
whicii burrows in fairly dry soil, this species ]>refers very moist 
conditions and numerous I)urrows were found in all the swampy 
areas examined. The creek beds are full of holes, and in various 
yjlaces the banks have been undermined for several feet, and, on 
pressure, have subsided into the creek, causing nnich annoyance 
and inconvenience l)y blocking the creek and ruining the banks. 

During the dry weather the creek bed is full of liurrows and 
as the wet season advances the cones are built higher and higher 
to keep above the rising water level. Many bridges in the district 
have had to be reinforced due to these yal^bies undermining the 
foundations. Channels dug to drain the swamps are constantly 
being filled in by the actions of the yahbies. and several tintes cows 
and horses have had nasty falls liy stepping on "crab-Iioles." 

It Is interesting to watch the yabby digging the Inu'rows. When 
placed in aquarium jars cotitaining earth tbey soon start to burrow, 
usually in a corner. In digging the Imrvow the great chelae, or 

Aug. 1 
1936. J 

Clark, Habits of Land Crayfishes 


A. Carapace removed to show gills. 

B. First row of gills removed to show remaining ix\ 

C. Gastroliths of a crayfish (after Hale). 

(Twice natural size.) 

68 CuAHR. Habits of Land Cmyfishi's Lvoli Lllif. 

large claws, are used; these loosen the soil, wliich is then held 
between the chelae and the head and brought to the tO]) of tiie 
hole. Specimens kept in captivity were fed on earthworms, raw- 
meat and tadpoles, all of which were eagerly taken and torn to 
pieces by the two small ]>airs of chelate limbs and fed into the 
mouth by the small foot-jaws. One female with twenty-three 
newly-hatched young was put in a jar to see the development of 
the young, but two days later the jar contained only eight very 
large yonng specimens with the female. Apparently in the al)scncc 
of other food the surviving yonng had eaten their weaker brothers, 
Tlvis cannibalism is evident in all species which have l)een kept 
without food, and numerous fine examples have been lost in this 
way. For four days the young- remained in the burrow witli tlie 
mother and then started fresh burrows for themselves. These 
were only about one-half an inch in diameter. 

The breeding season is in early spring, the eggs l^eing carried 
by the female on the swimmerets of the abdomen (Fig. 2), The 
young hatch out during summer, usually between December and 
February^ and for a sliort time remain attached to the swimmerels 
of the mother by the last two pairs of legs, the terminal joints of 
which are modified into small hooks. The young crayfishes look 
very much like the adults, except for the very latge carapace in 
which is stored the food for the first moult. 

Crayfishes grow l)y a scries of moults. In the first year the 
yoimg crayfish sheds its carapace several tinies ; after that, only 
once or twice a year. Before moulting, gastroliths or 'Vrahs'-eyes" 
as they are called, are stored up by the crayfish. Thesi^ gastmliths 
are small nodules of calcareous matter and have a peculiar, yet 
characteristic form (Fig. C). During the moult they are dis.solved 
in the stomach and are then apparently used in the ffirmation of 
the new exoskeleton. 

Crayfishes breathe through the gills, which are attached to the 
base of the legs and placed between the carapace and the outer 
wall of the body (Figs. A, B). They are kept moving and water 
is constantly circulating around the crayfish, enabling it to breathe 
the air dissolved in water. 

A monograph of the crayfishes, aquatic and lerreslrial, is now 
in progress at the National Museum and specimens are retjuired 
from all localities for i)ur]joses of comparison and geographical 
distribution. To send specimens alive, pack them in a box (►r tin 
with plenty of damp grass to keep the gills moist: in this way 
they will i-emain alive for se\'eral days. 

If several are put into one container, they should be separate<l 
by partitions to prevent them from fighting and consequent damage. 
Specimens may also be preserved in spirits of wine or methylated 
spirit, but live specimens arc preferred by the Museum. Brief 
notes on their habits and liabitat should accompan}' the s])ecinietis. 

i;] :SwAfcv. 'I'hr LMc Dcxni. ,^ 


By A. J. SwABY 

^ A tlcftailefl zj\4\ mter^tM'mg accoiinl ol "The Botariv of the Liltlfe 
Desert*' was cc'iuiibuled by Mr. St, Eloy D'AIiOu in flic Natunilist 
of Augnsr, 1913. Mi5 mention ol "'he .%howy Bormiia i'lavcUifoHa 
(now inormUa) in profusion" aroused the cnriosilv of the laic 
Mr. H, B. Wiliiam.sojj. Mr. Williamson tned to reach Ih: locahty 
from Ihc riorrh side without success. In 3930, when H.B.W 
and myself were the guests oi Mr. Harold Smith, of Horsham, 
two mare <ittemptti failed- Shortly afterwarcls. Messrs. H. and 
W. tiuiiXh found a way in aiKJ discov^vcd a showy Eoronia in 
j:iro[nsion. Those who remember II.B.W. can picture tlie eager- 
ness with which he opened the packet sent, and hh exasperation 
at finding B. pilosa- 

It was intended then lo supplen^eiit D'AUon's list. Mr. William- 
son prepared ih^ sj^ecmteus /or mounting Iliii intimation that 
thoy were rcadv w;ls followed immt^di;ji<?*;y liy news of his death. 
Collections from five localities were thfn mixed and th€ locahty 
records lost. In the years since, it has heen a labour of rcmem- 
hr?\ncc to sort and rtlr^ce, w!*ile still hopinG^ we ntight oiye ^^y 
fnzd BoronxQ mornata. 

D'AJton records 227 species — a remarkahJe number for a small 
<lveao' s,o-calIed d<».spr*, Oui ob-st»i vntioHs over the eaM^rn quartet 
have added 35 dehnitelv and lU otliers are nor fully identified. I'hus 
the total number of species known in tlic desen is 272. 

We were prepared [or "some really pretty visias" and "the 
variety of nnrs m the foliage of the various irccs and shrubs"; 
Imt D'AU<in surely avoided ov-cr-statemimt. From <-:arly Scpicui- 
Ijer 10 late October, the desert h an unhroki'n succession of beauty 
with many surprises 

For &heer deligfU, it would be hard to hnd anything richer tlvm 
one Ol the low red hills covered with the Hroom Honey-myrrle. 
MchLntco inKinata.. In the shimmering Ileal ol Kchniary, one is 
reminded of "'giccn pa£tnrei; beside still waters." But nothrig 
could be mt>re inhospitaljle tu man or beast. 

lyAIton'.s round plain, successive iircs notwicstanding, is a 
glorious mass of Bornma pUoso. The lovely waxy stairs, froui palest 
pink to crinison; are everywhere over some IS square iniles., Most 
of it is quite hairless : but occasional hairy plants- aire found, without 
any aj)parcTit difference in soil or aspect. The cffext is enhanced 
hy Hvf^hrasia rollina. — ^not purpJc. but of most delicate mauve, grow- 
injr up to twO' feet hi^h. Here also is the Velvet Spyridium.- i>'Py 
fidiujn suhorhrcnJum ] but nor in grc;it abundance. 

tii counhy south of the round plain. Cftieitctna cyaneo. Blue 
Tinsel Lily, covers acr<*s with its sheen. It tlicrc any place whej'C 

*4n area in the Nhlll-Tlorsham district. 

70 SWAOV. The Dt-icrt i"vof"?!m 

three such beauties cOulH be foinid domniating the lamJscapc. With 
the Cileclasia, the Mai Hciilh-myrilCj Baeckin ^vhaea, isahuvulnnt 
Rarely does it exceed an inch in heif»:ht. 

Wlierp.ver an old dime, o^ apparently pure silica sand, is seen, 
there is the Snow (VTynle, LhoU*^'ya alpcstn'sj in great thickets 
Some bushes may be masses o{ crimson hudt,, wliile tlieir iieigh- 
{lours are in full snOwy bloom. This may extend i'of miles, espe- 
cially on the soudieni fringe. A ciirious. Jai.6-f)owcriiJg (orin oi 
Lhi5, with leaves almost rouiid and very close, may he cht: South 
Australian varictj'. hlifolia. It was discovetfrfi ia^t year and ivesli 
specimens nre expected for exanifiuHon in Novanhcr. 

In another part of the souihern edge, a Calvirix, apf^arently a 
'dwnirfcd torai of C". telra^mia-, perhaps niue inches high, h 
dominant among other dwarfs. Not far away, the pre\^ilingr 
featin'e i$ rhe lovely ^olde.n -stars of the PhtbitUum .slfoiOphylhan, 
A litUe farther wtst, Horoma cocruksiums, Jiluish Koroma, mingle? 
-with Zicria verontcpa. This seems to be the only place tvhcrc bolli 
arc abunrlant. 

A CalyiTJx resembling a miniature Lombardy Poplar in fnmi 
lias been the subject of much ^pecu'atiOTi. It i* not plentifnl any- 
where, and flowers could not be obtained, although one chj5ter of 
old fruits proved the genus. W-e were inclined to the view that 
the unusual groxvth was due to par^isites. Last \ear, however* 
flowers were obiaine<'J> v^ry late in the sea.son, and {» iranspii"e(1 
th;3t fhf* satiic thing or .something very similar, had been xecoi^- 
n)7.ed iu New South Wales for 100 years as a distinct species. 
Which is right? 

On a artiall salt lakf. in The snnth-east, Melaleuca haUnaturovmn, 
Kangaroo Paper-bark, reflected in the srill water. leaves an itidpfihle 
memory. MHokuta ni^gkcla is frequently seen about salt marshes. 
M. fftbbosa Ukc& tlic river banks. M. (^nbcscirijs is a fine tree in fhe 
red loam oi the fringe and on the river. M, oaimi:utfa* form«i 
thiclcels at rare interviils. M. Wils.oni prefers the red rises. There 
is another, v^^^y dwarf, usually in clay-pans, closely related lo 
M. JialrmturQntmihti^ M- m-frlc'cUj; bur fiuiiinji only on the oldest 
w»»ud, on the.gfround. Flo-»vers have not be^n obtained- Spe<:im;^nS 
in a *'soak."^ better grown, indicate a possibiliLy of mere variation 
on account <iE conditions. 

Hilibcrtiar, aie ev<:r)-whcrc. /f. siriCia and H. scrirea exhiliiL 
the ex-tr^^mes of reductitin »►{ leaf. Oltcii the latter is \'ery bvi?ht and 
fve-sli green, and in exceedingly dr}' places. Bolh //. fasctcftlafo 
aiid //■ virgata have the samn nbun/bnce o^ (lowers as else^vhere. 
nften forming" undershrnb.<5 for Lhotzk\u. 

Acaaas favour the frir^. A. ra/amifolirh, unaciM:)untably over- 
looked l.iy D'Alton, is tuagniriccnt riglit ihrouc^h the spring, espe- 
rially on a r^.<] sandstone ridge that nine <nlong the southern 
boundary. A recording of A. ffrm^^sma. based on a vspecimen 

f^^i^;] SwARv. ThP Link' Dmrt 7J 

exhibited sit one of the Wild Nnttire Shows is somewhat doubtriil. 
It was credited to Mr. M. Smith, and a specimen was furvvardcd 
to him for conftrmalioii. He believes u was liis; but has never 
fouiiri another plant. 

Of Hpacridaceae, 14 ?.i)ccics are abuiKlant. Leucopogmi inrgatiu 
and L. costahis mingle in a snowy flat on tlie west oi the rouiid 
plain and another to the south. /.. irricoidca is fond of ckunpt; of 
Red -Stringy Bark. Very early iri the spring, the countless tiny 
pink buds present a charnimg inctnre. 

D'Alton notices the tmusual colourijig: ot Exocarpns spovico. It 
is coppcr-browu, and the plants are always very shapely. » Good 
spccim^^nK scattered among the Broom Honey-myrtle always evoke 
a.f Inn ration. E. cupres'^ifnnms keeps do>^ to the river or on tht 
frtrige. One large thickef of li. aphylla- is also very close, to the 
river. Lcptomcna- aphylla, with heavy crops oi pale-green, intensely 
sour dru]ies in spring is rather rare in the desen ; but mure frccjnent 
in the heavier soil among the Bulokes-. 

Most of these can be seen in full beauty in chc last week in 

The followitig plants, not recorded by D'AUon, arc awaiting 
further otudy: — 

A Casitarmh aissociated with C. distyla -ai^d C, MnolUri; )nit 
apparently distinct. 

Confirmation of Acada pravisjutna. 

Broad-leaved forrn of Lhoi^kya. 

Dwarf Mctokiica of cby-pans. 

rterostylis, like pcthujfossa, flowering in early October; b«l 
never obtained in maturity. 

Morganki, a[>parentiy between M . florihundn and M. ylahra. 

Ptmttlca — related to the spalhuiaia type; bnt not definitely deter- 

Aca-cia ineJano.%'ylon or mpiGxa-. 

Catytrir, rLarrow, ercCt form. 

I'he following species are definitely added to D'AUon's ii&l: — 

Liliaceae — Chayti^csciUa . 

Oi^hidciceat-'-'Theiymitra antatiiifcra. (rlossodia fuajor, Cala- 
dciiia ftlofnc'fUosa^ Pt^rostylis cyrnocephala-- 

Cat.-.ttarinaccae — Cd^tuirina Mudicri, C, pn.nlln, 

PruKraCeac — Hakea llerVilis. 

Saniataceuc — ExOcarpus cnprcssiformis, E, aphylijs, L&pto^ 
inerui Q.phyUn. 

Oroseraceae — Drosera pygmaca, I). oMricnkita, D. pcliatih 

Leginiiinosae — Dilhvy^na impidn — here nut Tont:h. At at h 
nn\uitca, A Hguhta, A. calaw.xfolia. 

Rutaceae — Borcnm pilosa, 

Saplndaceae— i>o</(yna*'« cuncalO^ D, byrsoriifolkU 

lihamnaceae — -CrypUmdra iomevtos^^ Spyminmx spalhiilalUm* 

72 NiCKOUb. Wr«' 5>cnci n? fyasophyUfWt H.!ir. [y|,^ 


Thymela^aceae — Phndea phylicoides, P. flava (but here, pink). 
M3M-i:aceae — Eticalyptas olcpsa, Baeckiq B^hrii, B. orJCQfa, f}. 
Epacridaceae — Astroloma conosteplnoideSj Monotoca scopana. 
Labiatae — Ajuf;o (jranf^i flora. 
Solanacea-e' — 'Solamim simile . 
Gondeniaceae — Goodenia rolmsta. 



Prasophylhm subbisectum, u.sp. 

PJanfa terrlslris fjtvcilis, hmntHs, cirdtcr 12-16 an. oltv-: foliKm 
ti'res, spka lax'o-; jlorcs- 7-14, viridts iit badi^; otjmy'a obovato. 
pedicdlf parbrevcs; sspalnm dorsole crecium^ twate'hucc'okilum, 
aciitmn, ardtcr 3 2 mm. loiguni; scrpcda-latcraUa, paralhla, lancco- 
htta, coucnz^v, iirciicr 4 imn^ hmrfa: pcfala pafontia, Ihiairiaj circUcr 
3 jvm-. Jongo-; hbdlum ciraft't' 4 tnin loncfttm, e-rerhun, nbrupii'- 
recunnnn. oviUc-cuncahun, maririmbt-is a'cnulatis,, pan' cMUom 
propr bisccfa^ canalkulata; bnsi mcida, ittarginthus nvduloHs, 
piirpurH.^; pors inemhravutcca latiuscuUr inridis; cohiimtfs Urrinuv, 
htcmlcs hiuari-oblongcT ; antlwra purpurea: pollinm granulosa. 
cOMdicuhi pon^'a. 

A slender, rritlier diminutive iilatit al>out 12-16 cin high; leaf 
terete, sometimes in a withered conrinion ar flowering time; leaf 
himina shorter than ihe tpike. fibtula a shart distance below die 
flowers; flowers 7-14 (in iviy spramens) in ;i loose spike^ green 
with brown marHj7gf. soinetim^s more brown than green; ovtiry 
obIot(g-ov:^t€ Oti ii shoi-t, more or h^^ horizontal pedicel, a sni?tl! 
acute bract inmi^diatdy below; dorsal sepal :^ho^Lit 2 2 mm. long. 
erect. ov<*lc-lai;ceoIate» W'th a short point: lateral sepals lancoolaie. 
nboul 4 mm. ]vng. fr<:e, erecl^ sprea<hug, concave on the inner side. 
lip5 more or kss bidetUale: petals Imear, widely spread, about 
.1 mm. lon^'. a prominent k'ngididinul siripc down the centre; 
laheihim nl>out 4 n;m. lon^, ovate-our.catc, on a short claw, very 
wide at base, rt^curved at a right angle about the mirJdic: mcm- 
hianous part narrow., greenisli. m/Ligins crennlalc; cations part 
hardly raised, reachini^ to within a shore distance of tip. dcejJiy and 
widely divided at base by a greeti channel, visad only ai the ba^se. 
channel ajipreciably narrowing upward to a fine point: margins of 
callous part undiUate. purphsh: lateral appcndagres ot column 
broadly lipear, with a short broad d<2presS'Sd i)asal lobe; ro<(«lliim 
omargiiiate, anther purplish, pollen masses granular, caudila short. 
Flowering m October. November. Habftat: Pomonal, South- 
West Victoria- 

Auff. 1 
1936. J 

\iCHOLLS. S'etv Sffirnes of P rasa phyll urn R.Br, 


P?'asophylh(>tt stibhiscctinn ii.sp. 
A, A typical specimen. B. Flower from side. C. Flower from front. 
D. Labellum. E. Variation at tip. F. Rostellum. G. Column from side. 
H, Pollinia. 

74 TAnf;ELi., Songbirds and Palms [vq^; lui. 

This new and interesting addition to the genus was discovered 
at Pomonal by Miss L. Banlield. of Ararat, during October and 
November. 1932. The material was carefully examined and jnit 
aside for further and mature consideration, because other species 
somewhat similar were at that time under examination * 

Pr. subhisscctufn bears a closer resemblance to Fr. fusatui li.lir. 
than to other described forms, but is well separated by its more 
slender and lowly habit, an entirely different labellum, possessing 
a callous plate hardly raised above the membranous part, and 
almost cmnplcfdy divided into two separate portions, a character 
suggesting the specific name. 

*Three species of the genus J^rasal^hyilnm R.Br, in Proc. Roy. Soc. nj 
Victoria, xlvi, 193.1 

By A. J. Tadceli. 

Opposite by bedroom window, in a suburban garden, grow three palms. 
The one in fruit, about U feet higb» is Chamacrops cxcelsa, tbc Hemp Palm 
of China, one of the hardiest and most desirable, though its specific name is 
misleading. In its native country the hairy covering is Used to bind plaster 
and its leaves provide lasting cordage. It is so easily grown that I usually 
have at least a dozen young plants as I cannot throw the seed to waste. 
Two others grow nearby, Thread Palms of California, known as Wiuhinij- 
iotiia fiiijera or Brahea filamcntosa. of 18 and 25 feet high, but which will 
not flower. This hardy palm will grow to 50 feet, but its spines make its 
decaying branches unpleasant when being removed, especially if one is 
using a saw and ladder while holding on at a height. Each branch is very 

This year 1 have been favoured more than usual in the abundance of 
fruit the Hemp Palm has borne and this has given me constant attendance 
of Song Thrushes and Blackbirds from morning to nij^hl. 1 find the Black- 
bird — especially the n)ale — aggressive to other birds, although unfriendly 
at my approach. While the pretty mottled Thrushes are ready to give 
way to the Blackbird, they are not so easily alarmed at human approach, 
and their large bright eyes seem to ask, "Is it peace, Jehu?" 

Yesterday, noticing the larger Thrush on my fence, T was anxious that 
he should have a fair share of the fruit, so I went towards the palm and 
placed my hand near the berries to indicate he was welcome, Unfortunately, 
his mate was little more than a band's length away among the fruit and (jff 
she flew to her consort. 

The practice of the birds generally is to swallow the fruit whole; at 
other times \ find the purple grape-like skin lying luieaten, as it is apparently 
the sweet pulp they seek, but which is so hard. I find, to detach from the 
stone. Hence sometimes 1 fiiid fruity seed either voided or otherwise 
cast aside. No effort is made by the birds to crush the stone ; indeed, l 
find a flat pair of tweezers insu/Ticient to crack it, although a pair ot pincers 
will easily break it into fragments. When the whole seed, which is larger 
than a field pea and renate-shaped, is placed in a glowing wood fire, no 
gas is given out, and its shape remains the same, ft also glows and fmRlly 
turns black without disintegrating. 

The fruit has a nice blue "bloom^' and the raceme remmds one of an 
immature bunch of black Hamburgh grapes. It is j in. by i in. size and is 
sweet to the taste. They are beautifully set on a straw-coloured raceme and 
held by a large spathe. 

ImptllCd t» curiosity at t}»c attcittion the hards gave my Hcmv Palm, 1 
noticed for the fir^t time the beauty of the rdcemcs. Th^rre wer* itx oi 
these flower-clustcTS evenly dislribtit^d utidcr tlic leaves mar the iot> of 
the pal»-n. I stnick by ilit parjile crape-lllcc fruit, and as it had strcactcd 
mc, I did not woniler it should aKu aUract my t>ird frimiis. Th^rc *;» 
-quantity ai>d weight of fniit home by the palm at this iuicrcsiuijs stage. I 
resolved to di&co\*er the wcighc. 

Retnovinf a uccine or Irancli and regarding it as an -average one. ( 
rcniovod the hefries and found the branch, without seeds, we'shd 30 ountcs. 
There were 2.133 Jierries* and as 290 weighed 8 Ooiice'i, I <.omiikyed lite felx 
branches with fruit weighed in all 23 pounds. Surety a weight \o h« 
^UppoHCd- Thus Nature abundantly j;uppUed life to per(ietuatc the plant's 
kind, and furnished a large proviiioii of iood for her bird 1-i.mily. 

Visitors ta the Hawkesbury River ;tod Nfiwpoft. near Sjflney, will 
renioniber itieir pl^Asure at tindtog [lalms growing everywhere in iKe tush. 
T ^v3f' reminded of my visit to Cabbage Tree, near Cape Conran, and 
Mario m Victoria l>eyMiri die Gi|ip2land Lnkes, where oui only palms 
naliv^ 1o Victoria — the Livhtovia or C^nyphu — j^row in aii arcti of ^ojYie 
three s<|uare miles. What a delight J experienced when looking at giant palms 
some 70 ieet in height and watr-hing the (cathery to|)s vviivnvg on the ^kyhtic 
atiKiiifist the EuC£i1>iitus toliage of Ihc surrounding foi'L-M. T)iefC latter 
palms arc re(?uted (o liftvc hcofi bronglit ironi au adjoining Stair: hy aboriginals 
jn$t a? they are said to have brought the pines, CaltUns calctivaf-a, which 
arc fovnid at Ml. Boeoog ni the Kicwa River vijlley. 

Bird life wouM bt resir'fed ngain to our tiushlands and sanctiiarn^ H 
liafdy i>aliik^ <uch at the Hemp Palm were freely planfcd, and it is >U4t 
possible that Green Findies — which I also suspeel of usinu lh'> 3ht»nufl»U 
Iood supply— would (htivc i^nd increase 9i do the Blackbirds and Tiiruslics. 

The aDove article by Mr. Tadgdl reminds mc thai there is another alTmify 
between iialntft and exotic birds. The Phtvmx Cfl'mWi'n.n> palm v- a tavounlc 
roosting place for the c-nmtnon Hrowrt Sparrov.' and the Startling Notable 
cxamtJle-S oi !hj3 ;irt f Cii^iArmsis palms oinFidc t>ic Afetvopfihtan Board 
of Worttfi. Street, at the Fitzroy Gardens, and a very laigc Npecinien 
overlooking Middle Brighton railwa,v station. In ah these cases the chtryini*' 
of ibeir "boarders" at -^nndown c\h he hejifd inany yards awav- 

The interesting point is that our native hird^ <lo not usUTiUy select palm> 
as a rooRi. The explanation ay/pears to l>e that European htrds seem to 
haM; an imhnci which le-ids Ih'S'n to ielr.<t roosting places that are \}c^i 
readily accessible to cats -]*nd ofh*T predatory- nocturnal maTmnala. par- 
lic'jlarly a? they also favDur uuch trees a^ HoIIilis, HawOiDrtu, BoxUiorn 
and other* svhicli are ohvionsiy hare oi* uiKon^foTtahlc for cats to cllmlK 
Whtlc lining sucli tree* and palnis as roosts, llKy do nol appear to favcmi 
them as nesting places. 

. C.N H. 

A con^iderahle ar<a embracing both sides u( the Canberra H»u>iway »• 
Kowal. near Iht New South VVoIc.*; bordeT, has been proclaimed a Flora 
and Fanna Reserve- The area contains some typical ca>tcm vejtfclatioti 
and ralivc shrubs indigenous to the same area have been iilatitod tn suitable 
placci by Mr. and Mr^. Thorn, cou«nry members whu fe6><lc in the district 
and will act iS fa»igers, At (heir re<ii»e5l the Club was ahic to obtain this 
rcsorvat^nn tjiroufili the Advisory Councl of Flora and Faiiiia. Other ^-int- 
aIjI* siicJ^ nti^ht lie siiwilariy reserved if our country member? advised the 

Irt tTt« m^nWtf of fht larc Mr M I Howie in the June 5ssuc, M>. H0Wk*8 
QirUtian name should read Malcolm mstead of Michael. 


Perhaps undci 1hc- inducement of a glorious day, ftiteen mcmtcrs ami 
friends attended tlie excumon to Broadmeadows on Saturday, Juuc 20. 
With s\\ mitci tci Uc covfcred oa Toot, a suri wai fnadc for s poinr on the 
easi^rly IribuUry of J^e left branch of ibc Moonee Ponds Creek, riiJt 
jabov*: the jimrtion. Her'= ihe ^crcamK have cut fairly sr-iep-iiided val)f!yif 
tbrcugU liie n^nA-er basaltic lava sheet and the wndt^rlyiiie terliary g^irs 
and qu3ri2Jt€s. exposing ni places the older, probaljly S*lurisii. .=icdlmcntary 
rock^ The la^cr. ihouj^li locilly imfossilit'crous. show •iij'at%rAphicaE and 
litltoloccical cluratltrs ii\ common with the proved Silurian roclcs of Keilor, 
ftve nnUa to the south -west, and, by analogy, are regarded as oF similar afiX- 

A recent deposit oii frcrh-waicr htneMonc occurs in ih« bed of the nibutan' 
a> chin enrrustauoi'rs on basalt boulders, ce/ncnting togctbcr I>oulderF. ot 
diffetx-nL nxlcs ju vl^<^C"Si and as irr'ri5uUr sheets on the older tandstoncs 
and mudsvcmes. it has been analysed and proved to ttc a niagnC5tan lime- 
aMrnie, in part doloirtitic. <oni-»ining; dis^=ieinina1ed quaru grit, and encloses 
"ilJ places jresh-waTcr sJkIIj of the genera P-ojiuttopyri^'n-s and Coxiclh^ hcth 
of wbico arc still iound living in tiic creeJr. And it ow« sta origin to the 
chcmics.1 prt^ipitalion. from the cfcclc wawr, cA i-aUs carried into ii in 
juUttion by suriace water-. pei'col?itnig through tlic basAliic rooks. A brief 
.$<;in!li v;a^ ma'de for fossil shtlls, and ncmc discovered, tbamfh in the creek 
ih<; living rcprcscniaiivcs wtirc f>iriM:uIar)y cointiioii 

After clin^bing out of the valiey of The (nbutary. the valley Ot llie left 
bfanch ot" thf Moc-nee Pondy Cr<:ck was crossed, and a^ain encountered 
nearer to tlic f'Xit of Wiiunt Gellibrand. Here a fauh iti the oMer sedi- 
m-ntar.y ;cr(cs was pointed out. and the do-^nwarping of tIk Ocd$ <i\\ tfio 
upcast 'r.ide of tlic lauli noted. Afttc which the creek was fnilnwr.d for a 
5ht>rt di-ttaiice and -^ Itah called 9t an intercsiine patch oi kaolin itiU nearer 
to Mount Gellibrar-d- The IcaoHn occurs in s*socjation with anguiar gu.^rtx 
gr;iins and some while mica, and repiesento llie palchy alteration o-i the 
Mount Gcllibrvn.d ^dsmcUite "/ -w'^'c the materia! being iinsi^rlci !>>• 
tiicchanic.^l iiimc-splieric agencies. Similar alteration has taken ijlacc alonii 
the thcrinsl fissures in the srranite of Carlsbad, in Bohemia, \vnerc Ihe 
present existence of ihcnnal springs indicates the oi>eration of isost-valcanic 
procc^^e.s^ and \\ y-> to an early stage, known a? pncutnatolysis, of Sucti 
iirocc:i5cs that the kaalinizatioii uf the Carlsbad ftfanile lias been a?<nb«d.' 
Though \W BroadmeadOiVs depc^ic doe? not '.<titm lo sho*A- a great deal 
of PvidcnC'C in '■■uriporf ni alteraition of this character. Ibe sani*: prc<e5S 
has been invoked to explain the kaohnliation of the .i^r.'iiiUe 0* J3iilla, about 
bvc niihf fo the norih-we$t, And It secfl^ vaott likely ihai the aJtcratioii 
bt :'AcIi Lasc waji dne to an allied proces^.2 

Tbtt quarry on Mourn Gelhbrand was not reached until lace in <bc af<er- 
noou. and, gnfortiinatcty, roo laic for us to enioy the rrxther f^ne panorama 
from *l>e summit of the Mount. For. although the Mount is on)y about 
50(1 icet above sea-l<ivel, the surrounding country is rather flat atid afford? 
a fine view of tho more dist:ir.1 g-eAgraphical features. The ^rtaunt li a 
nearly circular outcrop of a granilt: rock del-smnned Dy Dr. F. L. Stillwill^ 
Id a paper from which ilie bnik oi iU\h report h,^s l:»e*n compiled. *o ha 
idamclh'.e. ki\4 who states that, thoTigh granitic dykes «xcur in the rity 
iUtlf, the adanie)|itc js the ncarat outcropping" g-raoittc massif to Melbuurnc. 

A. C FpxȣTtck. 

1. Grundriige ^e? CpifWJfr^^'mrfp, }Vii}t4cItrtilr» T^a»i>. /o/wnTMCTf. iSQi, 
. p 150. 

2. R. W ArmiUBfc, t/k, Nat., Vol. jcxviit, JuW. 1911. 

3. Dr. F L. Stillwclh frp^. He^L Sot, Vk., Vol. xxiv ^N.S.). PU 1, 
19J3. pp. 156-178. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol LIIL— No. 5 September 5, 1936 No. 633 


TJit ofdinarv rtumchly meeting of the Club was held at the Roval 
Society'^ Hal) on Monday, Au^st 10, 1936. The President, Mr. 
5. R. Mitchell, presided, and about 100 mcniberK and friends 


The subject far die evening was an illustrated lecttire on 
''^Grasses," by Mr. P F. Morrii-, of the National Herbarium. Mr. 
Morn's .stressed the part that grasses play in Australian conimerual 
life, and also dealt with thcni from a scieniific and general aspect. 
Many Ijttlc-known facts and figures were mentioned. The lecture 
was illustrated by a fine scries of lantern slides and coloured iJliiS- 
trations were shown, ;tKso outline sketches of the grasses of Au5- 
traJi& [drawn by the lecturer). 


Reservation at KoM-'at. — Mr. G. N. Hyam reporied chat, through 
the Club's efforts, a nature vesvrve had been proclaimed at Ko^vat. 
.and that two Club manbcrs, Mr. and Mrs- Thoni, had been 
a])pointed Rangers. 

National Monunicnts.— The Fre?idenc announced the mecnng" 
at the Herbarium Hall on Aug\i5t 12. He .seated thai dclcgatf.> 
froJti more than iO interested bodies would attend. 

Shooting of Bustards or Wild Turkeys, — ^TI'ic Secretary stated 
that the Advisory Council for Flora and Fauna had moved in tlus 
niattei', and that ihe Comnnltee had decided to vvulihold any 
action pending advice trom the Council. 

Sale of King Orchids. — Mr G. K. Hyam satd that this Stare 
had no authority to deal with thi.s matter, as the pl^vnts came from 
private property in New South Wales. 

Mr Lancaster's Shells. — TYn.* President reported that the Corn- 
nnttec had decided to take no action. 

Mt. Arapiles Celebraiioiie- — A'lr, A. S. Kenyon reported ihat 
4,000 peoi)!e attended the cc'chrations. It wat; prQpo:^ed to fence 
\n the park- Mr. I-L Snnth. of Horsham, the Club Delegate, had 
given ^ome esceilent advice relating to the planting of tree?^ etc,, 
wdvicc which the Trust had decided to follow. 


Report.-, of Excursions were g-iven as follow : — National Museum, 
Marsupial'., Mi. F. S. Colliver for Mr. J. A Kershaw, Zoology 
Scbool. University. Mr. F. S- Colliver for Profes5.or Agar; Lily- 
dale. Palaeontology. Mr. F. Ch.apman. 

On a show 6f hands the following were duly elected: Mr. A. S- 
Fl&nming; Mr. M. R S- SharlaiKi and Mi, P, E. O'Grady. 

The President anounced tliat thiee books had been presented to 
the Club by Mr. H. C. E- Stewart, and on the Club's behalf thanked 
him (or his gift. 

Wild Nature Show. — The Sub^Committee's work was outlined 
by Mr. I'lyain. who asked that all memljsrs who could assist 
should notify the Hon. A.ssistant Secretary, Mr. L, W. Cooper. 


Miss Thorntnn-Sniitli mentioned an albino blackbird; and 
Mr. W^ H. Ingram stated that one could be seen m the Botanic 

Mr. F. S. Colliver, with the aid of the epidiascope, gave a note 
on the Australiam Dinosaur Rhoerosoi4rus bronriej^ further remain^ 
of wliich had recently Itecn found in Queensland. The animal w:i.=. 
)x>ssib[y 50 feet hong and was a swamp-dwelitir of Jurassic times. 

The meeting then adjourned for tlie Conversa/.ione 


Miss Jean Gatbraith.— /ffo/zia dccum^ns (specimens from old 
and young trees) ; natural hybrid: A. Bailcyaiw, A (kalhaia, A. 
lougissinuj; A. fmlmioxylon and A. pycvcl^nilm. 

Misses L and M. Knox. — Pinna sp.. from San Renio; Paper 
Nautikis, from Flinders. 

Mn C. French.— Two rare plants^ Tnchtm'uw. hcntixOnru^- F, von 
M., '64, and Gnodcnia modesia: both collected in Central Australia 
by exhibitor, in September, 1935. 

Mr. A. S. Clialk. — Limestone from Cave H)tl Quarry showing, 
infer alia, coral and shells. 

National Herbariimi on behalf of Mr. Robbins, Orhost. — rCew 
Plant Record for Vict<>Ha: Korthahi^lla articuUilo l^lack (Syn. 
!/isfum orticiilafMin Bt-nth.), "J<^iiil-6d Mistletoe/' growing 0\\ 
Eu<}ema Smiihii. 

Mr. Jvo Hammet. — Acacia longijoUa, A. jumparind. A. arvwfo., 
A^ proevi-ssima, A. hoijuiui, Gfcvillea pnmcoa, G. olcoideSj var. 
iHmorpha, G. alpcslris, G. aipiuit-, G dalJachiova, (7, ihalmanniamo^ 
and other plants. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver. — Fossils and matrix from Royal Park. 
Cadcll's Punt, at Morgan, S.A. ; Forsyth's, Grauge Burn ; 
McDonuld*s-, Muddy Creek. Also Magnesium Lmicstonc with 
fre.shwater shells from Broadmeadows. 

Mr. A. Underwood. — Euphorbia. 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. litt September, 1936 

Plate Vm 

Photo by C. liartett. 

Arboreal Trapdoor Spider's nest, with lid closed 

^^^^''\ BaHNRTI, Siray Noivi -;h Spiders 7^ 

By Charles BA«RF.Tr 

Interest in sp?rJcrs ))as become so ^pntirnl in the: past, few year* 
lh;t( a popular hook on thest^ "jieglecled" {ornis of hit was sui^ 
'jf n w^lcomf^. in Spider Wonders of Anshalh, Mr, Ke>th C 
McKeown^ oT the Australian Museum, has provttjed j boolc that 
was needed. He (Icals wuh all \\\z famjlu^r spe':ie?^. and others- 
rare or htfle l<nown. He is a gnidp to what jmist lie ;i ni:w world 
to the in-ajoviiy of his j'^ftdevs. 

Ouf Club jUfis^ claim the disrincUon of having pnhlisHcd >ii the 
Naturallsi (Vol. xlix. No 1 2, A|}rjl. 1933) tlie first popnlar 
account of spider life in Victoria. Mr. L. S, G Ruil**!, aiiUwc 
uf thi^ JirLiclu. a minor luunograph for llic laynian, has done more 
ro pnpidatize fhe spider in Victoria than any other worker in d 
field btill almost untilkd bc-yond the corners, He I'.as prnmiNecJ 
for our journal another paper dealing with the si^U and r^pin- 
ning work of spiders found around Melhom^ne. 

Trapdoor spiders with arhorenl hahits have btrcn discovered; 
one spccicii m the Bclj^ian Cungo-. anoihcr in AiistraJia. The 
former has y<:t to hi-- de^crihtMl, a:ii"; 0\ the InUer w*: Jxave »o know- 
I'idge, beyond that to ')e gained from a >'tndy of its dwellings. 
In rhc Macpherson Rang<^5. souilieru Qiieciislajid, some years ago. 
Mr. SkJ. W. Jackson iound a few ncstii ot a trapdoor s]ndti' ow 
Ihe iTontc of s roit^eb-harkp.d (tee. He^ coDer.ted some specimens; 
one is in the possesion o'^ Mr. J R. Kanisay^ of Sydney; the 
others arc preserved at Ok .Au^tia'ian Museum. Thou^di th<? 
makers of ihti<? bcauli fully caniouilagcd nctjt> wicxt alto coUceled^ 
J helieve. no trace ai them rewarded my inquiries. Hor the 
present th^n. this rmiarkuhle form musf remain "arionymons", 
but- ir rfi worth whil^ to t*fic:otd the fact Lh&t AM=.traIia does 
possess a truly arboreal Irapdooi apidcr. 

The two photograph? here reproduced doahtless are the first 
of a tree t.iapdoor ?^pider's dwelling to he pubhshed. ]:.\^n 
when the field \^ narrowed (o six inches hy four inchta it is 
difficuk to distinguish th^ i>est. and locale die closed door. 0« 
la large tree Lrunk, tunccahneiii io uonipleti-. Only l)y rlian-.-.e i^ 
dUco'-ei"}' Hkcly whde the irapdoor rcinains eloHcd. Thii- surely 
is one of the mo.^t jierfoct e:v;nnplc-s of oamnuflage in nature. 

On Tamhouvirie Mountain. Queensland, now a popular re&orl 
of Brisbane folk, and losmg nnirh of its wddn^c^s the late l>r, 
R H\ PuHcinc, in ]912, bcarclicd lor Terrutllarians. He found 
thar ei'iphvtic ferni.. huj^v hulks whose accumulated weiglit at laVt 
brings ihem. perhaps with the broken branch, to (he gi otmd, form a 
suitable ni<:hi-> (or ^<?me Teniifllariae. But epiphyUc orchid.s and 
ferns uu the trunks of giant ircei [AraHcana ainnimjluuni) 'Vvre 
searched in vain ior <Any arboreal iornis of trapdoor spider.'' In 

Vol] LVIt. 

August this year 1 also went spider hunting on TajnlxMJrinc 
Moitiuain. and lliough ilic burrows of iwo or three species were 
niiincruus eiu?u,^h along the lauJ^s of an <Ati disused road ^Lnd 
elsewhere., no arboreal trapdoor spider's dwcUing was distovered- 

In a DrifbaiKj garden, five cgg-ba^* of the M:igni*icent S]?idei 
(IJkrostichHS tnngnifictis) were found siispt'udcd from a Bougain- 
viJJea sleni. and cnilx^were<l in beauty : 4he niative-coloured 
bract's of (lie crct:j>ci (raiucd ihobc! shaj>c!y white cocoons. 
funned hy the "Queen of Spinners." unseen in her o\v^\ htMe 
room above the pendaiit nursrri::;?. I hrmj|i^Iit flown to 
Melbourne : the mot^ler frmf/fjlftcus aud her unljorn pTOjireny. 
Tlieire were severa! hundred t^i*s in each cocoon (ih^ actual 
nursery h a much smaller cocoon, pendant centrally in the outer 
envelope), and llicy hatcli<?d at the end of August. Many of the 
spidcrlin^"s ;Lrc stilt nlivc, ^nd presently .will lie liberated m ti}y 
glas^^house. 1 iKtpe ro ar.diro-itixp lUc. MagniJk<:nt Spider iu 

Around Brisbane the Wa.ffnificent Spidcir is becoming scarce. 
Among its enemies, ihc' White-t'-ye {/.osii'.rops') has been ob^<^rved 
in ib-c ;kL of lakinc; iHogmfiiUA, and pcrbaps is chiefly responsible 
for the noticeable decrease in its numbers. Mr. Longman, 
Dircccor of tFi^ Qu<^pnsl;*n<l Musfiuirt, advances this view. He ii 
ilie ;iuthonty on the Fife-hislory and h^biis of ib<i "Queen of 

Tluit the Rcrf-backtid or JfK'key Spider, cafled Katipo in New 
/.^land, is a con>nion species around MeJboinn^ is indicated by 
ilic numhci* of specimens that arc forwarded for idcntificaiion. 
Often several, from different localities, are received in one week. 
L'.toally the specimens of J^nrriJilcctux /i^f p.t//jj arc alive and come 
iliroui^h the post in maT,ch-boxe& or tobacco tins. OocaS)0]ully 
the sender tli<'Ught fully write& a wannng on the inner wrapper: 
"Live Spider, Open willi Qvrc." But as often ^s not there is no 
indication of what the 1:m>x or tin contains. A fively and aggiessive 
^.peuirien of ibe dc-adly Funnel-web Spider (Atni-A- robnslus) was 
Sent ^o ni^ frrmi Sydniiv b_v a tnedical man who. of course, did 
not forget to warn uje — m large block letters on the lid" "Oi>en 
with great care: Ii'a ^fra-w^' 

In my own backyard ui ElsLernwick Redl>ncU Spiders occui. 
One had her wcb-ijlicli:er between two -small rough S-tones ar tlie- 
efig^ (if a p")ck ^^tirden pond; another was found among broken 
iiower pots piled in a coiner. 

Mr. Lee Passmore. of San Diego, Cahfornia. an authoiity On 
rrapdoor spiders of North Ameirica, and the famous Black Widow 
{La-aodci'fi4S vuiLkJns} js interested in our jo^kcv Spider In a 
letter be n-imarks: ''I b.-jy^ read of several persons who i>ave beeit 
biltftn by die iilark Widow, but. none of the hires proved 
No doubt your Katipo is closely related t<j <his species." 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol, Liii September, 1936 

Plate IX 

I'huto !>!/ C. HtirrrfK 

Arboreal Trapdoor Spider's nest, with hinged lid held open 

By G. N JJvAM 

During recent ycar^i most civilized couiurics lujve b^cn invcstigot- 
•'"to- J'xesprving and gffneralty [^rOla:l!ng titeir rtVKs o( the ptist, 
whelh*r of human or natural ovigiti. Like we in Auslralia^ tlicy 
liad fouiicl tliat prntectivf^ lei^^ibluf.iori in rclatron to the faunpi ancJ 
flora of their respective countries had i)revt'nLi;'J, or r»l le^ifit 
i.l€ferre<:l. the fxtiriciion o£ rare t^pecie^. and had cTCited an inLer*^st 
in liviijg- things ainungst ciLiicnis wliu otherwise would not have 
recoffnized their y.-i1ii.^, (hus rccdizini,' that <^inul:tr protection could 
be exiended lo nianimate objects. <l)!i the other huTid. it i-i evident 
thai protective le.giilalion. as it at present exists in Aiistr^iha. :ii 
not entirely adequate. 

Nearl^r every day we read and receive protests at^uinst destruc- 
tion of avenues of trees, the quarrying of interesting rock form;i- 
trons, the destrnaion ot hist<>rir?jl hnilding.s, or the spohation of 
beaiiLy- spots wiricli are entti^ly unprotected. The present wild 
Hawer and forest protective Acts, for instance, provide for the pnj- 
teccion of certain spt'cies or areas, but thL-y do not ^iegnard indi- 
vidual specimev.s or gionps oi .Npecinien^i whirh may l>e nf scientific 
rntenisl or austheiic beauty, wink geological aiid lii?inrical niunu- 
meuts are in no w-iy providwt for. These Acts also fail to provide 
protection for, or provide for TCNumpiion of, ohJLcK that nray he 
on private property, however valnaWe they may he as natiifu! 
monnmeats ui scienlUic. historical or ae-llxetic intcn^st. In oth^*!^ 
wurdb, there ih nodiing to prevent a private Owntr rtniC'Ving ?nd 
tjestroying-an mhoue tiee, i<.jci< fomiation, lii^toric ?>ui]din^ or other 
object, however vahwbic to the community it may be. At present 
thcrt is lio provi.sion made For a statutory hody to whom a public- 
!spi riled private owner may dcdicattj such objecti for the purpose o( 
presen'in^' them for nil t;ine and which pooseiisr:^ the. means- or 
the technique neres>ary for their .'idtpiate prt^tection Ir has al?0 
f^eeti forcibly hrouglu lo our notice in recent momlis, lliai powers 
possessed by public bodies and departments arc siicfi tliat they 
can desf'ri';y objects wliich cOuId he ttiily described as liat:oml 
monnmeuls and against ^udi destruction the, public iti general have 
no appeal. '1 hese disabilities seem to have occuiTcd in other 
countries and resulted in the passing of legislation for ifie piotec- 
lion of national monuments. 

The United States of America were probiibty the pioneers of 
national monuments- protecliun ;iTnmi!j Eii^ltsh-spc^tking coimtrics. 

Ill the United Kingdom a ^.ta^Jtory hody has been creatK] 
entitled the "Naiionrd Trusit for the Preservation of Ilfstoric Bnil-i- 
iiigs and Scenic Beauty," whose function is to select historic bnil<:l- 
uigs and scenic areas which si)n\4ld be preserved as well a^ areas 
that 3Lre known to fje the liabitats ol rare fauna a-nd florae etc. 

82 KvA^, NtiUofwi MonrnncfiiJt Lvd!i*m 

Japan had provi.sian fd' protection lo»ig btfore (\\6i "Westerni- 
sation." and lUefr |>rt?s€nt Acr ts- a model of snnplidty. cnvcring 
suqH ohjecu .is hiv^ividnal trees, haliitaU 91 Irnds anri oven msects. 
exlrunc range limits of certain of iKcir flora, trails tiixI vie^' 
points ill srenic art?as, and the 1il<c. 

The Cc»nnnilt<:r of ibis CUib ?!35 irequently \m\ insiantrcs nl 
vanddlsm. conscious -cik} iincon.-cions. brought lo it«i rtoiice. 
generally after «hc damage wa.i done, and conscquontly decided to 
n)ake strenuous endeavours to find a means of checking thi& wast- 
age of national assets. Tu this end, a conference ot representatives 
of fairly -chcee Ql" (iw kading or^nniz?)<ions in Victoria met at the 
National Herbarium on August \2. The cnthusiasn^ displayed hy 
chia meeting \v?.a .sui'i)ris}nj^ and the conference resulted in the 
fovmauw of the delcgutes into h Council for the Pr??4erv?ition of 
Kiiuonal Monurncnrs with the followiix:^ as a commiuee to pre^xire 
data: Messrs. J L. Mcnxics (Town i-'iannin^ Association), 5- i^ 
Mitchell (Antin-npologtc;d Society). A. J. Sw<nby (League of 
Yonrh), A. H. Matiingley (l^.A.O.U.), Dr Sanderson (Victorian 
Hisiunral SocjelyJ, and G. N. Hy;tm (F.N.C.). 'J'hi.-5 cominiltco 
w»II collect data from all countrie.^ who ah'eady possess protective 
legislation and from thost'. reports draw np proj^osais .suitable for 
Vi'doru or possibly Australia lor the aj^proval of tlie Council and 
Afterwards for sabmisaion to the Coveiiimcnt. 

One t'Olicy we ?ire detevminecl upon is ihe provision of adciiuafc 
funds for chc protection of declared naironal monuments or 
national pai-ks as well as lor other existing protective legislation. 
The existing legislation for the declaration of national parH 
appears to be adequacy, though (he total area of sudi i>ark.? is 
disgracefully small in Victoria, bin no permanent fmarxial provi- 
iiv>n )b ni^de for tiieir r-vviiiiininance, Vtvy -^mnlt :uim:i Wave been 
g'rantei.i at infrequent intervals with the result th;jt some are actn» 
sally nnftncod. access is difilkuit and rangers are too few. Some 
are dependent on revenue derive<l from j^ra^ing leases, which J-S 
most undesirable on account of i;b* consequent desttuction of die 
flora and ultimately the fauna. 

The same siru'vaizon policy is applied lo Ihe administration of 
tht Wild Flf^wer Protection Acvb tind the Gxmie L;!^"?. snoceisivc 
ydvernmenls apparently os'erlooldng the fact rbut money judici* 
ously ^xpendc<i in these directions is m the nature of a -capital 
invi::slmenr which in years to come will pay handsome ihvidends 
not only in cash represented by the iouri.=it trade but al^o in the 
mental ^nd i^hysical heahb <uid welfare of the community. The 
conmnrlee seek? tht cu-opcr^tion of even.' jnember who can supply 
data as regards what has besn done in other countries itnd also 
■suggcitions as to objects ?tutable for prnteciion, and apart from 
this ^v^ry nieniber can assist by active propaganda m favour ot tlic 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. liii September, 1936 

Plate X 



iM« J FERrii;s, X-Koy Photfrf/t'ophs of 4n.ihafwti Amw<^}i Hi 

movenicnt. Protection oli all khicls is obviously a *lMiy of all 
naturalists, particularly field naturalisls. who should pilfer 10 SfC 
(l^ir sjiet'ini^O^ in ihfir orijjinal position rather tliaii in a inus'^iim. 


Appjirfl to the study ot mamnijils. Harris and rcp<ili2S> X-ray 
plUKOgrApiiy in both convenient ynti highly interestuiij. The 
subjects arc iinhMnned and can be kept alive for nivtli^T use. 
This, of course, is particularly impo]l:^rt in the ca>e 0* rare 

TJiL sn);ill l>onfS of soine aniiTials arc rather diftieull <0 stu<lv 
from fiissectiotis; hut may be X-rayed and the photographs 
enlarged it necessary, so that all the bones sliow plainly. Xh'S is 
most jni]>ortant in the case oi the small marsupials. 

Tbf eafjiest .subjects for X-ray study arc some of the liza-ids, as 
Ihey retnain still for rehuively lonj^ expovures and better dctniU 
may be obtained \m the /ilm A tortoise also is a good snbjcTl 
when i( can he p<'rsua<]ed to extejid its hcail from undciMCath iK 
ctirapace, otherwise if is hard properly to distinguish the boneis of 
Ihc head and neck from the **bh'?{L" whose structure shows up 
well in the film. OjxjS.sum X-r^iy pliotograpds arc interesting^ 
especially of a J^Ingiail,, sfiowlng the Ncsamoid boue.s at the joints 
in the tail 

Birds arc rather diftcreut because inuch shorter c>cpot>ure.s arc 
oece'^sHiy in order to tfVereome muvcrncut in the subject. One 
ine.thnd with bitxls is to place them in a 5|)ecial box and Avatch 
their movements on the X-i'ay .screen in a darkened room. By 
this vueaus all Ihe movements may be followed at the One time- 
ILxiXfbures for buds are as shoit as oue-tenth Hccond. A film 
ot a ^'lagpie was taken in one<]uarLer second and one of a I'Cooka- 
iMJtra in half second. Eoth subjects were pet 1)irds. 

Most mtercitin^ of all is tlie Platypus. The specimen used was 
tal<-en from 3 creel< near Klowerdale. brougiij j^ AJcIbourne by 
c^ar 5nd returned, lu it^i haunts ou the followui^ day, Thi: 
behaviour of the annrial whs good ; it seemed to bke the cold 
aluniinitim surface nf the film holder, and lemainecl still whiF<? 
successful ej<i:^05nref w;'re made. The view frotn the- aide was 
taken by piacin^^ vhe Plat\]>ns on a slightly inclined piece oE wckxI. 
When the subject wnlked inta a -iuiUible position the <^xp05»ne wajj 
made — one second. 

F. S. hERctis. 

pile pJate atcompanyin^^ this article is a notable contnhutiou 
to the Nairn aUst, which publishes the first X-ray photograph of the 
Platypus (0 be taken. Mr. Fergus deserves our cougratulations 
on the excellenl original work he is doing in making X-ray ftlnis 
of iiativc ruaminals and birds. — Editor.] 

liv Noel "Lothjan 

Tor<|uay is nolecf for its (ossjI cItfTs containing hiiincrous fosiil 
feUells, etc. but is not sci well kuuwii for its flora a^s k should be 
Tt is vi.Tv fntfif-^tinij'^ froiti .in ecologit-Al viewpoint as it ;i]iijear5 
to be th<* ''joining ii|i" iirsa ot (he "saiKia area'" of cair (oieshorc 
aaid the (orcst aieas. 

Situated thirteen miles cbie south of Gecloj^g. Torquay is on the 
coa5i iaciiig Bass Strait and therefore the sea breezes llavc an 
influence: <]n the gmwrh <if its flOT;i evci: more «n thiin they have 
on the forp.shore of Poit Phillip Bay. Dining the past fifteen 
months 1 have visued this Jocniitv about once every three months, 
and have thtit, obtaiticd a fairly good idea of its flor^. 

Tmquay was settled daring ibe «aily days of Victoria and is 
4'Xtciisivcly cleared uf innbcr. Even dnriijy ihc \h-1 thirty or 
forty years land for si^x^s thickly covered in .-^cnib and tree? has 
been transformed. I_>etng now *itlier under crop? or gracing caitJc. 
Clcari!ig U5i!ally was carried out by fireing the land. Aft^jr a fire- 
break h;ui hctin niade -and this was usually ahont two or thres miles 
from the eoa?t — a lire was 111 and allowed Lo luirn, as olieji a^ not. 
right down to ihc Hca-d)fts_ The land was then cnltivated, bwt. as 
it bcg^an to .sliow a loss, in yieltling power, it was alJowed to rr.vert »o^ 
bush, 'i'he .soil is of a Vira,sa,lvic tutiive, ovcriying limestone clifFs^ 
hut towards Pt. Addis (abciic fiv.:e miles west of Torquay) the soil 
is stiglitly more sandv in nature. 

A:? rtmariced befme. Torfjuny -ipp^ars to he the ''Joining' up** 
bectioii of ihe sands ;jn'1 forest areas. There is a decisive evidence 
(this will be more fully exi^lamtd in a later article) that 1h« lor^st 
must have <*xtended to thr^ left side of Spring Creetc. 

Typical forest ])lants, sncii as Bun/tofdia umbdiata, AngitiUaritt 
(fioica. Micrmi^.rix srapvj^-ro. Pfemstyhs nana, ete., arc all found 
growingf hi die !5crnb along the foreshore where at interval? arc 
patches of wind-blown Etaeaiyptus. Tlie salt breezes terid to retard 
growth and the height of the fore^it near Pi. Addis, which hn^ not 
heen cnr or cleared, is leiiding (o be 'Vateu'* away by this action, 
except \vhsre ft is protected m tltc valleys. In th'^. *'iaolat<»d forest"' 
area the trees grow to a uniform height. Tfie Kucalypts cou.=iist 
iii;iin]y of four species, £. leuaKxylmi is by far the commoa^jst 
species, while £. ohUqua, E. nwcr^nhyufia and E. d^ofrlwra are 
in sm;?lJ**r mtmhers, 

Ato/io is repre.S(!'tited by ftve or ii.x apraes and one variety. 
They ai*c not found mu.sicd together like the Tiucalyjit*. /}cac2a 
pycmmthn is by far the most abundant species. There ar<> -3 fe.w 
|)iants nf A veyticiUnia and also its variety ovoidea. and (hes^. 
occur in very locali/ied places. A, arvw-ta h plentiful, more 
cspeeially to the north of Tort[uay itself, whil? A. v^-rvkifixi-a is 


J LrrTHTAW. Tor/iuay: A Synt^p^h of Its flora ^ 

typically a fort^t species g^towinie^ r.ithet picntiiully aroiind the 
isoi'Uf^d forests ju.-^r HiiU Moou Bay. 

Thouiasw peUiiofdyx grows profusely in one s|KTt CMily, and in 
this area flowers have b^en collprf^ U\t nt'arly cvcrv month of tlvc 
year, the main ftuxNcnng reason being January to March. 

A cnriotis feature jf thii locaJity is its snnilanty to "thr <jiam- 
pianos in certain re5i>ect5' L^st yc^ir ixoiha aiinflaodics wai t'ounil 
iu this area, thjs plant bcfor<; bdng only racordt'.d fioin NW. and 
SW. Victoria. 

Then:: js u good showincT of Fimehas of which P. sarfiyUifofici. 
P. humUis and P. ociophylla arc the most plentiful Hiherlun 
sirkta, H. proavutbcns, and H. scncca ^v*t plciUtful in looahV.ed 
arats, ihe last-mculioiicd forming bushes from 15-lS inches in 

One oF (he ai^omali^f. of rh^ area is a small pa^ch of Caiyirix 
letrngova. This species is fnimd in one place rml) — ;i miihII. 
sheltered valley (behind H<iH Moon Bay) and is only 5-10 acres 
in area I hav<; looked for this plant along the coast lu Anglesea, 
but have failed is) fiud it. ahhou^yh there is a small )>atch of it 
ahout two miles from Torquay alosia: tlie Torquay -Geelong 
Road. Mvlahiu-ii pubasrcns i.s very onnmon and furfns a valuable 
sand hinder. The flowering i>eriod af this sjKSiie?. at Torquay h 
lengthened considerably and speciniens have been recorded for 
May. June, Septtimber. November and January 

Co-yi^trina '^iricttk and C. disiyla ahounil licre. the lormer mak- 
ing bCrtUtiCullv-shaped trees. The male lorn'^ wonld m^dce a first- 
cJass g^rdvrn slirub. but un[ortnnalely il is not i)05sibk; to tell in 
seedling^ sCa^e whirh is mali: and which lemafe. Cfirrcas arc among 
(he '^.hrubs grownnt^ in diffij-ent siinutions. being f^>und in gullies, 
grassland and on the sea sli*.tre. C nJhn throws rijrht down to ihi- 
higli-water mari; and flowers as well there ;»s it doe^ high up on the 
cliffs. C. rubra has a airions colonr k»rm which has a ptirple 
lint in the flower^; and nut the scarki flowers whie}i is the common 
foroi- Salceolaccous i^lants grow plentifully, especially at tlic 
shore oS the creek and along with other plan^ such as Zygophyl- 
him. Apimn. Hflichrysuin-, Sdlteru-^ eti\ Cithc^phahis Bron^jm h 
widely :>pread and useful to a certain extent as a sand baiidei, 
forming ronudL-d bu-^iK'S hemispherical in shape 2-3 feet through. 
Thi'; shuuld make quite a gOCxi foliuge plant Cor gurdcn.s and I ;»ni 
told that they use it in Sydney for this purpose. Another species, 
C Jfi^^cus, IS a dw;nl" plant I h;ive c.ullectcd u in one small area 
(2-3 sq. yds.) and that in one of the main streets ot Torquay, but 
have failed to find it elsewhere. 

Epacris imprcsKO, a sm;dl bush 6-12 inches hij^h and the colour 
is 'd deep i^d. 1'his forn) varies very little in the Torquay ar*^. 

A remarkable fact is the rate al which the Bidgee Widg^e 
{Acaeno wngt^is*jrha) has spread over tlie deserted land. Some 


L<ViiiiAN. Tflrquav: A Syttopsis nj Its llara 

rvic. Nav 
Lvoi. j.iii 

blocks which were cultivate<i hve lo six years ago are now dovered 
with this pest and sheep gra^:ing on th*-sc bloclVj usually have the 
lower p<)rlion^ of theiir lej^s cOvcrerl with Iiurr.s. Tw(» species of 
Xantftmrhoeo- are found at "lorquay, each in its own locality. 
A, minor produces beaiUiliil spikes up lo six feci iiigli and A'. i?Mji- 
tralis np to eight feet. Thr Sea Holly (Alyxw Intxifolw) is com- 
parauvely rare. Some very Tme specimens'o* this plant were found 
in a sheltered bpot jiibt near tlie ochr-n miiH-:. Tliese plants were 
from fonr to five h'vi high :\m] six to seven fet^t ihroug^h. 

Ihu'ienaca f/aplmo-id/'s is k -spectacular sight wlicn in flow^^r 
during September-October. A sb-ub oi six to ten feel is hteralfj 
covered with golden and brown tenninal clustered flowers, 

The following list is not nearly complete but is only to give 
an idea as to the flora of (his area, and so far fifty-one ,'renera have 
hc?-vi recorded cuiitaiiinig ;»bout one hundred and fifty species. 

Ptovisjoniil list of plants collected at and near Torquay; — 

Filic^s-^ jt AngiiilUma diocia- (K.lJr.) 

Ftcmliuin aqwlu-m^m (Kuhn) Burchordia uvihelhta (R.Br ) 
Qnimmc-m< — Trkoryne clatiov ( R . Hi*, j 

Thewr.da frmidm (Forck) CfTCsiit vAttoia (RAM'.) 

SpmiftJX hir.mtus ( 1 -abiil ) 
(n<Av S. mciinis Banks :\\k\ 

i.hsHchlis spicatd (Greene) 
Pou caesfdtoxii (G. Foist.) 
Slyoroh<7Jus ind-icn.^ (R.lir) 
Diitifhoniii xcimomiuians 

D. sciacca 

Sfipa pubescfim CR.Bi",) 

Sc(rpu-y 7}Cido.sHs (Rolth.) 
LcpidospGi'ma- conawunt 

Cahjm psittiuovum (l.abih) 
f-uju"arei'w — 

Lu:::nh c/impfr.vttis (D,C.) 
LHiaccae — 

Hiinthonhocd minor (K.Br.) 
X. /iushnlis (RBr.) 
Lomatuira ftUfor-nfU ( Bj l- 

(ern), Lnuuvudra hnui folia 


B.u/brje bidbo,s(L (Haw.) 
DuiiOpO()n7t .i tru:i jis ( J. G* 

Aworytlidiucaf^ — 

HypOMs ghihcUa (R.Br ) 
Irulaa^uc — 

Fa-tcrsoftid- ff ^iiuca ( R . Br . ) 


Thdyndhd avtcmiifrfra 

AcahithHS e.vscrtux (R.Br.) 
J. r{miffyrnm (Schkcht.) 
F.riochihis cuculltjius 

CaMcmm diUdatn (R.Ur.) 
CkiiifoHn (R.Hr.) 
Diuris pedHttcukVu- (R.Rr) 
Pfp'os/yljs nana (R.Dr.) 
F. barhaht (Livull.) 
P. tmians (RJir.) 
P. pm-cnfiora (J^Br.) 

Litwm margimh> (A. Cwnir) 

BnHmifjiii xrssiliflora (!?cne) 

Dunu'lia TaKfihiuira (dwarf ZyifophyHnrcti/t — 

torm) (Hk.f) ZygophMlmv BilJordieri 

D.. i-evohfa (R.Br.) - ( \XC,) 


Lou- H IAN, To/^Qtmt A Synop&h 0/ l!s Fhi'<t 


Rutaccac — 

Corrca alba (z^ticir.) 

C. rubra (Sm.) 

C. rubra var. mrms 
Trcmandraceae — 

Tetraiheca dliata 
Polygaloccae — 

Bredenicyera volubile (H.K.) 
Shuhhousi/iceae — 

Stackkotmn monogyna 

Cryptoiidra amara (Sm.) 
Spvridnmi parznfolhim 

S. vCitilliforHin (Reiss) 

Slcrailiaccae — 

Thomasia pctalocah^x 
La-^'iopctahmi Baumi (Slettx) 
(also white variety) 

JHllcniaccae — 

Hibhertia ccrkea (R.Bv.) 

H. sh'icta (R-Br.) 

//. procumbent (DC.) 

Violo-ceac — 

Viola hedrrazcac (Labill) 

Cas u-Q ri n ac eo £•— 
Casitarimr dutvia ( V^ent, ") 
C. stri-cta (Ait.) 

Praicaccoc — 

Per so a>iia- jimiperin-o. ( Labill ) 
Isopogon ccralophylius 

(R.Bf.) marghuiia ( Cav . ) 

Sontalaceae — - 

Exocarpiis ciipre.<M.fQnnis 

Polygotw-d'ae — 

Muchhnbcck-'ia adpn^ssa 

Chenapodia ceac — 

Atriplex chiercum (Rair) 
jL scrmboccaUiin (R.Br.) 
SaJico7'tnn australis (So!.) 
Rkagodi'a baccata (Lab.l 

ArmranUj-Ci:ac — 

Trkhmmm macroc<tph<t>ktm 

Thymdaea<:eae — ■ 

Pimelea phylicoides fMeiss) 

P. G^tophxila (R.Br.) 

P. nava ('R.Br.i 

P, Serpyhifol'ia (R.BrO 

P. hurtulis (R,Br.) 
MyrtacCQ^^ — 

Eucalyptus elaeophora 

/?, 7im^crorrhync!m (F.v.M.) 

E. obliqna (Llierit) 

E. leiico.ryfon (F.v.M.) (also 
pink variety) 

Lcpi ospernm m lacv-iyaium 
(F.v.M ) 

L . Sfrjporhtin ( R . and G. 

MflaUuca pubescetis 

Calyirix leiragon-a (Lahil]) 

Bq ec kea ranwsissiin-o (A . 
Um h edii ferae — 

Hydrocolyk laxi flora (D,C.) 

Aphtm azistrak r*rhou.) 
Epacndaceac — 

Kpa-crix mpresm (LabiU) 

Astvoloma humifusum 

Loucopngon virgatus (R.Br.) 

L. parz'l floras (Liudl.) 
Prumdacctyc — 

SamGlus re pens (Pers.) 
Gentia-VMXdife — 

EryiJwaea spkota (Pers.) 
Apocynaccae — 

Al'yxia buxtfoDh- (R Br.) 
Convohnd(icca!& — 

D-Jchondra repenx ( R. and 
G-. Forst.) 

Convolzndns cmbi^scens 
Labiatae — 

AjugO' Qiu^iralis (R.Br.) 
Solmuicoae — 

Scdmuim nigrum (L.) 

S. avkidare (G. Forst.) 


Lothian, Tcufum'^ -^ Syrwpsis oj ffs Phro 

tvoi. Lin. 

Acsoaceae {Fkoidcae) — 

M escmhriantliA^nimi a u stni la 
( Sol . ) (now Displiyma 
QMsiralc Sol.) 

Tetragoytia cxpavso (Murr.) 

T. hnplexicoma (Hki) 
Caryaphllaceo^ — 

SpcrgulcTi-a nthra (Canib. ) 
Ranuculaceac — 

Cle-niatis arisUiia (K-Br.) 
Lauracea-c — 

Ca^sytha ghbella (R.Br.) 

C melaniha (R.BrJ 
Drosera^ea^ — 

i). Mcnz'wsii ( R .E r_ ) var. 

Dr mmcuJata- (Backn.) 
D. WkiUakari (Pianch,) 
Piitospora^eae- — 

B%irsarii\ spino-sa (Cav.) 
Rosa^€a^ — 
Acamn Sa^t-gmsorha (Vahl.) 
A. mma (A. Cunn.) 
Leguminosae — 

Aracia armata (R.Br.) 
4^, vermcifhui (A. Cunn.) 
A. pycvmitha (Btli.) 
A. veriicillaia (Willdj 
A. vcrticUlata var. ovldea 

A, longifolm (VVilld.) 
Gompholohmm mmus (Sin.) 
Dan'iesia brcviiolio. (Lincll.) 
Fi^lfc-woo (iaphnoi(fcs 

P. scahra (R.Br.i var. Biloba 

P, InwpiliLs (Hth.) 
Dilkcryma endfoUa (Sm.) 
D. ffoHbnndo- (Sm.) 
D. cificntsarns (R.Br.) 
Plalvlohiu-m ohtusangnlmn 

Stmiinsoiki JcsseHifolm 

Kenn-cdya prosfrato- (R.Br.) 
O xaluiiKcac — 
Oxalis cormculaia (L.) 

Scmphtilarinc^ae. — 

Gratiolo. pericoiQnc! (L-) 
L critti bu Urrmc cac — 

U/rkulnrur dkhoioma 
MyOporoccae — 

Mvoporu-in viscosnium 

M. insulare (R.Br.) 
Rnhiaceaf- — 

Coprostna BUlardien (Hk.f) 
(now C. quadrifida Rob.) 
Cainpanul(JCCGA~ — 

Wahlinibcrgia- gracilu (D.C.) 

Lobelia gihbosa (Labill) 

Brmwim australis (Sm.) 


Good etna- ovata (Sm.) 
(/, gcnu-Hlaia (R.Br.) 
Sf^llUra rodicans (Cav.) 
Scnnfoh niicrocarpa (Cav.) 
Coviposilac — 

l^ vac It yco-me granvincii 

JS. (coilimi) pcrpusilhi 

ViUondinia triloba (D.C.) 
Olearia oxilhvh (F,v.M.) 
Onn.plwlimn japonicum 
_ (Thnnb,) 
G. pnrpureu-m (L.) 
HcHchrvsum apicuiaftiin 

H. scorpioidcs (Labi 11) 
H. cmt^rrmn (F.v.M) 
L&pif)rrhynch'Us sguamahts- 


Jxodia achiflcoidex (R.Br,) 
ColociJplhdus Bronmii 

C lac tats (Less.) 
Cohihi' foyonopifotia (L. ) 
Senecio omrim' (J. M Black) 
ErC'chHics pf€nmtikQid(^s 

Mwroscris JStapigera (Sch.- 


The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol- LIIL— No. 6 October 5, 1936 No. 634 

-^t ^-^— --^' — ■ 


The ordinary ineetmg ot the Club was held at the: Royal Society's 
HalJ on Monday, September 14, 1936. ^ilie President, Mr. S. R. 
AlitGhell, presided, and about 100 members and friends were 


An illustrated lecture on "Major Mitchell, Explorer and 
Naturaii&t,'' was given by Mr. C. Daley,, U.A.. i-m^js., and illustrated 
by the epidiascope. 

The President tcuidcred the thanks of the Club ic Mr. Daley, 
and suggested that the text of the lecture shonW be published in 
Ihe NniurnJisL Menibers showed their appreciation by aeclamatinri'- 

Mr. C. long, of the "Historical Society, spoke appreci;4tlvely of 
Mr- Dalev's work 


A warm welcome was extended liy the<ient to Mr. Neville 
Cayley. the well-known bird artist, of Sydney. Mr. Cayley, in 
reapoiidiiig, e.vpreased his surprise at the number present at tbt 


The President aimoimced that Mr. C. French had prX'sented to 
the Club a copy of A Naturalist in Cttmnhal Land, by A. S. Meek, 
;ind on the Club's behalf tlianked Mr French for the »^ift 

Narionnl Monuments. Mr. A, H. Chtsbolm shoWed pictures <if 

cL number of interesting trees in Queensland and the National Park 

near Sydney, which he considered worthy of consideration as 

National Monuments. 
Bustards or Plam Turkeys. — Mr. C. Daley reported having- 

rccoived a letter from a tourist firm stating it would do its best to 

project these birds in Northern Aui^tralia. 

From Mr. Noel Lothian thankini^ the Club for the good wishes 
extended on his transfer to New Zealand, where he will spend a 

Heports of Excursions were given as follow ;—J-^ayswater, Mr. 
T. W. Audas; Cranb6nrne, Mr L. \V. Cooper for Mr. A_ D, Hardy^ 


p. N«l- 

Mi&s Dlen Clark. National Museum, Melbourne, vwis duly 
fleeted as aa Orditiary Mcmb-rr ot rhc Clitlv 


Mr. A. H. E. Matti»i^iey mentioned (he rciMjrtcd killiilg of wTwIftji 
iiuidc the Barrier Rc^t" by Jai>a»e-se. ai^d nrgtrd that wlialcs should 
he fully protcctoj in Auslralun waters. Tt was decided thai this 
matter I>e referned to the Comraittcc for considtration. 

Mf, C. French drew attention to n newspaijrr cutting, a report 
ai police taking ch^iige uf u tnick-load of Thryptt-aneue at Stawdl. 

'I he nvectingthen adjourned [or the Conversaiione. 


Mrs. Fentmi-Wooclbnrn — ^Suuth AfHcaii Orchid (IHsa sp.); 
Flulcc ?Tia'l,s nnrl potid life, froin GoulI>uni Valley. 

Mra. J. J. Freamc. — ^>"ungu5 (Pcdsa sp.), sea-spiders, K4?w 
Guinea Shell Modlt. and rings from Octopurf sucVers. 

Mr. n J Patnn, —Plants Iron Boronivt, inciuding Euphrasia 
coilhia, Aracin diffusa, Craspndia- tmtflora (very large) » Puf- 
tenticu .ncbmnhclioto-j mid cuki'»'ated Bormtm aneitwmfaHa. 

Mr. hi. C. E. Stewart. — Pfc-ro.^iylh trnfmn (Nodding" Crccn- 
Kood) with varie;jat€<l leases, collected at lleathmont. 

M; Geo. Coghill. — Greidilea rosniarinifolio, Act%ciu inyrtffo!i(Tj 
Microtnyrtus ciliiiius^ Tecon\n fimtr^dj^, Rrinxtemov myoporqides : 
;\\\ gartlfn-grown. 

Mr. H. Dickfins. — Xanttwrrlwea atistralis, from Rosebud, 

Mr. T. S. Hart (ior Mr?. Rirch, Tahherahb^ra). — Zicria cyfi- 
saides, not often collected in Victoria. 

Mr. L. W. Cooper. — Flowers collected, by Mi^s M. G Cam]>h<;tl 
frojn the temperate region of the Himalaya. 

Mr, A. K. Vailev. Linicstonc Erom Cave Hill (showing Corals 
and S(romatof)ora'), Native Holly and Qualup Bell from We$t 
Australia. ^ ;■ 

Mr. C. Daley. — Thfyplomme calycina {'l\ Miuhcilmna), MicrO^ 
Viyrttis (T krytomvnG) riUohts. Corrm ruhra, and Lhot^kyo 
Alpesiris (all first cj.llected liy Ai'itchell in 1836) ; also Proslaniht?rn 
roiundifolia (garden-srrnwn ) . 

Mr. S. 1^. MircHe.11. — "Torbpnite, a green e<i|i>ured hydrafed 
phosphate o£ copper and uranitnn, and autunite, a yellow-coloured 
liydrated phosphate of hn«e and uraniiam; bo^h highly radioactivf: 
minerals, from Mt. Painter. . - 

. Mr. F. S. Collivcr. — Fossil Ferns, JurasTidc: Sphowptois sp., 
from Wonthaggi; Neuro(yt(*m rnoeana. from Cippsland; Trias^sic 
specimcus. from Kew Town. Hobart; Tlrinfclda hndfoUa, from 
Bcaudcbcrt, Ouccnslaitd. Carbo-peimian : ijan-ganwptcris s,pah^- 
lata, from Bacchus Marsh. Pleistocene; PUmdimn oqnilinimt. 
from Mt. Gambiei'. Si>utli AublriiHa. 

iJiWPi N<ffu m Vimv(a-m 5) 




By Francfs E. Llovd, i>sc. (Wales), I'.R.^.C.. K.r.s. 

AufJtralia has iti c<jr^ai]i dirtichoiis a larger and niore vnn^tl 
a&sorimeiit of IJlnaihtia, the hlacl<lct wca'JSj tban an)' other lutuJ'al 
geographical area 

Many of the facts aiighk become Icnown to anyone dij^'gmg tnto 
Ihfc laxoilomic liteniture. but many more wonlfl escape discovery. 
This is partly due to the inadequate descri])l:ions, imaccouiivmii^ 
by JlluslraLioHo o^' provided only wrth poor'ard inaccurate ones, 
but jnofe ^JSpecially by the fiict that the ipecimens jn the Varibifs 
Herbaria ar€. with few exceptions, woefully iocomplete. In -such 
cases the mcst mxeresling parts of iho plant are absent because 
the coUci'lor has never troubled to gsther them As tlie 
majority of species grow in wet pbces and are very stnall. only 
the flower on its slender stalk is seen, in collecting, the 5.tall< is 
grasped and puHed \^\> out of Ihe substrate, leaving; everything but 
a few fibrous "roots" (hut they are not roots nt all), with every 
delicate part stri|>ped awv^y. J3y rare accident these delicate parts, 
when the substr;xte 1$ soft and yielding, as it rarely is, are very 
occasionally presen-ed. 

In order to extend iny knowledpfc oi Australian species, 1 have 
examined all the spccin^cns jti accessible Australian herbaria, with 
l)ut meagie results. Naturally and expectcdly, the National Hcr- 
barium, Melbourne, has yielded some returns' 

The renowned botanist, Baion Ferdinand von Mueller, wa* 
an indefatigable student of the Australian flora and had many 
correspondents all over the continent Exlcnxive collections were 
amassed, these containing types of von Mue.ller'i; dcscnptioris of 
new species' What is true in general is true in particular oi the 
g^emis U^^^mlario. But eveai these collections yieJded not Ttiore 
than a half-do7.en planC-s '»vith anything beyond the flower on its 
flower stalk For instance, on a ^heet of some two dozen specimens 
of V- Qibiflora F.v.'M., there was one single plant bearing a leaf 
and two "bladders." The plants arc so sirtall that these sought-for 
]>arts were >?c3rceK' visible to che eye. Wlien properly examined 
I was able to descrih:: ihem, as will be seen later on. 

I write somewhat at length about this d<?fic-ienc)' in tlie stwineiis 
of Vbicidario in order ito show my readers the necessity, if we are 
to fiirlher cur knowledge of this interefiting genus., of collecting 
adequately. Directions for tins are given at the close of this 
article. I <\f^ very atixious to obts^in suitable j^iaterial in order to 
jimpUiy Jiiy own knowledge so that I may pass it \>y\ in permanent 

I. I aw wuch in<JcMed to the stuff of the National Herbariuiti. Mel- 
bourne, for courtesies extended; and p&rticul4irl>" to Mr P F. Murris. 

92 ^.M>vl^ Ktfiff^ on iSivicithriti L^^. l«*it 

fomi in wiucli it can be" gejicrally accessible. JL is my presctit 
purpose to describe the features of various species of Otricu^ariir 
Founfl in Ansit-alJa in order to indicate how those peculiar to Aus- 
^riilta cJjiTer Irom those found elsewhere and how these diffei 
amon^ thcmsehf:s. 

The genus Po'lyf^ornj>luily^;^^[:)tcv\vdv to Anslralia— is es?entjalh" 
a Lltnculaym arid will be considered at the same time. )."lut to dc> 
chi5 wc need first a general account of the genus. . 


Forms Chiofty Frcdy Ptoafiug 
The U. vulgaris type 

There arc in ^'enerai two gfroups oi species, one including' ionns 
wtiich grow us suhmersed form?, floahng just heneath the surface 
and some depth in quiet waters (with two exceptions). They may 
ftoat quite ireely yU. vulgaris and U. flcxitom) or be more or le&5 
anchored hy special "branches" f never by roots \vhic)i are totally 
laclcing), as in \U^i ca!?e oi' U- iittcrmeifia, or pfobiibiy aUo U ■ exolcta. 
The latter, found in Aur-iraha, needs more careful study. Fhc 
abo\T' mentioned two exceptions {V . ncollivhics, U n'gida) have 
a hahic iimibir to that of some marine algi'.e, clin*^ing by hapteria 
?o sulninerscd sui'taces (locks-, etc.) and living swept hy running 
water, the tomier in South America, the latter m Africa, tn all 
these forms the flowers are raised above the water surface on 
scapes aided in some species by floats oi one form or another: 
swollen leaf stalks or the scape itself. 

The ves^ of (he plane con^i^ists of u more or less bi"anchfng stolon, 
as it is generally called. It is., however, not a stem, as us origin 
and development show, but is rather oC leaf nrtture. This- stolon 
hears, in the more usual type. aJternatntg Icav'es in two lateral 
rows. The tip of the "shoot" as a whole is curled (circinatc) — 
I lie whole is dot^Iventra]. TJiis is very evident in such species us 
U. ititc^nncdta and V- minor. 

The "leaves" may be either a simple once-forked member with 
tapering segments or may be very complex, consistuig of, several 
forking units side hy side in a plane sv-^mewhat oblique to the hori- 
ionlal axi^ The extreme lateral members ot the complex some- 
lime* take the iojm of auricles: reduced fan-shaped structures, 
close to the axis, best developed in U. •Tko?minr)ii. In various 
positions on tlie leaf (in Ihc fnrlcs of two segments, on or near the 
base of a segment) occur those peculiar structures giving nse 
to Che name bladderwort. viz., 'bladders. '' In the literatnie several 
iiajncs are used, the best being "rraps."' since, as a matter of fact. 
wc know they are true, very highly specialixed traps. They are 
hollow., provided with an entrance guarde<1 by a iloor or valve. 
attached by a hinge, its free edge impinging on a special mas:^ of 

i ] l.tovu, Nt>U'^^m UfHcnimin ^ 

d^'stic'. (he tUreshoVl. The trap h oblique ?n tV.rm ji^ Vtewvd 1ateiully> 
tlie entrance or mouth being on rhe shorler or stalk side. This 
shorter side ts ve-ntral, tliat is, faces the groivinjf <;fid oi tlie axis 
or stolon. The ti-aps appear in various specks in a great variety 
of foam, as will be seen. 

The floral axis alwaj'S -arises fioni the upper suriacc on th«f 
tnedian line of tlic stolon, unrelated in position to the Icave-i, and 
itself ])rodu(:p,s stL-<jiKlan'ly near its ba*^ reduced stolons with 
rcduc^rJ leaves, liavit>j;' the appearance of claws Th«se are Ihe 
so-called "rhi?:oids*' wliich appear to serve as prop supports for 
Hie scape; but arc far more efficient in land forms. 

Jn lite same po'^ition also are produced, in the true flo-a|ing forms, 
very slender long worm-like branches willi sin.ill, entiie scale 
leaves- each with several 5>tomata- These were thought by Gocbcl 
to he of servir:;e in erPecdng interchanj^e of gases hetwi^cn air and 
pin nc .and so called "air-shoots." "l hey are very delicate and mosl 
fragile wiien dry so that they break olT or ate hidden among the 
Lea^'es^ STid are ^cai'ccly ever ^een vu>Iess looked tnr in living material 
uhderwuttfr. 1 have ioijitd them recently in i'. fieri40sa foiuid near 
Sydnej'. 'i'he apex of an air-sliool is mrolled as in the chief shoot.^ 

Tn sonic foruiS there is a dimorphism of vliooit — (here is (a) a 
durbivcntrul foliage hhout. bearing (b> branehc.-; or eotilinu-atiuus 
with siipjjrecwStd leaves, which peiaetrare the sulvstratum at the Imt- 
fnm or sides of the pond in which ^hcy ^row [fl ncfjleci^, LL iuiey- 
media, U. CA'oIiUa, U. minor). Mr. Geofge Tayloi and I have 
recently described an AngoJan plant under the name ^'* f^aradoxa, 
in which the chief stolons aie all lairied in the nmd or sandy sub- 
strata^ with lea5y shoots (Jikc mimttc trees) suckmg up into tJ>c 
water above. 

Among tht Irnlv floatrnjor forms are to he fotrnd the lar|;'«sl 
specie.? — very leaf}-- shoots over 3 feet lon?j. On the other hand 
soiiic oi' llic Jipcdes, such as V> cyuibovthn, U* olivacca (IHo'Vidat'ui 
alivaccQ of Kannciiski), the former Atrican, Ihe latter Cviban, are 

In the majority of the submersed fonuh the flower is two-lipped, 
the lower beinp jjrovided with a ncct^ir-beariDf^ spur In a few 
spends the spur IS lackmg (IJ r.ymhanthtt. U- hiuvulana, U. minor) 
or jiearly so (U orbictifuta aff.) The flower^ Are usually ])ale or 
bright yeilow. 

The above general deaeiiption applies fo a segrepjate of species 
ol which U. yufgar'.s or U ficxuoso may be regarded as typt'cal 
Many species closely related grow as lanri ]>l;ml:^^ — that is. in a wet 
hut nioi'e or le$s hiin subsdate — and some of these arc the largest 
find most showy in Hower of all. e.g., U rcmformisj mmifana, Hiim- 

2. We use the tcmis "steins," "shoow/* "kaf" irt ittc<ic dcscrij»tions In 
ftisrcgard of lUcir inorplmlagical signilicatT:*?. i'hey ;ipi>rar to be ht the 
(orin of stf^xi* ajid leaves; while some stolons appear as "ro»»t>»." 

holdtn of South Anierica. In tliesc -/>-cri)!cd land or epiphytic 
fonris the stolons ci'ce];' in wet moss, on a wel boggy subslratuin, 
or in rbc wjiitr helil hy Ihc Ieaf-ro>ettcs oi species of the FJvonicIiaHs 
"J'heir leaves niay W. large and of compUvx internal structure [V. 
ycidforniis). or may. at the other extreine. be very small c-ind 
li^lale or spatulate, often with S>tom?it;v ^Fovvcvei* dilTcrent in 
siijjerficia! appearance the sf^^n^cturc of the Ifap (p. 96, figs. 9, 10), 
is the samciu all, with the preswUly notttl exceptions of V. globu- 
kmaelolia and LK Lloydii Tc is to be observed that the gronj) 
Panbracts submersed and land forms of very diverse appearance. 

7'^e V, pHrpuri^(t iypi: 

This is .slrictly a new world type, fonnd I'n North hut espceudly 
iti South America, llie plants are always ■iulimer^cd and freely 
flouting, or at best are anchored by skndcr ilioo's growing in soft 
bottom niutl Thi;ir "leave?" are always in whorls, each leaf bearing 
a trap at its apex, supported by a vnry slcndei' slalk. The traps 
(p. 102, figft- 3, 4) arc <|uite peculiar to the type. Both -stolons and 
leaves are cybndrica), bur. betray dorsnentrality in the character of 
the vascular systciHt Tlie ape>: of the stolon is circinate. The 
flowers art also distifietly peculiar in having the palate enlarged to 
form two spuKlie-shaped [uteral pockets, found iu no other group. 

No land fornix of ^smidar simcttire are known, In fact the struc- 
ture of llie trap v/onld seftivt lo JmpOiC a complete Mndrance to this 
manner of habit. The presence of atithoc^'anin renders tiie whole 
plant reddish in colour. 

The U. hdmlaia type 

U. hibuliln w^is deacrihed by F. v Mueller in 1875 from material 
cfjllectcd by Armit "hi mountain swamps'* (v. Mueller) "near Cash- 
mere" ( Annit) 40-50 miles west of Rockingham Bay. It is a fieely* 
floaEtTig" plant with whoried leaves eacJi ( ?) bearing an apical trap. 
The scapes are club-shaped with large air spaces and help to float 
the .flo\vers above the water iurface.. The flowers and traps (p. 102. 
fig- ^) conform to a Xy\iQ. peculiar lo Au&trala.Ma, namely, to that 
group of which U. dkhotoina (a vi-ry weli-known -species of Aiis- 
tralia) Is a very good example. The plant has never been collected 
since Armit found it before 1875 and sent it to Baron von Mueller 
In the Nafional Hci"b;jrium <it Melbourne a very good series of 
n]jccimcns is to be found ( i>I. XI), hut these., with !<pectmens at Kew 
and the Bntisli Museum of Natural History. South Kensington, 
arc the only extant. Po-s^fbly von Mueller sent specimens, as wa* 
his habit, to Kamienski. 
This type embraces one known floating species.^ with many land 
.1 U ccrntof'hyUoxdes may be a accotui, il Schwartz's oitinion is fListffied 
He be]ie>-« it is a floating rcprcsetnaUvc oi iHc 'Vrimmve. Australian I'orms" 
which %to\%\y ifiemsttves about V- bilobo. But the lattc-i i$ i>ot oi th^L group; 
(1ii:hf>loma had better heen cited. 1 have not yet frcen the 5-pct)«;s. It was 
ftmnH near Darwin Ijy Mr. F A. K, Blctser. No. 484. 


Plate XI 

October, 1936 

Utricularia Moorei, sp. n.j and V. tubuiaia 

i\mj \a-u\\)j Xotrs ofi rtfit'itfariii $S 

species peculiar to Austnilasia. < )ne might venture the gne?;s that ( '. 
iubidata is a land fortn laken to water and tlie floating habit, while 
the vulgaris groii]> nuiy have been priniiti\'ely water plants of 
which some have taken to land. As observed, IK purpurea is wholly 
a water-dweller, 

The Predominantly Latid lutnits 

These include types which are chiefly "terrestrial" ])!ants. thoii^di 
[7. vul(j(2ris -duil U. (uhitlutaty\K'5> have tlieir land-dwelling relations, 
as already ,shown above. There arc other tyix-s, however, which 
arc never found as freely-floating plants, but always as land- 
dwellers, whether covered or merely saturated with water. The 
majority of the known species are of this character, but the 
group, thoiii^h ecologically pretty uniforni, possesses a number 
of distant sub-groups or types, Hiese are not readily distinguish- 
able by llu'ir parts other than the traps, as there is a remarkable 
uniformity of leaf shape, while the flower structure shows no great 
uniformity within each group. 1 therefore use the structure of the 
traps in defming the groups, a method suggested by Gocbeb which 
has been forced on me by the facts, and which turns out to he the 
most natural, though there are some parallels between grouping 
I>y traps nnd gnjuping by flowers. The trap is indeed the most 
characteristic feature of these plants and sets them apart from 
withers. It will therefore be appropriate to take this occasion to 
descrilK it. 

Hoii' the Trap IVorks 

From ihiK point of vi( w- there are two kinds of traps, or ]>er!iaps 

we ought tr> say three. This point need not be forced, however, as 
we shall see what is meant. The first kind is exemplifie<l by U. 
vulgaris (p. 102, figs. 1, 2) and U. purpttrnj (p. 102, figs. 3, 4). 
much different exce[>l as to the principle on whicli the trai> works. 
Of the second U. coniuta, U. capenxis or (\ carrufea; and of the 
third, confined to Australasia, r. dichotoma or IL Mennicsii will 

Tke Mechanism oi- thk i rap 
The types U. vulgaris and U . purpurea 

Disregarding the general form of the trap and having reference 
only to the entrance mechanism, this consists of a door or valve 
of approximately a {[uarler s])here in shape, or, as I often put it. 
of the shape of the half of the roof of a bowler hat. One edge of this 
is attached to the wall of the tra]) just inside the entrance, the 
middle point being forward at or near the vi\\^Q of the entrance, 
with the sides extending inwards (p. 102. figs. 1-4). The r»thet\ con- 
ventionally the lower, free edge rests on a thickened hall-circle of 


l.i.tnii. Xoti'S OH i'lritutantt 



Adattimical Structure of Hladilrr^. 


J Li-ovo. .^^ifi «l^ Vhjiii*tim ^ 

tissue, called by J)arwin Ihe collar, jii<I wlucli 1 call the thrc&3ii»]f| 
of the door; or if \vc used the tcmi vah-c. its scat. Wliatcvcr we 
cull it, it h;ts form ynd Mructure which permit (he ht^. edge of 
the door to tesi situgly against il, along a pad oE soft cells wfth- 
otit cuticle called the pavcmpnt epithelium (Goebcl). 

The iKljnsUtient is. how^vei, not pcrfcd. The middle reach of 
th€ <\oot i'd^c maUt-s indeed ;i sJutp c-nnlutt, rc.shng in a JjhaFloW 
groove which ]>re\'ents i\\t door, if undisturbed, from ssvinging 
inwardly fp. 102. fig. 1) But along ihe btfral reaches the door 
cdj^e hcN f\<it •.>n the j:ovaiic»t cpilhclium. so that ;i fincf ]»roh»* may 
he slipped in hetwcen the two approximated surfaces. Now this 
would seem unimportant, were it not (or the fact that uoriiialty 
tlvcr^' is always a mttrkod wai^r pres-iure ug<nnst the outside snrfaco 
of the. door in common with the total cxtc^mal surface nt the crap. 
This arises from the fact thaf the walls of the trap act as ghvndMlar 
iissne, rxcnfut/j ihe u^vlcr frmn ihe inside lo the outside (Mcrl., 
Czaja, Kold) — ^ihus pumping fhc water out of the interior of the 

As this takes place, the side waits of the trap, hemg mechanically 
iht less resistant, collapse, as Krocher, a Swiss eJUomologlst, ftvM 
7>oUced iu 19] J. But collapse of these \vallb (so tJ^at they become 
distinctly couoive) would be impntsibk if the door permitted tlit 
leaking^ in of water, which in fact would lake placid ^tongf tlu- lateral 
leaches of the daor edge if not especially protected. That they arc 
so protected is in fact the case, for there is a memlnatious structutv, 
a :»ccjjiid valve in fact, uhich is atlaclied lo the forward edge of the 
l^avemcnt c]nlhplium. and seat> itSL'K along llie whole of the lii^e 
ij[ contact between fhe duur edge and thrtbhoM, effectively ^ealio^; 
the re-cntntnt chink {p. 102, fig ]) Pret^sure of wale.r against (hist 
menihiane (the velum) only presses it miirc iinnly and incrc;iM'< 
its efTectiYeness. 1 Ivave proved d>is exixfrimcntally by cutting the 
velum with a small, very .sharp knife (an ophihtjlmologist's '^Ciiare'' 

Alter thib oj^eratioii the trap caimot reduce the volume of water 
within, ,so llial die iiides remain cunvcx instead of becoming con- 
caw? And this means- that the trap can uo more work, ^ince this 
is the way the tra]> ■sets itscH for tlie action of calching ptcy. When 
set, (he pressure of vvatcr withui is much lower than without, so 
(liat, as above said. »be outer water prcjjscs ag-ainst th^ whole outer 
.surface of the trap, and Ificrcjort- agmttst the door. 

Tin- door, howcverj js so adjusted thai this pressure canuol 
move it unlesii; it is tlirown i-lighlly out of its sdjus-lmcnl. When 
w?t, the mechanism is in a ^tate of '*uU5.table equilibrium.'' to ijuute 
Kroclier, who was the first to recognize ihis condition, How, then. 
IS the mechanijyn rhrr-wn f)ut of ci|tiilibhum ? Tlie door is provided 
uitii a trippinp mechanism consisting of projecting stiff bntllcs 
M'hidi arc inserted in the donr s-urfacc just above tlni middle fX)iiit 

98 LlovUv f^otcs m fStrtculaiin J^^*] ^^ 

i.>f di« thickened middle veacli of (lie duor cUgt and just i)elow a 
tliiu area o^ ihc door, »naking il Iicrc j^/articnUrly flexible. A very 
slight tcnich of tlic bristles, no more than thai caused l>y a cojxpod 
bumping ag;*in.^t iUpm, is suflficJem to disturb the do<>r edge ever 
so slightly 50 that the door o'^nnot now resist the water pressure. 
The water then prcssci> it in vi*ry swifUy, o»^d ihe innishing column 
carries with it the offending anin>a). Jn pu>lnng in <hc door, sinir 
its free edg^e is longer than the threshold measured from end To 
end across the trap, it becomes folded or buckled aionji; its middle 

As the water column slark^, the door closes again (hut J lo 4- 
rimes more slowly) ^-^nd retitrns by its own flexibility and set ol 
sJiapc, aito the former poKitinn and posture. Since the diiTerencc 
ol water i)rcssure withni the trap is thus reduced,. Ihp pressure of 
the. otjter wa*er ;igainst the do*>r is now by no means so great; 
and coase»quenily Ibc ijosturc of ihc clonr is NonKwhat changed — 
it now stands somcivhat forward but is still wateiiight. As tht 
g^landufar action nf the walls piim|>s out a»iexv the water from the 
ititerior o( the irap^ the door gn^dually assumes its set posture, 
when all is now ready for another actuation. Merl found that this 
resetting may take place in as short a lime af fificeii minutes, bitt 
this i-s a ininimum fi;;iire, thii ty minutes being beller. The excretion 
of water conrinii€.s until the cohesion of Lhe wiitcr wiihin Imbincej5 
the forces acling in the opposite direction- The trap is then fnliy 
set. The procei>s of setting tdkcs longer in 5ome species than 
otlicrs — c.|^., in U. I>nrpurea B\)oiit two hours. 

Jr will hf! -sftpn hy the figures that in this type the middle clement 
of Ihe door stands at ao angle of about 90" with tlic general plane 
at the top of the thresliuld. That is, the angle of eotit^cl between 
door and threshold is a wide one (p. 96, %. 1), 

The sccovd (ypc 

fti the second lype this angle is a snull one. and the water pres- 
sure, cvcrytlnng equal, could inore easily force catraiice. This h 
met by a gxeiUer massiveness of the lower ]:>art of tlie door which 
provinces a fjrcatcr thrust of the middle reach of the door edge 
afj^ainst the threshold: and by a broad and more massuc velum 
fn consequence of I he mechanical conditions the pressure of water 
produces a gieater change in door posture as between llic relaxed 
(after actuatiouj and set condition. By photographing \ivir\g tra))s 
in both these contlitiuns, thu exact dilTercniccs in posture have becii 
determined to a nicety, even in such a minute traji as that of U. 
laicrl flora, an Australfan .spticie't found grt"^wing near Sydney 
I" p. 102. figs. 10-12). This was done during mv recent visit there 
(April, 1936). 

Tti these traps silso, when actuation occurs the door turns inside 
OUCf Iki to speak by the application of slig^ht pressure ag^fimst some 

sort of Irppiitg mechanism Kti;4che<l to th€ ui)f>fr wi<Jt fle>;)?>lc 
legioii of the J»>jr (p. 102, fig. 2) This; increased localized pres- 
sure causes suflkieut ciistortion for ihe water |>r<!ssiirc to liave cffcci 
in folding the door lengthwise along- its middle Imc, |)cnnittin(j it 
to spring out of the groove fonncd l>y tFi« tliresliOld In Ifie becond 
typcthi.^ is helped also, it is probable, by a sliglit forwaid di.splact;- 
mcnt of the middle rcEch of the door edge, gr-nng nwirc freedom of 

The third type: U. dichenov^a 

III <he iipecies pecuKav to AuslruluiiiH whicli conform to this tyiift. 
liic angle between door and threshold is stjl! more narrow, and the 
change in contour of the door as between Mt uiid iclaxcd posture 
is vety great (p 102, figs 5a. h). Aside from this we have to note 
(il) the length uC the door und ils heni form so that the middle 
piece lies parallel lo the ptivement epitbchuo) (the threshold has a 
Jii<e hend mi harmony with thai in the door) : and (h) the double 
veluiit — in which the aiiTerior ixnrt \s circiilctv^ forming a frill about 
the door en! ranee; and llie posterior or inner piirt, filling the angle 
beuvecn <loor rtnd thrcsiiold. Precisely what the effect of Ihc 
former is we are unable to say at the moment — exi)eriinent is 
needed. It may ^erve lo make thr trap wutei-tight during the 
exlremdy relaxed door posture — this is, huwever, only specula- 
ti"(M). The ln|>|5mg mccfianism consists of low tnchomes lying in 
a giT(iup just above the fx^id of ilie cloor, where it is very flexible. 
(Other irichojnci occur iaithei above, whose function we do nni 
>indersi3nd, though it h ix'ssihle that the)- fservc to render the door 
more flexible iii thtS tegion. 

Recent study of Polypoinpholyx leads me to vegaid the trap of 
this ]>lant as representing slill another distincl- luerhaniRm, alhed 
to be sure to the dkhotoim- tyi>e, but having a very different door 
action. Details of this» liowcver, must await further stndy. 

In tins aecxjunt, I am making no s|X\*ial mention of the prohlem 
of digcstioav We inay take it for granted that digestion of one 
kind or another does take place The mlcrinr of the trap 
is armed with " quadrifid" or "bifid" hairs (as Darwin called them), 
which have to do wiih the absorption of the products of digestion 
ami }xrh<*3>s s»ls<? with the secretion of an enzyme. 

Ttrrcstnal Types 
We MO^v return to consider the land ty]5es in view of the above. 
It is in these that a great variety of form of trap has come into 
being. To rec:ill, wt- fiere note that the U. purpurea type of trap is 
noi known to occur in land form^- There i^ one Hjieeie^, U. olivncc/t 
[ISifn/nlaruf of Kamienski), allied rather to (.-'. Vf*f(;<ins, lu which 
Ihe triiJiMng mechanism lies inserted in the middle point of the 
door (p 96. fig. II) But iliis is afso a water plant It is not diffi- 
pik lo s;>eculalc ^vhy these species are only water plants, as the door 

lOf) Li.nvp, J^PtfS on Utrfrnhria [yljl uill 

lies much exposed and could easily be iDlockcd by j>articlcs of 
earth, etc.. ^n<\ rendered inoperatirr;. 

Jii addition (o the entrance dicrc are other icatures 
which can only be partLCulan?:ecJ. These consisu of projections. 
rangin^^ from small i-cssik globose glandular hairs (e.g., LL huen- 
(lora) (o molticelhilar structures ot considerable size and com- 
ple>iiry. These in such forms 'a^ U. vuLjo.j-is, the fii-£t known, have 
Ijcen called antennae (Darwin), being two upeiing and briincliing- 
affairs> one on each side above and at the side o[ the entrance 
([>. 96j fig. 4). Bin their variely will be noted as we proceed, and 
more easily by Collowint*' the fig^ures. The type U. vulnaris has many 
terrestrial represeirtativcs. In Uie more di'^ttncily terre.vtrial' *uc!i 
as i' rcwjotvis (South America), and in many orhers., the plumose 
aniejinae are snpj>lanted by simple oner's lightly cui-ved over die 
entrance winch is smaller. The door, we myy believe, is thus betier 
protected (rotn blockntg. As many land siK-cics as there iviay be. 
there itre fewt^r of these tiifni of those with a narrow door — thres- 
liold (briefly d-tj angle (p. 96, Fi^. 4). There are very few in Aus- 
tralia. U. biloha IS, however, one known example (p. 102, fig. 11). 
M LaztAKom Lloyd (see bf^low) another. The forn:er grows in wet, 
sandy bogs, the latifr anchored in sand or mud in water, and full)' 

In tlie following paragraphs a general review <jf all the varrciics 
nf traps Q^ the niijre .siricily land forms will bo gi^'cn, 

Lnikl Forms ivith Wide d-l A-jujlc 

Thctc lire nuny speeles with iraps"jjr;iai(.':Ltly identical m strue- 
tnrc with tho^c of LL xmlffark. 'riiere urc, however, s(*mc curioiiP 

U. novo. Sonth America, wliile evidently allied lo U. vtdgans, 
-Krs a tripping mechanism ol two i.>ri.stle^ oi particular itrncti.irc 
(p- 96, fig". 5). In cotnmon with ILcornuta, it has no nppendages. 
In spite of this position in this account, there is eviiicncc that this 
3].iecies if> rather of the narrow d-t type 

U. <jlohiilm'uKloha. New World tropics. — Thl^ repre^e^1s n sm^W 
segregate in which ciie trap has a more or less bitid ovcrhanj;: and 
3 loT.GT fnnn'.-il approach to the donr. Tli:s funnel is lined with long 
curved glandular hairo. The door h- massive, this being, evidcnily 
Tcl-Hled to the diick walls (p. 96, fig.s. 7, 8), 

V, Lloyd-ii MerL, South AmL-rii:a — Tn this thu trap.s urc of tvvn 
lands (p. 96, tigs. 14^ 15). one bem^ clothed with only sessile Ivdr-s, 
but having a :<ingle irippnig bnstle, Iht nthtr having" slalked Iri- 
chomcs antl with no tripping bnslJe. 

LotiJ Forms- loitli Nonou^ d-i Atigle. 
U. cormifa. New World. — The trap has no appendages. 1 rip- 
p'tig mechaniisin, a group of sessile ^d^iids fp 9(5, figs. 2. 3).w 



Ijgj I.LOVD. X'oleS on rhinilnritt 101* 

U. longu'iUafa, New World. Tra]) 05 mm. Tlit- micldlt* i)art 
f^f wall above the entrance is pnjlonged as a rostnini. Ikdow th(^re 
is a second (ventral) rostrum bearing two laterally jmijeeting 
prong's, 'i'lie trij'jiiing meclianisni is a sin^de <(landnlar hair, 

V . piifata, South America. — The trap is much like those ty])ilied 
in U. capcnsis (q.v.). The entrance is at the bottom of a funnel- 
like ojK-ning lined with rows of jij^laridnlar hairs. The trij)]iinj^^ 
mechanism is a f^rou]) of lar|^e sessile globular hairs- 

The above exhaust the New World l(*t. In the Old World are 
the foUowiuL^: 

U. Dtitfhtonii Lloyd and Taylor, West Africa. — Of the same 
door structure as IL peliata; in both the trippin<i' mechanism is a 
g;roup of sessile glands, placed on the u])i>lM' more flexible iiart of 
the door; tttherwise like ?/. capcnsis. 

l\ capcnsis, l'\ li^rhii^itschii, Africa. — The trip])ing mechanism 
is a pecubarly-shaped hair which I have called the ''kris trlchome/" 
because of its similarity in form to a Malay kris. I have shown that 
disturbing this actuates the trap (p. 96, fig. ICi)- 

U. albida, Asia. — Door like IL peltata, but the circular edge of 
the upper part of the funnel leading to the entrance is prolonged 
into a long rostruin, sbaj^ed like the beak ui a tcjucan (p. 96, fig. 6). 

(L cacrnlcit. Old World. Africa, Asia, Australasia. — Very like 
/". conntta. but with two imhranchtd antennae, downwardlv 
curved (p. 102, fig. 13). 

v. Kirkii, unique; Central Africa.— Hy uni<|Ue 1 mean tliat there 
is only one sjjecies known which has the jjeculiar form of dttor 
posseased by it. The tripping mechanism is two liristles .s^t at the 
lower limit of the thin flexible upper part of the door, which, in its 
lower region, !ias two swellings with a middle groove between, 
making the dfK)r flexible along the middle line <ir a.xis (p. '^(), 

/ '. orbiciihUa, Africa and Asia. — The tri])()ing nieclumisin is very 
curious, consisting of tw'o trichomes which break out into bi'auti- 
t'ullv-s]ia]H'd gelatinous horns, antl a third niallet-sliaped trichoma 
There is a sujiplementary velum, deri\-ed from the glandular harrs 
in front of the pavement epithelium {]>. 96, fig, K^ ) , 

l\ calliphysa, Ceykjn, Bunict^. — Narrow d t angle. \*ery minute 
(0-5 mm.) Lrap with a rostrum a])o\'e atnl two lateral c<jmbs of 
glrmdular hairs leadin;^ oblic|ULdy up lo the lower edge of the 
entrance and with a row of tubercles abi)\f and on each side of 
the entrance {]>. 96, fig. 12), 

r'. niulficanlis, North India. — Unique in having a large fan- 
shaped rostrum bent down in front of the cnlrance (]>. 102, f\^. 14 ). 

Types of Ansfralian Land I'onns 
U. Inirn'ftttro. — Similar to r. ca!Hpliys<f and T. longiviliata. 1 
have studied living material, and have found the j^ostures of the 

10.^ II. .Vf^/^^f OH I'trkuUtrui 

rvic. Nm. 

LVol. Mil. 

^ <j 

Anatomical Striitturc of Hladdtrrs 

j'^^J Jj.OVi^ ^tt^cir OH lifnathrift IftS 

•loOr to be as seen in the photographic figures. The lrii>ijii>jg 
mechanism is a |][rotjp of transversely elongated elands on tl^e ihin 
upjxT part of the tloor This is the only known specits of thi$ kind 
in Australia, only three heing^ known in all (p. 102, figs. lO, 12). 

U, biloba. — As above noted, lias tnaiis nf the fJ. vul/jaris type 
(wide i1-t angle), in partictilar icficinbling ot V. i-vm^vHiu 
(p. 102, fig. 1 1). H*'re we mention again L\ J-aw^om, even jf not 
i^trictly i Icind fonn. 

U. f.xiancs. -hlk^. tj. cucrulca (p. 102, fig. 1.1). 

U. dicholoma {-p. 102, figs. 6-S). — ^"nits sfnclly Australasian lypc 
is rcprcsciucd by a wide range of species, i-ome rather large, with 
showy flowers {V, Singcrmna, V. WaUirhlana, etc.) and traps of 
cpiiie pet^uliat eonsl ruction. As noted above, door is always 
transversely bent neal* its free edge and the threshold det»p and 
corrcspondrng'ly bent; the veJum is double. As to these features 
diere is unii'oinnty. li^it the opposite i^s (rue <J the extertial appen* 
Hagek, Ba-Sically ilicre are live, a single median rostrum^ and two 
pairs ni wings, dt^rsal (above the entrance level) and ventral, helow 
ihe entr<nnee. running from the stalk tow;jrd fhe entvanccr. They 
T*re well .seen in U. dichoUnna and LL Mensksli. (In New Zealand 
in U. novaC'Zeaiandioc nnd U, dclkoiubx, and perhaps others.) 
Jn thetic the wings are laoniatc or deeply toothed. Their pu;>ture is 
such that they sprejid out laterally, fornimj|r wing fences >\hich 
inav bo Uiouglil as guiding prey to the enuance. In niany species 
tliey cannot have this effect, because of their shape or posinon or 

The traps rif only a few species are known, and I have been able 
to see only three kinds in the living condition, vit. : LK mOfianihos, 
giowti for me from ^ecd at the E<linburgh Botanic Gardens, i). 
Mcnziesii and U. tiicJiotvma. M<itcrial preser\-efi in flnid of the 
('. Mcn^^esif 7n<iU4tnllws^ divhoUrma, volubills have been supplied 
by Australian friends. (Some of this material was collected ]n 
Australia years ago by tlie late Professor ICarl votj Goebcl, my 
le;^cher and !ife-lonj^ friend, ami one of the greatest botanists oi 
all time.) Since arriving here I have lieen able to examine the 
colleclioTifi '\n the varinus Ijerbaria, and have found tbe> traps nf a 
few species. The following different forms Imve been seen: 

(a) The ventral wings arc contracted longirnHinally and are 
cntirc=, forming two spreadin.^ flaps just above the stalk. The dorsal 
rvings are reduced to slender antennae of the same shatJC as the 
rostrum^ bnf with disitin<-iive curvatures. IJ . ctt^illiflora F.v.M. and 
U.Di<miom F. E Lloyd (p. lOS, fit?. 5). 

(b) The vcnlra] wmgs may be entirely ahsent, only the dorsal 
wings and rostrum being j^r^i-ent. The dorsal wings may then be 
flabelliforjn and launiate (U. Moorei ^:l. n.) or reduced to slender 
antennae (U. Sivgenajia), V. hibuhihi, previously mentioned as- 
?i fioatin^i^ form, aha. presents tins condition, tfic three appendages 
being very long and qnite thick (p. 102, Rg. 9). 

itl4 . LwVi). Noici tm Uiricuiavui Lyf<A ».l'n. 

(c) Or again, tlie ventral wings may also be reduced to slender 
spur-like appendages each e>idi>ig a low ndgc, a ventml winy 
nmch reduced o(.htirwijs<::. At thti othtr irjccrciTit, hoHi ventral and 
doisfli. wings may he fiabclliform and very I'tdniate. while the 
rostrum is reduced to a pierc stump (t^ vihijinro. U, Hollscx) 

{v- m.h^. 17). 

(d) Both ventralaud dorsal wing;: ari^ prominent iir\i\ sli^IIowly 
laciniatc [V. tiichotonwi, U. Mcnsuwi) ov rtabcllate and dcc])ly 
laciniatt: (U. lasiocanHs] (p. JOS. fig: 16). 

Thf^re nre muny s.pMci^'.s in Anc-»Tnlia of whose ttjips wc hn\c 
no knowledge al all, and what other pt^rnmtati^ija cf(« be gxperctr;d 
311 «hcm, one cannot guess. 

Polypohipholyx. — ^^Of this genus there arc rc-nj^nized twospecle?, 
tnultifida and tenelh. the latter scarcely more than a small replicH 
of tiie tornier. 

Approach to Ihe entrance i>ro]>cr (p. 102, f^\i^. S) i.s made by pass- 
ing backward or iorward beneath lateral winijs, 'riwd ^o to a ioit ol 
anrechamber. I-ong glandular ban's pointing lovrards the door 
facilitate movement towards it. On the swollen region of the stalk 
there is a transverse double or treble row of stiff bristles v>bich 
appear to act as directive to the movcmc*nts of prey. 

Another coml> of hvfslles runs along ibc lop of the stalk under 
the rostrum, in such a fa&hion as to divert Ihc prey dncctly towaifl 
chc entrance. The actual entrance is aniall. I'bc lower part of 
fhc door lies riirvf.d downwards over a narrow rSdge of the 
tlueshold in the set postu»'e- Alter aelnaTion tlie door is also curved 
downward ij) front ot the threshold. There is a ]?ecuhar velam. 
rbc effective bIocklnj>' of in-lealca.gc being brought about by the 
snppk^mentary action of numerous louj^r j^-lanthjlar Iiairs- In tinns- 
vcrse section the trap is seen to be three-sided, quire different in 
this froni all other uCricularias. When the trap is set. the wall*! 
are concave, more e«.pecial)y the side walls, (he top wall being less 

TU(i traps arc indeed very peculiar in Uirni. Tlic cntranoj 
inccliantsin. though uai<iue iu''iTiany of the stnictures, prot^ably 
arr^as the LK dichoioma ^ort f-f thing docs, hut remains to be invest*}* 
gated. Oth€iwk.=^e rhe jjlani; di'>es not distinguish iiself irom (Jtricu- 

The trap is anarropous, the stalk and entrance beuijf appruxi- 
mated, A flat forked rostrum makes contact and presses down on 
the stalk, which is locally iwoUen and possesses a huge air cavity- 
Tlicre is a pa\r oi large dnwinvardly-curved dorsal '.vnigs <p. lOZ^ 

A Frw NofiK'^ on Ausfrafmi Spcrie^ 

I have already noted the ])ecnH?irities nf the ir^ps of Austrahan 
Jipeeie.^, related to U. dichtftonm, and not hitherto <le.scnbed- Th<; 


Piatt; XII 

Ociobcf, 1936 

Vtriadaria Latvsouiy sp. n, 

•foUo^nng obiervarioiis ai'fi ^neml in naUirc, subimiUd in llm 

hope (.){ stinsulatln^ inteiest in the adequate collection of aiateri-al. 
Even dried specimens yield the iniorniation dcsn-ed -not. however. 
as when preserved in ilnid, ur even wb»ii dried wilhont pressure 
and trariiimtttCtl in liitlc boxe:*. 

t/. pyijtiinc?a RHr. — Brown's dcscnpti'nn contains nothinjj about 
ibc vegetative parts. The material (fragments of stolo-ns; fiowcrs) 
in the Naliynal Herbariiutu Melbourne, indicates tlie plant )^ 
similar to l'^ o:iolctoJ' The specimen I have se.t^n was colkctt^d in 
Lake WiHwn^s Enn^sleigh River Cjorge In' Alquist. Sli6. 'i'his. or a 
closely-related species (and probably others; also)» iSi responsible 
for The tle.^tructinn of the tadpoles of Bujo nwrimi, u ti)ii<i imjjnrtwl • 
(0 contml inseccs infesting sugcir cane. The fri>nt end of^ihe bead 
or the. cad of the tail is sucked into the entratice. Captured in this •' 
way. the animal soon dies. This infonniuion was sn[»j;licd by the 
Queenslanri Department of A^^ricnlrnre, to wlioni J ^ani indebted 
for many courtesie*. Jt is well-known that nios<iuito larvae arc 
caught, but not in sufficient quantitic^s. The t^c^ps appear to bc:of 
Identical strucrntp wiili thoii: oi the LK.yibbo ([>- 102, figs 1,2). 

U, ilkhotohw, — in the Sydney HerbaritJin I saw a specinict^ 
found at L-a Perousc^ N.S.W-. with very large ligulate leaves. 
The plant looks as if it bad grown under water. Oteetvalions on 
Ibis* iTiattftf would be of interest, ftA this species usually ;>n>vv^ in 
wety sandy or boggy soil 

U. GRHjlonr — Foiuid along the ^debide River by HoUee. This 
is a minuic spccici. with the lowcr Corolla hp iivc-lobed (p. 10b'. fii^- 
]7).- The trap is of the dichotoma t}i»e. Tiic ventral wings are Irns- 
ridg^ps ending in slender antennae, while ihe d»>rsal nrt* alsn :intcn- (p. 108, 1ig. 17). The ontogeny of tlu= plant (or of cai>ill)- 
flora and the like) would be very wWunhle ('or t^irowin.^ Fight on 
the life cycle. It would be neccssarv lo c-i>lict:t material very care- 
Mly so as to preserve the seed (enibryo) wliich probably remains 
attachtr^J to the mature plant. Young stages woulrl be bcUer 

IJ. biloba.— 'nw species and many others l^ive\if! 
**rhizo]ds" — <.tolons arising secondarily troni the base ot the scapes. 
In V. PVullkhyiua they have numerous short .secoiidary branches 
covered with sessile nnialage glands- Most of the tin^^e these arc 
die on[y parts pulled out of the ground when the flower blalk is 
pnlltJ up, and have usually been called "rootleth*" or "roots.'' Tlic*»u 
are noc roots, and only stnnilate thern. Their structure is often 
destroyed by indifferent collcK:ting. 

[/, Campbclhann Oliv- — ^This plant ha^ perhaps the longest and 
most graceful spur of iu large, heantiiul fifwer The traps are of 
the caCrideti type. 

4. Material sent me by Mr. J. Harvtld Siiinh. DeparrnKni: r»! AKricuUuit:. 
Ailicrlon, Queensland, sligsvs \Um this view is corrcs.! The seeds arc imH* 
tavo-CMiivtx atKl iviiitjcd afjoiit as usual m die grotip. 

106^ LufYR iViO/fi oM Utrifulatia [vit un* 

7/. /w^w/Afflt.— As above no*t;^?, this plant has traps o( the type 
o/ L\ dkhotmxta, but with two long unhranched antennae and a 
similar rostrum. It was found by Armit in the region vi Cashmere, 
Queensland, "in mounteiii sw^imps/* and was described by von 
Mnellct in 1875, who nukes no menlion of traps. Tlie tur^'d 
hollow scape acts as a float, levitating i\\t tt;st of the parts which 
are submersed. I'he '*lea>'e5" arc n^ whorls, but we do nut know 
if each leaf bears a trap- Tiie figures (pi. xi. figs. 2, 3) are shadow 
jiiclures of the ty^ie material in the National Herbarium. Mcl- 
K^urnc, where all the material lies except ^t\u]\ fragments found in 
Kew Herbarium and in that of the Briiish Mu?reuni of Natural 
History. No other specimens exist, and it has never l)ccn coilcctcd 
since before 1875. Tlic flowers appear to have the fonti and colour 
of those of rhe dlcholorna. It is very desirable to find new localities 
for this plant, and to collect carefully a sn^all amount of it preserved 
in 70^ spirit (preferably) or in 56% fornuJin. I am particularly 
anxious to get material of thfs plant. We do not know whether it 
is quite freely floaiing or is more or less ancliorcd or how. Observers 
in the Cashn>ere Station regi^^n (45-50 miles west of R<x'i<ingham 
Bay) are urped to assist in throwing light on tins matter. 

(/'. ca{}iH\forr. Fv.M — This is a very cxtraordmary plant and 
miglji wc!l. in ilic hands of a De Candolle or I-ehmann. be U5cd 
as the ty]>e for a separate genus. As the figures (p. 108, figs. 1, 2, 
12) i^bow, the flowers are not closed by a palate (but the prcasc 
rdative position of parts canvfOi be determined from dried 
nxjitccial). Tl^c flowers arc mmuLe (2-4 mm.), The upper corolla 
lip consists of ^'two lon^ hairlet-likc segments*' (F. van Muelter in 
the frogmento) joined together near the l)asc by a web. The loiver 
corolla lip is palmately deeply lobed inio finger-hke segments. Tl>e 
upper part of the spur is widely inflated, the lower part forming a 
iJoul:>le %ac (in the drier material looking merely cmarginatc). The 
form of the trap (dctermint-d from one luckily-collected plant) is 
noted above. 

Amoitg (he jiheets of 5pecimcns in tl>c Melbourne Herl>arium is 
04K which was labelled U. rcfrillifiora by von Mueller, but which 
turns out to l>e quite distinct. 

It is not surjjrisine thai this sl^ould have Ijecn thought to he 
U. capiUi flora, since the whole aspect of the plan! is the same, even 
to the i\xo hair-likc upwardly-pointing floral appendages. Ir tum^ 
out. howe\'er, that in this species (hese are lateral lobes of the 
!fY:at'r corolla lip, which here is triangular wliJi two other obscure 
Literal lobes (p. 108, fig 3). T propose this as a new spedcs. 

IJiricultnid Dnrtsla^ti, sp. n. 
Ahhuc. scapo una, imifioro, 10 tw. alio, caf>ilhn.. .Squamae 
hcsipxoe, Inffi triangulares^ lyilobatae^. rnedius (ohns imignys. 
^Mii^USt hiercffTf: lobi minuti. Flos f JiitiK louffus, /ipp<?iuHa<hs 


J Ij.ovii, Xi>tt'S yn ( 'triinhria lfi\r 

iupUhirihns crcciis, -Jf) nun. loiujis, ex fahro in fey toy e corollac. 
Corolla infn'ioyc labro trioitfjuhiri, acuta, duohus hHcyaUhiis ioblK 
hrcvibiis, Imsi duohits capiUarihiis lobis, valdc iougis {40 mm.l 
supcriorc htbyo ofali. intcr/ra, vianjinc invohtto. 

Annual, with a single hair-like scajic suniiounted by a singly 
flower 4 nun. long, exclusive of the upright hair-like extreme- 
lateral 'lolx^s of the lower lip of the corolla; lower lip trian^nilar, 
5-lobed, the niediati and two distal lateral, small and hlunt and 
two very lonj; (4 cm.), formins; the npri^dil hair-like antennae of 
ttie above-mentioned upper corolla lijJ. in these characters iliiTer- 
ing Irom iJ . capiUi flora F.v.M. 

The sca])e is anchored by radiating ohli(|uely-growinj^r rhi^ords. 
1'hc tra])s have the same form as those nf capUUfloya. The fruit 
is the same (i). 108, figs. 1,4, 5). 

Found by X. M<^lt;^e (No. 1340) along the Howard kiver. 
Northern Australia, 1891. Flowers with "yellowish brown colour." 
Type in National Herbarium, Melhounic ; co-type in the British 
Museum of Natural History. A small, delicate ])lant about 10 cm., 
tall, or much smaller, of like habit aiul very similar to V. capilUjJaru 
F'.v.M., but differing materially from that species in the shape ni 
lower corolla li[). which is triangular with two small lobes aufl iwij 
very long antenna-like lolies — 4 em, long. These lobes, therefore. 
arise from the lower lip and nr>t from "the np[)er portion of the 
corolla" as in capiUiftom (K. von Mueller: Jonru. and Proc, R.S.. 
N.S.W., 2A : 176, 1890). The stem (scape) hears a whorl of three 
triangular thref-lohed hluiitish bracteoles at tlu- base of the pedical. 

This plant is nanied for Mrs. William Dnnstan. of Melbourne. 
whose sym])athetic attitude has dime much to f(jster the love and 
apj)reciation of natural history, 

IK Mvarei, sp. n. 

A siu|^le sheet carrying two specimens of a plant collected hy 
Mr. Charles Moore, former Curator of the Sydney Herbarium, in 
Eastern Australia about 1885, cannt>t be referred to any known 
Atistralasian species. Though regretfully lacking flowers atid fruft 
the specimens are so good as to [)eruiit an acute diagnosis» sli<iwiug 
as they do the habit of the ])lant as a whole, its leaves, and, excc])- 
tionally enough, its (rajis, which arc exceptionally large an<l with 
unique character. 

I trli iituriii Mnnrri. sj>. n. 

Stoltntvs Jwrizoutidilcr iwtarsi. siutjulis foliis in snpcriorc .super- 
ficie late scparatls. India clongata, spatuhUa. obiusa. 6 an. loruja, 
valdc longis {S inw.) pcdujwulis, duobus itinculi^s basi cHJu.ujuc 
folii, IJtrkuH mai^ui {4 5 mm. loiuji c.Viiusis appcndintlis ^ 
ohliqui, roslro valde loiufo (.^5 unit.), angustissiwo cl duabits aiis 
longis ftabcllatis laciniaiis dorsalibus in rx/criomn ct supcrioicm 
pttrtcm ('itf'7'atis. 


[j,<»vii. Wifrs t'ti CtriittUtritt 

\iiatinukal Strikturc nl" fJJaddt'i's. 

Stolons ijprcacling horizuntally, with leaves arising singly from 
tlie upper surface at ooiisiderablo distances, elongate, sjiatuatc, 
cjbtuse, 5 c.\n. long, with a pair of trapes ari:sing from the stolon 
laterally at each leaf base; traps\'e of forward projecting 
api)endagcs (large and conspicuous) 4-5 mm. Ujng, oblique, with a 
rostrum and a pair of flabellatc and laciniate dorsal wings, reaching 
sidcwayji and upward, 3-5 mm. long. Xo other sjiecies with trap.s 
of this character is knowti. Flowers and fruit not known (pi. xi, 

fig- l>- 

Found by Charles Motjrc, former Director of the l^jtanic (jar- 

dens, Sydney, in "Jiast Australia" ab(>nt 1885, though tlie date is 
not indicated. The label of tlie type specimen, which is in the 
National IJerharitim, Melbourne, is in von Mueller's writing, The 
co-type is in the BritivSh Museum of Natural History. Shadow 
photograph of the co-type in the Kew Herbarium. This species is 
based ]>rincipally on the traps, which diiVer from al! other known 
traps of the distinctly Australasian grou]) of si)ecies of whicli this 
is one. Its habit is that of U. utonnntftos, hut tlie leaves are longer 
and more distant. Judging from the state of tlie specimens, the 
])lants were found growing in soft nuid and submersed. The tra]) 
is shown in hgure y, page 108. 

r. Hamiltoui sp. n. 

A single sheet cijntains several specimens nf an imnam;.'d species. 
I call this ^^ HauiiUoni, sp. n.. in honour of Mr. A. (i. Hamiltnn. 
veteran Australian botanist. 

i'trkuhma Hamiltoui, syt. ii_ 

Annua pan'a (5 cm. vcl minus), RIii::ai(ies c.v hasi srapur. Folia 
1 iiif, loiiga, 1 Jiim, lata, subs pat idata, acutissimc apiatlata, ('triciili 
(drfii 3 mm. lonfji) rostra simplicc attcnuato cf duohus anicnnix 
simplicibus attcnuatis. Squamae Iriani/itlarcs, aiulac. hasifi.Viti*. 
Florcs soUtarii. Ca^.yx: supcriore hihro intcgro, ozmlo; Inferiorc 
liibro vut(ir<}inato, 1 nun. lango; coroUa: inferiorc hfhro inUujro. 
Ia:c extcnsi). 7 mm. lango; supcriore labro profundv bilobato, loins 
subnhitis. 15 mm. longis, c.rtcnsis: ralntri graciVt, arulo, hrcviorc 
tfHuin- labrunt snperioris coroUac. 

A small j)lant^5 cm. or iess. Aiuuial with rhizoids from base 
of scape, heaves (1 cm. or less long, 1 mm. hmad) slightly sjiatn- 
late, long, apicidate. Hraclciiles triangular, acute, fixed at th:.' base. 
Flowers solitary; calyx; ui>i)er hp ovate entire; lower lip emar- 
ginate, 1 mm. long; corolla: lower lii> entire, spreading, 7 mm. 
long, sptir slender, acute, shorter than tlie lower covi>lla lip; ui)i)er 
lip dceplv lobed, the ]tjbe>, awl-shaped, 15 mm. l()ng. spreading 
(p. lOS/iigs. 13-15; pi. nI, hg. 1). 

'i'raps 2 mm. long, with a long slendrr rostrum \\\n\ iv\n sleudei 
antennae ( rein-esenting the dorsal wiiii^s) (]), lOS, fig. S), P'ruii 
l!ol known. 


IJ.^^^"l), A />/i'.v t)n I ffiattarin 

rvic. Nut. 
LVol. IJII. 

Hultxe, 1861, "tiear Adelaide River," Aowxts "li^lit mauve." 
Type in National Herbarium, Melhonrne. C'(Hty]ie in Britisli 
Museuiit of Natural HisTnr\". 

1. ('. Ifatnifioiii. Shadow picture, c^^-typt.^ 2. IL Lira'-Kmii. Shail(JW iiii'tin'o, 
to show clearly the habit of the plant. 

( \ Lim'soni, sp. n. 

Wlieii collecting in coini>any with my colieagnes in the De]>art- 
mcnt of Botany, Sydney University, I found a ]>kint which I knew 
at once to be uuflescribcd for Australia, antl appearcfl to be identical 
with ('. paradoxa Idoyd and Taylor (in press), a plant of Angola. 
West Africa. On examination it turned oitt to be quite distiucl. 
Unfortunately, no flowers were seen, perhaps In' reason of the 
season. A few days later one of the Botany staff, whn had noticed 
the plant in a pond in Centennial l^ark, Sydney, brouj^ht in a fine lot 
of material. 1 have named it m honour and in rememljrance of 
Professor Anstruther A. Lawson, late of Sydney I'niversity, wOiosc 
memory is still green in that institution. In spile of lack of flowers 
I venture the following fliagnosis : 

rtncularia Larcsoni, sp. n. 

Valdc siinilis i tricitlariuc paradoxac srd vidchtr tiihUo rohjtstior. 
paene carcns sctosifate iUins speciei. i.e.. C pifnnio.vac. ScgmcuUi 
terminalia fojioruiti satis iflahra. Plorcs et fructus igno'.i. 

Plant with the habit of the Angolan V . piwadoxa F. E. Lloyd and 

-G. Taylor (pi. xi, lig. 2), but differing from that species in iht 
absence of .stiff sharp trichomes on the -itgnient^ of the leaves, in it& 
sne, "wbicli is mnrh larger, and in l>p;inng *ra[»s sparingly on the 
leaves JrisleatI of only otj (ho stolons. 'J'here are two ^^ts of stolons. 
llinse which run more or less Imn^ontaHy iii soil oiud or sand, and 
bearing nniucrons traps of the zml^/ans type (p 102) and re.sejtib- 
Ihig in particular those oC (/. ve.-iupijtahi (p. %. ftg<=.. 4, 1(3). Fro5" 
the horizonlal stolons arise vertical ones bearing leaves, and these 
arise upward {resembbng liltlc trees) in ibe iriipernatant water 
This plant was collected long ago Iw ?i*Ir Ch:irle*; Moore, as is evi* 
denr froiii a' single fragment which was cut off fioui a specinieTl 
floated out on brov;^ii jcipcr, and is now in the Melbourne Her- 
liariiirn. Type material (pi xii) in British Museum of Natural 
History. Co-lyi>es at Melbotnne. Svdney, Bri^ibane. Perth and 

Only tv'o species in the world are so far known. From die struc* 
turc of the trap they arc evidently of the vulgaris group, with, 
however^ tijc peculiar,, above-noted habit. Flowers and fruit 


When coUecting iUncaJaria, in addition to herbarium specimens, 
some good, entire material should be preserved in fluid (7S% 
alighol, or 5% forniaUn, the former preferably) y\bove all in 
imjx^rtance is the adequate collection of the buried parts of land 
forms. Bits of the soil mu'^t often he carried home and the sub- 
sliation freed from the tmderground parts with great cure. Rim- 
ning water helps: and one plant thus recovered is better than a 
dozen ciircles^ly pullfd out. Sometimes, when the .Mibstrate is soft, 
It can be washe<l away in nearby water if available. The specimen 
Miould not he allowed to dry. bnt be placed at once iti tlic preserva- 
tive. In ease of iloatmg forms, or^e shotdd not pijl too much in a 
botlkt as it dilutes the fluid (r^o nnich. (t can of course., be ehansjcd 
into fjvsb solution. 


1. Diagrams of the narrow Uoor-Uiresliold angle tyyc, ilx>vc, and helow, of 
file wide door-thrc'ihoW angle type, of entrance mechanism. 2, U> coruuta, 
trap. 3. Sagittal eectiuTi ol trilrancc oi^ same. 4. iL rccnrvafa; U. I.owsofii. 
S. U. *iQii*t, 6. U. itlbht(t. 7. V . f;f>iinitiirif)(ioli(i- 8. Sdf^iUal section of Hniranct:. 
//. fffobufaniwfptia, 9. tJ h'irkii. Right: Iraiisvorse sections through The 
door, 10. U. i-fcurvata; V. Laivsom. 13. V- (Biuvuhtrm) olivaica. 12. {L 
caliif>hy-w. 13. U. vrhktHata. 14. IJ. IJny>Jn one ot th*- <limorj)hU' types. 
15. U. I.loydii. Tile second type- Vj. V myvfiWM. 

Pa«e 102 
1. Enlxanrc n»e<"liainstii, V, vu(g*^7ii lyOe The door lu let voiturc. v. velum; 
.1, 4, directions ol Approadoiig prey. 2. The same, the ri«vif open. 3, Entrvnc*; 
mechanism, U t^urpvrta. 4 ? he same, door cipen, S. V. duliotonui. 

Mo>iOMi/iL^s. A: Tbr enlTauct* niechantsin, (hu door in rclRxcd posture, li; 

DidLfi^ram to ihotv Ihc sul i-md relaxed posture? o^ the dour. 0. (a rlichotovn^ ■ 
7. L'\ viol(i(K^o, 31'oiU ainl lateral side viows. 8. Polypoinpholyx, Above: 
f.aternl view of trnp with the lateral wing raisfH »o '.(low the cntraiuc. 
TJelow: S-igitla! attlion cjS lite Iriip. 0. dtX'l' ; I, ihriishold; c, floor of antr- 
chamber; r, ride* alcnife upper side of stalk; ic, larftt ititCfcclUiIar si>ftCC; 
»;. ?, Uarisvc^'^c pat<.>i of bristles. 9 0', tubidatii^ cf. 1JT— ^>-i!^, JO. [/ fofcii' 
ftofii. sagittal section (sec Fig. 12). U. U. mujoruux; U. biloba. 12. fy. 
hurifiorc.', s€t and relaxed postures o) the- doof. 33. U. faumUa. 34. i^, 
ifj-uIiHOufh. T p»*t FntrwrnV'. wjllt o-^f J'hailgiii(» fo^tnun Riijhl: Rostruitj (-n 
faci\ 15. U U)v.f}uHials\. 

1. Ktiwer^ of ^^ capiHifiorn (lefl) aad of i/. Duustt'nit i]j. n. (rjgjit). Tlie 
upward siat^'Ju'fc *^lanienl5 =vHoitTf| fx; miu'li longei (set: Fijiir^. 11 ov>d ]2'i. 
'3 r/. ropiUipcrA F.v M u.l , uppf^r Itj) oJ corolla ; ua, upprr scp-^I- Tin: 
lobes of tlic lower corolla are often half a> long agato. -V f/. OutKUon-}) 3p. f>. 
4. Fruit of U. Duvitani. 5. Trap of C/. DriMsiani and ol //. cnpiHiftotv. 0, f •. 
tValHcinono. 1. V Smiivrmw . 8. /J- Hix\mlUm\ 9. 0'. Moorcr, sp. Ti. 
10. i!/. (xfbiflota (trap jit in Fig 17). J], /y DnnsliHU, <.f.. m 12. ^/. fa;CT/i/f- 
fifrra F.v.M. 35, 14- riower. and l.r Lpst, ^/. Hmmlfani. f-v. n 16. f^. MnV 
j rrtj(^^,*. 17 (!'■- HitHca; V- allnfiom. 


1 U* JfttfVfWi *U. It- 2 (/. tMntlah, frcmi lypc nTatcrial. -ViUuijal Mcrl>ArHJTn^ 
A4e)Wi*)»i<'- J. Trop of U. lubufatHi 


r/, f^aufs^ut. R|i. n. Sli?.do\Y nkturc of t>'i>c iiutcrial, Briti*]! ^•In'iCMin 

Natural Jliatofj*. 


Sauirday, Atigusi 29, >vas a spriog-lite day and Hlly ni«i)beri^ of ihc 
C'ub, Jil^O Or. Joban Tvfiiurir.«rin, a vi^iling botani*.? ffOJVl Sw<'df:n, t0C>k pat'- 
ili the cxoiriion. Leaving Baysw^urr railv^ay station thu jiarty walked j-ii 
H narlltcrly direriion along ib<; r;>ilwny line mid dev»jied .<ctme iinie (o plani!> 
{•.lowing- Ui the. cn».l<WiUrp. maDV r-f whtc^ wcr^ in flii-.vcr, «.uch -i* L<t^^n>pog*'\t^ 
vir^alu.^, RhtyiolAnyn obtusatujufmtt, Ooviesia i-orymboMi , D. iotifoHa Htb'- 
hartia otrui/i/n'j^ H. xh-ufij, Hnkctx tifrtvcts, H . f^vfjictniornns, Coodahw 
*\rfat<i, G- Oi^nii'ulaUi. fUHordinci sr.anrfcn.^, PnUawi-a Gi^nnii^ Imiifjitfijfa 
itHstrahs. OHlzpyma nnt:rn.\icUs. KKrtiicdya prosirttta. Spyrkimm parvlflorum. 
fiitphmsia lol/uw. ;ind Cw'r'.^o tubtda v;ar, vin'"-^. a variety with g.rc<;Mish 

Fverywiierc f-Jov&a Iw'rfophyfh was mot wjdi, displaying: its blin^^ 
llovvcr>; Uiirdcnhcraiit nnn)nphyUa wa?^ equally cooNpitiuous, Herbaccrms 
pUnf* were well udvnnred and many in full bloom ninde n fine display. 
Amuiiii th'Jbc )ioU*d werr C/»;;f;wWsvW//o coryirthoAV, Cfirsw rdltota, C- pirn"}* 
^oro, DlchoPogon sfrirtvs, Craxpedia tiniflora. Hr'u hrysmn strorpiofdfii. 
CKaph-aliu-m japonk'Uin, Micnhicris xcapigcra. Brtuhynfjmc dccipietts antl 
Ti. cayditu'Cfypii. 

Ueachiug liie DimJetioiig Creek we were disappooUcd to (ind tJiat many 
i;f (be S'lvfr W.ittles ( Acnciti dfolhoUi) . which (ornierly lined Us bank'^ 
bad been destroyed, ^hfiongh the few renmiiiing trees in full bloom wer<i 
.v:cn at LlieJr best. Otiicr .-Vcauia^i ni flower werL /ic. jnclaur.ryloi}, Ac. n'*wnfrt, 
//r. vci'HdlloH^. At- siTidiK Ac diffnsii At. ac-nkalisAivui and Ac. }nvrhfc*hn. 
The s^^Tirch for orrhid^ wa"! rewarded by finding: fo;ir sjiede?, vi?. : piutix 
viacuhta. FlcroKfylis pcdiMtiidaHi, /■*. lonfiijoHa and I'. n*ilti'fs. A specimen 
ot nvUfifS witli varicfeXttC'l foliage W.ia tVmnd- j ^y^ A.ULi.'*? 


Uv'Chas. DAJ.Er. )>.A , i'x.s. 

'J'hnmas Lu'iii|>stoiic Mitchell, hov ol John MUchdI. iil Carruii 
Tamworks, was hovn at Craigetvf, SiirTtn.c^sTiirt. on Mav 15^ 1702. 
J4c Was cJnc>aicci at Edhslnivgli, u\k\ ;U tlic age of &ixl.eeii years 
voluniceifd inr service in the Pcniiisiiiar War. in which British 
trooj>5 were then enii^4g*'C^ unrler the Dnkp of Wellinijton in SiJairi. 

Being skilfnl in drawinjj atid draftsnumship, yoniij>^ ]VIitch<>II 
wiis enjploycy:] on niihlary survey. In the year 1<*^JI he was made 
ensign, and lattr lieutenant, in the 95th Reguncnt. and s<rrvod 
ihrougi* (liu whot^ oinipaign, bfiiig incseiU at the l>cLttIc5 of Ctuclad 
Jtudi'igo, Badajos, Sulatnunca, S?iii Sebastian. Vittoria, atui tJvr 
J-^yrcnees. for whidi service he received the Pcinnbula Medal with 
^ve cla-sp-s. At tlie rloN*' of the war he wns sf']t'clp<l hy the W»t 
De[jartnient foi llu* nvipottunt work of plai>tung and niodr.Hinq^ thp 
VattJeficIds, ruid the respectrve positions of the rival forc-es m the 
war This engaged his time and ei»ergy for live ye^rs, whei> hv. 
wvnl to Sandhurst Military College, and in 1822 was promoted 
10 the rank of captain, -md four years later to that of major. 

In Ahe year 1826. Mitchell was odeTed. iii recngniiion of hi-s M^r 
mcs, the posilion o( Aisistant Surveyor-General in New South 
Wales, with reversion of the ix»sici4)u, AccepDrig this, m 1827 
he arrived in Sydney and entered with vfgour npon hfs <]uties. In 
ifiZy, on the death of Wdham Oxiey, he Iteeanie Sup/eyor-( Uweral. 
ills first work wa:^ the co-ordination of pievions survey.'> mio a 
loniprehensive ut;ny of (ht* wtiole rolony to enable it lo I)e divided 
into eoanlies. Tn this end he carried on! ctlcctively the first 
trigonometrical survey in Australia, and watt thus cnal>kd to pixi- 
dnce what was known as the Three. Sheet Map of the nineteen 
coonlics of the scltJejjient, an outstanding work testifying to his 
skill and proficiency in hii^ profession. The work of lr<*nsforniing 
tracks into permanent roads hy means of Convict !jlx>nr waa syslc- 
nutically performed under his direction and oversight, the main 
rr>a(l north tn the- Hunter River, tlie great western road to Bathurst, 
i\t\(\ the highway to Gonlhurn prnvmii '""^ threat service to the 
exi>anding settleiiie?it, in wh»ch towns had to he laid nul. roads 
provided, re.s<'rves made, -^m] bridjjes con?^trucle.d. In addirina tn 
the arduou.s duties of survey work, Mitchell, like his prcderessnr. 
d'\i\ most va?uable service in exploration, tn whidi he condtieled 
ihiee imporran( expeditions, the first in lS.31-2 to the noiLh-west. 
In 1835 along the l>ar]ing River, and the thud in 18.^6 to AustraJia 
I'Vlix. On return from the last undertaking Mitchell went, in 
1K17, to Hnijland. where he published his ^reat work —Three 
ExPcdifioiU^ into the Interior of Kastern Auslrftiin- Vov his signal 
MTviccs Queen Victoria knighted hnn, the University of t)xford 

)14 Dalkv. Mitfor T. L. MUchvH, Exphrer o)}d Nnturaihi [yui^nx. 

confei'icd the. D.C.L.. the Geological SoaV.iy 3 »llowshjp. and the 
military authorities iMOTnote<l lum ta be licutoiaiit-colouci. 

On hii> rMuriK with renewed vigcnir be rttiumcJ the onerous 
iJulic^it of his offi^<^ j^^re^itly;fl by the needs lor internal 

In IS44 he was clfctcc! as a rq^rcscntaiivc of Pore Phillip District 
in the New South W;ilfs Legislative Council On finrling that Sir 
lieorge Gipps expe.cfed him, although elertcci as an independent 
member, to vote as a Government nominee, he itnmcdaatcly 

In 1845 he fondiirted an exploring" expc^lition trUo TroprC^I 
Queensland. a)id published Iho Journal of hi^i thscovcrici. In 1851 
he was commissioned ro furnish a report uj>on the goidficlds of 
New South Wales. 

In Addition to his official work lie was interested in literAify. 
scientific and artiste pursuits, his niany published wor^;s showiuj^ 
his versatihty. In 1853 he rc-vi^itcd Eughnd. and on October 
ijied, after a !?horl illn«S5, al Darling Point, Sydney-, 

The Third E,tpi>dit70n 
On March 17, having inustertd his following- at the Carioblu.'* 
Valley, west of liiiHimst, Mitchell, with the l>est-eqiii|jped expe- 
dition ever de^]3afched in Australia, began his journey, uiKler 
instnieiion from Guvernoj- Hourke. to trace <he course of the 
Darling, proceed up the leSt ban^; of the Murmy for Romc distance, 
and return via the yas>> Plains. Hi? company comprised Mr 
Stapylton. sur/fyor. and 24 men, of whom nine Iiad been wifli 
him previously, and M either under sentence or surveillance. 
Each ivad special duties allotted to him. ;uid Miichell's firm btit 
sympathctie tie^ilment secured thoir lOyaUy, devotion and cflieient 
service. Piper, an aborigine, Mnth Ins lubra. was taken as a guide. 
Hud two otbrr natives v;-<:re also atiachfd. Ttve expc<lition had 
70 bidlocks. 15 draut^ht horses, 10<> sh^cp: also fiv? buflock-drays, 
two covered carts, a boat-rarriage ronveying iwo boats, one 
wndiitt the other. Tf to these h(* adtted camp efjuipment, supplier; 
tools, utensils, firearms, chains and tackle, scientific instnmicuts 
and varied impedimenta, the niagnUude of the undertaking can 
be perceived The course taken was alnu^; the Lachlnn Rivey^ 
which in wet years had so battled Oxicys attempts by sprcadini; 
onl into extensive and imjjassnble swamps. This year, a dry one, 
it was a succession of wateriiole?, so Iravelhng was comparalivcly 
easy. The Lachfan was traced to ihu ^fu^rnml.11dAt:^. and the latf^r 
to the Murray Rivizi, a kise camp being formed iiboul a mile 
l>elow tlic Junction, ixoni which Mitchdl made a diversion with 
part of his force to the Harling River in nrder to verify Stiir^'s 
recogniHon uf it in ISvlO. Returning to the cimp the Murray was 
succcssiully crossed, and progress madt ihrongh tine pastoral 

coiintry up the left hank of the river pasi the prcsfiifc Hiics i»r 
Swan Hill and Colinna. Then cht-mL^inii the route to th<^ south- 
west, Milchrll asteii<le(J Mt. HoiJC cinrl Pyramid HHI, couliiitu!<l 
tt-ej-itward and discovered succcssiveh IUl Lutldon, Avota, Avoti, 
Kichardson, VVinimera, MacKcn/ie and Mortan Rivers. asccn(lc<l 
ihe Grampii»ns a^ Mfs. William and Zero, then at Ml Arapilvs. 
Turning boiith ^jarrtHel to {\\c Victoiia Kangt-- the Gtenel^ and 
Wunnoii Kivciti were discovered, \h^ coast being reached on 
Auyii^t 19 at Diw:o\x^ry Bay. 

Oil r€^u^i»iiig in ^ 1w^tIl-ea^tfrrlv divec^iftn, a brie{ visil wtis 
i»ade to Portlaiul J3av. wh^re ilu- Hcniys, ihc first Victorian 
settlers, \vcix; met wiih. Mt. Ahrupl, south ol the Grampians. 
was asrcinrVd by MiUheW^ five Pyrmrc^. L-ros.s*;il aiul named. MtSv 
Alexander anrl Macedcii a^t<*ndcd, ihe rivers Canipaspe, Coliban, 
Gonlburn. Broken and Ovens bcing^ passed over, previoits to the 
Murray being crossed opi)osit^ iJawlong Return to Sydney was 
niRile via the Mniinml>id/^»;:e and Yas? PlaiUN. 

Major i\1i(choll, a nun of keen observaliitn and nf a robust 
cuuslimtiou. accustomed to ficJcl work, n» constaol contact \v>»h 
Nature in all as])L*et.s uf the Att.str^ilian Iniah, {^ives in hii; Jocifnal 
a most interesting^ rt^enrd oi the natural fcatnrcs of the country 
passed Uirnngii. 

Capal^lC' and niethudical in all his work, h<: records at raeh cam|> 
die readings o( Ixirnincter and iheinioincter, tlircctiun uf tlie wind, 
and character of the weather. ITe gives the width, dejuh ami rate 
of flow of the streams met with, and carefully iiotcs tlie physio- 
.i^'raphy and (he nature of ihvt country rn route In directing his 
course he would ascfiul mountains ov elevations |K:ihaps miles 
distant to obtarn triangufaHons and mark the contours and vana- 
liunii in the iaiid surface. He made a coHeclion uf the rockp, and 
even of the soils derived therefrom, noting the geological charac- 
ter^ the presence of sedimentary rocUs us at ihe Grampians, cd 
igneous rorks as ar Maccdon. of g^ranitic manses as at Mt. llopv*.. 
of volcanic action as at Mt Napier, of fossiliferous tertiary lime- 
stone alonj^ the Glenel^ River, etc. He studied the i>rig»n oC t}»e 
nmnerous. lakes, west of the Grampians, some fresh, some salt. 
with gypsum dei>osits In his second expedirmn he had explou'H 
the caves with osseous breccias in ihe Wellington Valley, and later 
at Burcc, where remains of extinct ntarftnj>ials. etc.. freely occur. 
Front the fossils oblained ami suhrniUed to Professor Owen, twn 
species of a new genus, Diproiodcn, several of Macropus, the giant 
Kangaroo; die Wombat. S-'hascofyuHiK MifrJir^llii. a species slit! 
existent, and leuiains of iialmainrl, Ffhilmu/ers, lJyf>s*ptymuus 
and Du.^yui'ii.K were rccogni/ed and dcscrified 

Elis observalinns on the hving fauna arc vakublc. In addiuon 
to tUe ordinary marsupials observed, near Swaw Hill a l^ille^ 
animal, C!i^or(>ptts miudtttus, resembling the Jerboa, was cap- 

lured. It was about JO inches in length, having two Iocs like n 
\rg in the front feef A m;iv,sti[iial. Dify^s Mhchi'tJii, as small afi a 
fiekl-nioiise, with ;» long brush l»il» w;jtS obtained. Th*^^C w^rc 
luimed I))! the naturalist, Mr. Ogilby, amj dc]X>^ile<l in the Syciiiey 
Mnseujn. A Iree-chmbing rat, buildiug a nnsL in a Iree, a flal- 
taiki.1 rat, onri a rat-enrcd bat xvfr« also obstrved. A inmi^icr of 
uur cornmon hlitii was noted, but the niObl prizcjcl w;i^ :i S|jcamcn 
r>f a Superb VV:irb]cr of Mtie plumage with white wings. With his 
artistic facility tl«: M^jor preferred to represent adn»nably with 
his brush tli^ Mitchell Cockatoo. Ca^atud i£»i^b^.ai^ri, having n 
scarlet and yellow topknot. He also made a fine ^ttnly of tlic heflri 
t»f the Australian Ecigl^, Aquila andax. He found that the Murray 
Codj Grisfcs Pcvlii, w^as confined lo the noithcrn rivers. Other 
fish aoletl were a Pcrcli with large Mi^ales, Cerviut Ihdyam, and tlic 
Kel-fish, Ptotonus imulanKn, Bream and Schnappcr were caught 
m the Gjenelg Kiver. A small bml-slieil, TrnvnUcffa fiJo-ui, was 
fount! in numbers on the shore of Mitre T.alcc. 'J"he ordinary 
Mussel was found tu survive in watcrlc&s lakes by working down 
to moisture underneath. 

Dct'ply inr<'rt&re<l in the native race, wuh ;* hr>stik tr)l}e of 
which Ins men uufortnnatcly cjmc into conflict nun ihc Murra)-, 
the Major j^ivcs much information as to their manners and cu«;- 
U7in$. uniformity of langusge. their ritc^f, cercnionie?; and sn])cr- 
jijitioni, tribal etiquette, methods of Jmniing, fishnig^ netting wild- 
fowl, cookiitf;, food restrictions, constructing shelters, and njodes 
of burial*. The making ?md use of their various weapons, then' 
arti.stic l^vtskcts, kangr-nOO-skiik eloaks, cK , arc desvrrbtd; alsn 
their sk*eping customs, fireplaces, ash-Iiills, the treatment of tho 
"balyan" or bulrn^h for the food content, use of edible plants. 
and of 'bool," a drink nude from sleeping the flowers of the iron- 
bark m water. He praises the intclllgcnre of tlic natives, thcfr 
keenness in vision, heariui; and observation. 

Of his guide, Piper, he writes: *'Ju?y 3rd. This was a very 
iHJsy d'ly for the parly — black ;»nd white. I cannot fairly say 
.savage antl civilijced for, iti most of our diffietilii'iiji by flood antE 
field, the mtcllii^ence and skill of our siiljlc fncnds niade the 
'white felIow.<' appL'ar rather >5tupid. Thtty criiild read traces on 
the earth, climb trees, or dive nito the water hctier than Jhe ahkAt 
of us. In tracrng i(»st cattle. si>eaking^ to the wild natives, hunting, 
t>r divhig, Piper was ih^ njosi accomplished man in Che cjutip. In 
person he was the tallest, and m authority he was allowed to con- 
sider himself almost next (n me, ^be better «o secMi'e his b&^l 
exertions. The men he despised, and he would only act by my 
orders " 

AJUcbcl] had two oilier capable native helpers. Tommy Camt* 
first and Tommy Camc-last; whilst Turandury, a widow from the 
l^aclikm Iribe, with a child. BallandcJIa, four years of age, was 

utt expert s^iMt ajid interpreter. Ihe child was ultiiiialely lakcn 
by the Major into his own lionsvhold lo l>e trained and educated 
Of Hie n;itivi: mce, he wricc^: "My cxjK'iiettcc enables iin- »•) 
^>eak in the mosr favourable terms of the ahovigines. whose 
degraded position Jti the midst of the while ]>opularii>n afTords no 
just critertoii of their rnerit^- The quickne.^s of ap|)reliension of 
tho^t in the iiiterif^r wus very renvirkahlc, for ivjUung m oil the 
complicated adaptations we carried with us either surprised or 
pit^^le^i ihem. They arc never awkward ; on the minraiy. in man- 
ners und general inlcIHgence they appear superior to any class of 
white rustics that I have seen.*' 

The Major's hUck.s were rclurmd to ihtir tnhcs with gifts. 
Piper, pro»Kl of the attention h^^ ler.eived at Sydney^ arrayed in 
the Major's red coat, ^nd wth a cocked hat and feather once 
Governor Darling's, and ako decorated with y. Iirass plate, irtscribed 
''Conqueror oi the Interim/' was conducted hack tn his tribe at 
[?at hurst. 

In the nomeiirMlui'L- of plares. Mitchell preferred the musical 
native names, e.g., Millewa. Yarravoe. NangeeJa. Wannon, Wa*v1o. 
tiayunga, Ccboor. 

Mcijor MitrlKil! wa.s Ji l<i.*pii liotanisl. in a>ming down the dry 
LadWan River he diiycovcied three new s|>eeic.s of Pioraleo, Scurf 
Tea, and three of ilK pretty genus Trulnnhiin: also a new species 
of SQmihtu'n..i or Elderhtrrry and n new ffidujofan with white' 
flowers. lit notes tht: presence ol the Cathtns or Murray Fine, 
A Pittosporum. v^iriuus Acacias, and near the Murniy, in abun- 
dance, the Quandon^, Fusanus ncitrninatui, on wliicli he diiicovcred 
the Mistletoe, Lorcfithus qiunidonty, with bright red flowers. lie 
found that (he nauvea ate the (rails of Sohnmn v.mriale of the 
Nightshade fiiniily, and of the Moscmbtyaulhcmum, also the 
rt:)asted stalks of a Piais and the foliage oi the fragrant Trigo^nclh 
xunvis.utmi, '^Calnndia/'' a new plant with tlovcV-like Icuvea, wliieli 
was also relished as a vegetable by mwnljers of the expedition. 
EaralypbHs rostY%i4n^ river red-j^ntn, "Yarra" rd rhe nndves, ;ilong 
the streams, witl^ Dwarf Box "Gohorro*" on drier areas were the 
chief liKa1ypt.s /.:. lonffiff^ha and fl lanrcoloitj are mentioned. 
with E. d^in&sa h\ tJie Mallee near the Murray. S|)cde3 of Catos- 
tnnvto, Fardx^m, Cof'rea Oinrl Cassia, with other nrw planr-s, wer*^ 
found. Many species of graSbes, Dmihonia, AMihi.^titia, Stipai, Foa, 
etc., ill ricli profuaioii arc noted south of the Muiray. Mear Mt 
Hope a pretty white Anirmlkirw. {A. dioka) was seen, for which 
flie JVlajoi suggests the name. *'AuhtniUan Snowdrop.'' Here also 
was a striking plant Plichalium (nricstctnon) pHij(feni\ and a 
plant like a Cistus (Flcuramh wcana) A reminder of the Old 
L.and wa6 l-^chrgomini Rodn^yanum, which he named in honour 
of Adtiural Rodney's j^randdau^hter, Mrs. Kiddell. of Sydnev. 

IIS DflLKV. Ma 10*- .' . L. MiichrlL Explorer and A'otJfi^t'w [v'^i* ^ij; 

tUn^cKiamirrovtfw, Dixvir.^ia pcrtivata^Pigca ftoribimda and (iyros- 
fnnau fHmfjc»s were new 5.]3eciei. alio nvi attractive plani witli 
ofangti-cotfUtred Rowers. Hopera Oitro'tiiicoett- 

At Mitchell's hun-i<?d visit to Ml. Wiliiam, o» llw cxpftstt<i siim- 
ntii of wliieh vnih thi^ce ]m:n lie ;>penf a "miserable night'* amfd 
liittor ilcet anO stiow, he colltxried quite -a nuinbev of T^ew plants, 
among which were Eucatypfus alpina and Actma MitchHUi, both 
peculiar to the Grampians. Attractive plants wci-^ EpQctis impress^, 
\\M' Common He;nh. Corrai rubra, Red Correa (the Clu)3*s badge). 
Lhot^kya alpcstris, Snow Mynle, G'f'c^^ill(^o aqttifoixwiw, Pj-jckly 
Grcvillea. Q (jlphm. Leucopogon fjlaaoj-is, the Twisted, L. y-afuJ 
ilic Ruddy, ajjd /-. cordifoH-HS, the Heart-lcat Bcard-hcaths. Also 
»he btauhfuL Thrypiom&fie rUiufa (Mitchellian.-i) . Cryptovdm 
tomcutosa. Prickly Cryptandra ; Pliehalmm hihyba, with bn'g'hl 
T<ffl rtowprs and holly-like t^avcs ; and C Oirospcrmuni MitchclJii- 
l^rer were obtained Ptiltem'tca mofiis. the Soft I3n$h Pira ; Cornra 
ocmulo, the Hairy Correa: Tchnfhcco. dlinld. "with large pnrple 
flowers, the mast beautiful plant met with": Davtesia bteinfolu), 
J>eafles5. Biner Pea : Dihvynn^o hispida, Rough Parrot Pea : 
Oatwia petrtiruUn, Thornv Bitter Pea; Baeihia cras.sifoh'Qu Desert 
Baeckia, etc. Among the many Acacias, A. .'^ckrcpbyHc, A. fannoiQ, 
A. aftprra and A. acinare/i were new .species. Ot Orchid-S. whifc. 
Nue, pink and rod Cti'!<)dcma^, A>?Mr/vV pahtxim^, Swamp Diuris, 
^'piranthcs auslmlu. Lady's Tresses, Bxirncttia cnvncnta, LizarrI 
Orcliid, the charmiaig Thelymiira (trisMa, Pierosiylfs MitchcHn, 
the Purple FrasophylluUh also the sn^all Microtis (//ro'rt, etc., weie 
Some piIaTit specimens were destroyed through damp, but the 
Ma^'or conveyed to England 77 species, 1 34 kinds of 'seeds, and 
f>2 bulbs* The plants were de.Knhcd and named by Dr. LindlCy. 
Professor of Botany, l-Cindon, rhe s«eds distributed in.ijardens, 
the liulbs plarited at Chiswick Horticultural Gardens. Some of 
Che names ^iven by Lindley -.vere afterwards changed in the Flora 
.-4wif)-iT/j'.-?ii.m of Benthain and Mueller. Six Correal given specific 
rank were reduced to three under icvi^-jon. in the census of Vic- 
tnrian plants nearly cvf-ry species imdt^r Lindley's nailie was col- 
lected by the Major.* 

Muchell also collected samples of timber, sonie oi which, as we 
see in the Mul^a and other Acacias to-day. werci fragrant and 
attractive when polished 

Thi? was the first botamcal collection from the inferior of Vic- 
itifia. plants previously collected in 1802-3 heinp from the southern 
coastal fringe. 

Mitchell, ni his journal, exhibits his sound- judgment and fore- 
sight. He fully recognii^cd the siuiabil'fy of the new prov)nce for 
pastoral an^l ji^ricuKural pnri-uit^, aivJ seltlonvent. He shrewdly 
e.srimated the value of the northern rivers sy^cm <xs a ready mcan^i 

*Soe Ujj. p. OT. 

?Sc] fiAUEv. Mojof T. ;.. Mufkett, E.v/*hrcr and Mahtruhsi \ 1^ 

tor future conscrvatcon of water and irrigation of the clnVr areas> 
and of the Murray Rivtr tor navi^i^aULm and as an <;flkicnt fct'tiliz- 
ing ag^ency. 

He apprccated the many advantages possessed by the proviiicc 
in its water fadfities. its varied surface, quality oi ftoili?. as coiiv 
pared with the area north of thei Murray Riv^er. 

Ji) regard to a question of very seriouii moment at the present 
day, in passing ttirough th<! MaJIce scrub near tise Murray Hiver, 
he stresNcid tht' gre-.n value of the Spwifax- aiitl EUiolyfttus ihnnvm 
wilFi ils extensive root-system, hi serving as effective c-andsiays in 
arid areas, where, unless piotectwl by vegetation of tliis nature, 
erosion of the surface soil wab jncvitablc. He also notes that 
Eucalypfus rhtm/^fa 15 almost iudestrucrtiUle. by bush fires. 

With true vision he saw the fitness 0^ the land traver.sed tni 
h&bitatian by energetic and sturdy colonists, and happily named 
it in these words" "In iTtiirning over flowery pl;iir3 and gtcvn 
hills fannetl by (he bree/es of f^aiTv .spring. I named the reg^ion 
•Australia Felix/ " 

The report of the expedition accelerated the ineomingf of gftaxiers 
from the ni'>rth. Overlanders having already reached the vicinity 
of Albury. It also attracted settlers from Van Dicmen's Land, 
loiter on the publication of MitcheH's booK' in Great KrUatT) a];;o 
stimulated emignici(m to Australia, so that within a decade 3tll 
available- |>astoial country in Australia FeUx was taken up. 

The name "Australia Felix" replaced that of Port PhilHp, an<l 
was commonly in vo^ue until separaiion in 1851, when Ihc nfTIcial 
name. V^ictoria, g^radnally superseded it. without mvalidating its 
peculiar appropriateness, m regard tc* the colony's rich, natutril 
endnvvjnent, and unequalled advantages ior setclcment. 

In the year 1932 n^ Victoria there were three memorials on "the 
Major's hntt"; t<>-day. us a re?.iill. of the cnnsi-steni effoTti^ of The 
riistorical Mcnionals Comtniitec* then: are 32 memorials, witli 
about cigfit more under consideration or in course of erection. 


Dr W- R. B. Oliver, Director of Dominioti Museum, Wcllinj^- 
ton. New Zealand, has recently issued an excellent nionograjili 
entitled ""'The Genus Coprosnia."' Tl'ie. w-iTk was published for him 
by the Beriitce P, Bisliop Museum. Honoinlu. >iawaii. 

Coprosmo is one oi the large.5t genera in lite family Ruhiaceac. 
mostly distributed m iciriperaic ap::as or mountains of the tropics 
from Borneo toTai^mania and New Zealand The genus is of 
considerable interest to evoTulionists and plant geographers, 
although ihp. flow<*r.s are of fairly uniform structure, it has tuncty 
species and junetecn hybrid species. The (jnly ;ipparerjt method «f 
increase and distribution is by bird c<irriagc, the seeds of the drupe 


AnsiiQliati ijp^i^irs rtf Copf&sHM 

rvk Nai 
Ivoi. un. 

(^fiijit) being- cjipiiljle of ])assia^ with unimimired vitality through 
\\^t ah'mentary tracts. 

Species of Coprosma -are used for horticultural purposes 
Coprosma repens, "Taupata'-. of New Zealandj is cultivated 
throughout Australia as a bed^e plant, wiiere it is known as New 
Zealand Looking-g'kss Bush or ^'Squeakers/' Children blow 
through the folded leaf to make a squeaking noise. It is sold by Coprosvui Boueri. Some species were used by the 
Maoris for dyeing New Zealand flax 

There are seven species of Coprosma from Ausrralfa and Tas- 
mania ; six are endemic, whilst C. puimlo is also widefy distributed 
in New Zealand. ...... 

The following are the Australian specie?^, with the distribution, 
and u key for their detcrnnnatipn ; 

]^cave5 1 nerved. 

Stipules minute points on connected leaf 
bases . . 

Stipules trian;§^uiar 
Branchlets gbbro'us. 
Leaves hrc«a.dlv ox^te. slvl<J branches 

2-4 -.: ,..'.-. .... . .. 

C. M oarer Rod, 

LeaN'^rs^ Utirrowfy 

ovai^. sfyle 

BratncMets Dubescwt 

- v* t ) • 

Stipule.T tubular . . . 

Leaves reticulate. 

Stipules entire, flowers solitary . . . . 

Stipules denticulate, flowers clustered 

C. pnmila Hook 

T.,V., N.S.W.,N.Z. 

C. mmlis W. Ol 
Victorian Al|>s 
C, Tadgdli VV. 01. 
Victonan Alps 
C. mHdo 

C. quadrifidum Rob. 
T.. V. N.S.W, 
C. hitidla Lab, 
T., v.. N.S.W. 

, It will be observed that Dr. Oliver has added two new specie?; 
to the list of Victorian plants, namely, C. nmilis and C Tadgdli. 
The latter species is named in honour of our clui) member, Mr. 
A. J. Tadgell.. who has done very' valuable work in botanical 
explorations and writings on the Alpine regions of Victoria. Mt.- 
Tadgel! was also successful in collecting C, nivalis. . . 

Coprosnui TatigelH W, R. Oliver^ "Tiny Currant-bush/' has 
Jiuear elliptic leaves, acute., gradually narrowed to a short peliole, 
1 nerved, coriaceous, 8 >^2 mm. Stipules obtuse, margin ciliatc. 
Branchlets tetragonous, pubescent. The leaves of TadgclH 
resemble those of C. nivaUs, but the pubescent branchlets distin- 
,gLiish it from that species. — P. F. Morris. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIII. — No. 7 November 5, 1936 No, 635 


The ordiiiarj- monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall an Monday, October 12, 19.36. The Presi- 
dent, Mr. S. R. Mitchell, presided and about 100 members and 
{n'ends attended. 


The President announced wilb regret the recent death of a 
value<l member, Mr. H. P. McCoU, and members and friends 
present stood in silence as a mark of respect. 


The Subject for tlic evening was an illustrated lantern lecture 
entitled "In Australian Tropics'' and w?t.s given by Mrs. P. Hanki-. 
A fine series of coloured slides- showing many phases of natural 
history, together wirh a good commentary on them, enabled tliose 
present to enjoy a very interesting and nistructive evening. 

At the close of the lecture, the President accorded Mrs. Hanks 
the thanks of the Club, and members responded by acclamation. 


The President announced to the members that Dr. Johan 
Maurit^on, a from Sweden, vvho was here on a collecting 
trip, \vas present at the meeting. 

He welcomed the \nsilor to the Club, and presented to him a 
copy of Victorian Orchids as a token of remembrance of a very 
pleasant excursion to Ringwood. 

Dr. Maunt7on responded, thanking" members for kindnesses 
extended to him. 



Reports of excursions were given as foUovi'^ : Arthur's Scat 
Club Picnic, Mr. S. R. Mitchell; Beaconsfield, Mr, G. N. Hyam; 
Ringwood^ Mr, C. French and Mr. A. S. Chalk. 


A letter from Mr. Chas. Daley, b.a., f,t-.s., thanking the Club tor 
congratulations on the occasion of his golden wedding. 

S;& Pkid N^hti&IWy Cluh Pratudiugs [vll U)K 

On a show of hands the following were duly elected as ordinary 
members of the Clnl>; Mrs. M, M. Martin/ Mt&. .\, R. White. 
Miss A. G, Randt^ll, Mi^s Ready; and as Counity Member, 
Mr. L. H. Finnis. 

Forthcoming; excursions were announced by tlic leaders, and it 
was stated chat (or the Dredging- Excursion on JDeceuiher ]2, 
1936, names must he handed in not later than next meeting. 

Two members submitted (juestions tliroiigh ilie medium of the 

box, hath in reterence to birds. Mr. -A. H. Chisholmi C.f-A.O.U.^ 

answered them. 

The questions were; 

Question, — A foraging Blackbird was observed in a Toorak 
garden putting its head on one side towards t)?e ground, and then 
quielcly ihrusling in its beak to pull out a grub or worm. Was 
Ihe bird listening or looUin^^ (or both) for the insect? 

Answer. — ^I'he bird probably was listening. 

Qiicsiion. — ReceniH' an Enni-Wren was flushed from its ncsl of 
three youug. The bird was thoug'ht to be a male, with blue tiaroai. 
Is it usual for a male JMiiu-VVren to nestle or feed young, or was 
the male in its rapid fjiyrht misuilven for a female]' The young 
birds in the t\<t^t were almost fully fled^'ed. 

/fmwcr, — Identihcation probably cori'ecr. The male En")u-Wrcn 
certainly helps in feeding yoimg, Mr. Chisholiii said, athougii he 
bad noc seen it brooding, 

Mr. Coghi^l rcportetl that he saw a Jackass with a blue ring on 
■ft-s )cg. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver UKUtioncd having seen a Jackass fl}nng off 
with a giant worn\ at Gipi).sland> and l>eing iirought to tlie ground 
by the worm wrapping itself around the bird's wing^ to such an 
e?aenr tlmt human interve:n*?on was necessary to release the bird. 
Mr. A. H. Chisholm stated that this was not a rai*e happening. 

Mr.. C. French spoke, about orchids being destroyed at Franteton. 
It was decided thar this matter he referred to tlie committee for 


Mrs. P- Hank?.— Specimens to iUustrate the lecture, includhig: 
Pearl sJiells, Darwin ; Staurolitcs, Cloncurry ; CoralS; Fitzroy 
Island; h3?ket made from Pandantts, Palm Island, fruit of Flame 


\*):u; J 

FtrftI //ntiu'iiHxfy (Jhih Pi'or/'r/fiiiffx 123 

tree {hrachy chiton ocmfotius)y Fluorspar; flower of Kai>olc tree 
{Bombax matabanva), Northern TcrriTory; fruir of Date Palm 
(Dio-^t*yros vwiiiuia), Adelaide Ki>'er; fruit of. Pmidmms odova- 
tissimus, Darwin; leaves and fruit of Brugttumi gymnvrrlvca from 
Adelaide Rivet ; leaves, fruit ;uxl liark of flic Uroadkaf lea 'I rc<; 
{McUileuca Iciicodcndron), Adolaidr River; l)arl< of Alsionia ton- 
sff-ictn, fruit of Hal<t:o- peraicluiria. Fluorspar, leaves and innf of 
AcdOQ- f'iim'iJ. Fluorspar; Unin sp. {?), Adekide River; land 
mqUusca from lx»wf.r of liic Grfat Bower Bird, near Brock's Crf.ek, 

Mrs. Knox.. — Wood o|>al from GippNliind, 

Mr. D. J. Paron, — Ooliids from Eoronia, includiisg tdM/AWn 
pGUrsoui, C. rnktilaUi, C. Mttwesn. Pra^ophyllnm eliitum- 

Mr. S. R. Mitchelt. — A senes of Pseudomorphs (i.e., false 
Forms) including- Opal Tcplacini; marinfi shells from Stewart 
Rang^e. Smilli Aushalia; Oiiiil replacing Glauherile from White 
Cliff'i, New Soulli Wales, Litncmite replacing Pyriie; Quartz 
replaong Felspar, Ml. Diachofl. Tasmania; fiaritc replacing h 
coral from Woori Vallock. Victona: Opal replacing wood (roin 
VVIiitc Cliffs. New Soi.itli Wales, Taxman i,^ ; Idaho, U-S.A.; 
Artxona, U.S A, 

Mr. F. S. CoUivcr. — Four specimens of fossil bo>anv ihal oncf 
were t^esenbed as different genera, and then many years after were 
found to ije possiWy dilTeient port*ouy oi tlie >ame plant I'he 
specimens shown were Calauwlis grickanh Bron.; AjitcrophvUdtt's 
r-i^mSf^fiforwis : Anmthrio- inftatn L-esq. ; Sphevnphyf/um cinarfji'> 
iuttii'tn Broil. (Die Calamafcis is the main stem and the other three 
arc hctcronwrphic branches.) 


Thu <:xcur^ion took place o'» Safurday. Oriobet 10. and was attended by 
5t.\*.>' nwnibers and Jri-cnds, probably a rocord atlendaiicr Xor a K.N. C.'lui 
:»ftcriiooti e^trursiciii- 

'Ihe weather was daP and a i^'W Ughl' showers tcU. wtiich. however, did 
not Jctwnp Elic enthusiasm of llur iiKrtilKrs iiret^fi* Frum ,Rin|^w'0'JOI we 
pror.ct^lf.d to n K«i>d cnllt^ctiiifi K'rouud abont a (luarlcr of a mile cm the north 
[iid« of Pine .Mouol Of J..|ilVtnann's Htir Quite .*» mwYilxr of orchid:? m 
flower wciT noticed, vi^. . Brown Beaks {Lypi'fntitfnts sMavvolvns), dark 
brown and yel'ovvisli-Riccn v\*r]<-ftrs. Rt'-^irdcd (jfrculH-M^d {Picrostyhs 
horboio), Hioad-lip Duiri:; {Duitts pftlaiiiifa), Alpine Grct-nliood iPlcro^ 
stylix afpiim ) ( ratlier r;ite m this locality ) . Wax Lip. Catadoina. Sun 
Orchidfi, ;uid i>U>*.t conunon .sfkccjcs Su^tccn species of orchids were in 
llovv^r anil fllx>ut three oiher ^pf^it^^ which had i«?l (nlbhetl tfOwei'tn^ ^j^'ttt-- 

Ohe of ihe- party dueovcrM <i Rouble white Hnwcrini^ Karive Mtaili 
(ti pan-is) : tin's foim i<t rar^ 

Alter n w^Ik oi al>oui kc-ur ndes MiUham Station wa$ rcftthcll Atuul 
5.IS p.m. ^ ^ 

Bl Coleman. PurUrffr kofvx bn thr Kciiitim [VXmi 


By Edtth Coleman 

Severa* male Echidnas .sent to me after 'Prickles" had bst lie^r 
companion, exhiltitircl eK^mordinary ciiimbing hahics, 

Tlte first, -T l»ah'-gro\vn ur^k Echidna from Yea, tec€ivt:d nn 
f^aveniber 17. 1935, fasted for five days, lie then emerged ^rnm 
1m 'jox and ate a hearty meal, after which nil his energies wtre 
devoted ro finding mc^ of escape. From 8 a-^ni. nn*-il 5 p.m 
(c>.Ct^p{ at rnCa! tijuvsj he <-Iimbc(1 the wire waJls, pn5Cd np the 
flnnring-liricks (even four or five bricf<s cemented toi^cthcrf) and 
burrowed in the I'.ardj clay floor of his- cncJosure. He citmbcd 
riglit to the iron root, usiiully from the corners, where walls ai*e at 
rigfit angles. B\- prc^rssing two feei on earh vva3l he obtiiinC'.d a iiini 
hold '.vhile inserting his snout mio a higher inesb. 'J'hrce limes 
he escaped before I coukl rcairn him to the country. 

In iwcnty days fhh individiird strengihenctl ni^' view that the 
Echidna is neither crepuscnlaf nor nocturnal. Not once did he 
cniej~ge after dusk, ns one niiglit have expected him to do, to coji- 
tinuc hi5 riuest for freedom. Taken to vSherhrooke Forest, a now 
Inc^h'ry, lie rnatle olT vvithoul hp.sllatjon fls soon as released. 

Oil Dcccinber 15 two half-grown male Ediiduas were brought 
from the Zoolo^cai Gardens. I wa? to rclc^cc the ksa suitable one. 
As 1 antieioab^d, from the number of broken s.pines tliey bore, 
ho<h were adepts xi ciinihing. One of them was also an expert 
borrower. VVhai not eating tliey, too, spent the hours in a tireless 
quest for liberty, InJt alwiiys retired at dn^k. not to emerge through- 
out the night- At whatever hour 1 flashed a torch into tJieir 
boxes I found them asleep. 1 tesfed this many times, durinyf both 
•'crepuscular" and "nocturnal" houVs, They climbed Ijcaulitully,. 
and descended with jack-Lar mmhleiiess. Several times, failing to 
obtain a footing on the iron rooi they fell to the f5oor. On two 
occasions one appeared to be hurt and lay inotionltiss for some 
Mme. It waft ohvirnis that, wjthout cnielty. T could nol conhne 
an adult Echidna. Had "Prickles" nol needed a companion I 
sbtndd nut have triei! to do so. 

I had placed the ncwcumers m the outdoor run, but, as this "was 
not 2>etted overhead they were ouJ ds sonn as my back was turned. 
Oue of thorn was theri released, hut cis the. other (wc named Iiim 
Saudy fror\i rhe colour or his cntitj had noi recovered frofu his JalK 
3 decided to keep him until he wa^ ^itfon^et'. The outdoor run 
was then wired above Neitlier "Stickles" nor "Piicklcs" had 
attempted to chnib ou( of this enclosi;re, nor did they attempt to 
climb out of their >un-hH(hing playi^t'ound. thonjjh J ibmk they 
could have done so at tlie corney;^ ]l>urmg " Stiekies' " firftt few 
months she certainly ejcaped on four occa>:um5 •rom her sn"tall 


J CoLHMA.N. i'itrihcr Soti's on the V.ihnhu\ \2S 

sun-bathing tank. This sho did l>y standing' nn a liHck which 
enabled lier snout to enter a small hole near tlie top of the tank. 
I-Jul this cuuld hardly be called "c!in»hin|j[" when compared wilh 
the activities of the male i^chidnas. 

On March 4, 1936, a healthy, rather nn^ro than lialt-f^njwn, 
Hchi(hia came, on trial. He led nie a pretty dance. Several 
broken spines should ha\'e warned me. Indeed 1 reiiio\'etl him 
fron» a wire wall at the home of the friend who (^fVered him to me, 
but as I managed this (juite easily, I allnwed myself to hope he 
would settle down. J le merely arlded to my notes on the climbitig 
activities of ICchidnas. (It was quite clear that he, like the others, 
was never out after dark. ) The Echidna when climbing uses its 
snout very cleverly as a fifth foot. Placed in the outdoor run, the 
newcomer cliinl)ed to the to[i of a palinj^' fence ib I'cel (\ inch 
palings on a ten-inch plinth) with the sanu^ facility as he had 
climbed the wire nettin[^^ He did so by ascending' at the corners, 
where two paling'- wails were at ri^ht angles. As there was no wire 
netting he could obtain but little helj) from lus snout, so that the 
climbing was done by s]jreadinj^ and i^ressinjj; his feet on two 
opposed walls. It sug^'ested iutellij^ence^ I thnuKht. 

Though he enjt>yed his meals and even allowed uie to handle 
him, this Echidna, t(»o. refused to accept an euiorce<l habitation. 
A few da\'s later he was set free on a watershed reserve in Heates- 
ville. As soon as released he flattened himself like a li/.ard. atid slid 
ofT reptile-like, anum^' j^^rass tussocks. 

In the meantime "San<ly'" had been ]>laced in the outdo4ir rvm \\ilh 
"i^rickles." lie was vvell, but had not yet attemi^ited to climb 
.since his fall. Cod-liver oil, fresh cream, and a newly-laid egg 
daily, were slowly workin^^ a change in him ^uf body, if not tif 
heart. "I'rickles" <jbvii-usiy liked his coiuj^any. She wftuld lick 
his head, and nose his ears, thou^di "Sand\'" was never respoiisi\'e. 

As I wished to confirm last season's notes on hibernation 1 j^ave 
the Echidnas more naturid conditions. I ceased to lian<ile them. 
and did not carry them to their old sleepin^^ (juarters, l»nt k'ft 
them to sleep in a hu^je heap of hunnts. They loved this warm 
mound, and made deli^duful burrows in it. b-ven with my arm 
extended to the should<'r in these tunnels I w:is unable t(* reach 

Ilihcnninoii, /^oO 

On March 3 "Trickles" did not emerj^'e from the mtnmd of 
humus. She missed a^jjain on Ai>ril 10, She hibernated for 3\ tlays 
from April 18, (.)n emerj^m^' she drank nuich water an<l iheu 
slowly ate a little food. She seemed very, l:)ul next <la\" 
was <"|uite vij^orous. She mis.sed another day on May 5, and wuh 
only out for half an hour on May 13. She missed anoilier day on 
May 14 and was only out for an hour next afternoon. She liif>er- 


Cor.KMAN. i'urthcr Xotcs ou flic Echidna 

L V 

Vol. Lin. 

nated again from June 6 until September 8 (94 clays) and again 
for a final ]ieno(l nf 19 days on St^ptenilK-r 9. 

I watclunl luT fniorgt' after Ihm- 13-wcrk ]>critKl. \\"\\h her fore- 
feet she scratched away the ^aass at the entrance t)t her burrow, 
and at once set off towards the water-\-essels — Iwenty-five feet 
distant. Coming lo [i fresli monnd of ^^rass, ])laced there while she 

"Stickles" "c"litnf)iiig" into lied. 

was hibernating, she turned at ntice. an<l ambled alouj^ a remem- 
bered track that led to the water. She drank continuously fi>r six 
minutes, as 1 counted llie seconds, then returned, climbing easily 
over the new mound, to where "Sandy" lay sunning himself. She 
nosed him for a moment or two, but, finding him disinterested^ 
used her inttuiring nose to better |Hir]>ofte on the moist soil in which 
larvae seemed to he numcrtais. When her food a])]>eared she did 
full justice to it. 

"Sandy ^ 

*'Sandy" hibernated for five days from April 17. Fie emerged at 
9 a.m. and was very shaky. He ate very little food and appeared 

THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. liii November, 1936 

Plate XIII 

Quite at home on two feet 


J Cot€MAM, furlhflf Notcx on the fuhuUut H? 

drowsy. \ic. rfiUjtned to the mound at 3, huiTowmg into 
another patt of il. On this day he was dusted Ubeially with pulvex, 
(or certain brown vcrmni which I had never seen on *'Sticklfs*' or 
"Prickles." He was too ihowsv to protot much. He hibernalcd 
again for 4^ days fioni May 5, c-merging at 3 p.tii- on May 9. A; 
first he was very shaky and ate Jils food while lying Jown, eyes 
half closed, snout resting on the saucer, lie remained out, 
apparently too WPak. or loo ^ired to bnrrovv. until 5, lying on a 
SJiiall heap of hinnus. As a cjld iiighi was threatened I covered 
liim» wJiere he lay, with jii^rass, and left him. i^e.vt morning I found 
that he had ^on<=. to the big mound. From a deep depression in the 
small heap it was; evident ttiat lie liad left iU ;ind returned to it, 
betovc tinally retiring to the ti^ mound. IIi^ was out next day 
basking in wann sunslhnc. rather furtive, hut was eating well. 

"Sandy" hibernalcd lor a fui iher period of JO days fioin May 13. 
He secmc<l refreshed^ 1 tliought, when he a])[>eaied, Ihongh he 
moved slowly. He was a little thmncr but I, did not weigh him, 
as I wished to uiterfcre a.^ little as possible with a natural course of 
events. He hil>ernHEed agant from Jujie 1 for a ]>eriod of 5t d^ys, 
cnicrgini; ;il noon ov\ July 21. He ate no food, and soon returned 
to the mound. From July 23 he hibernated for a fifth period, this 
time of 45 days, His final hiberalion lasted for 18 days, September 
9-27. He IS now eatin^j well and ^eems to be btronger. So far he 
(las not resumetl his old climbing habits., but I am not very opti- 
nnj^tic on this point. He will be released on th^ earliest signs of 

At will be noted that '*Sardy/' a half-grown male- Echidna, has 
hil^rriated for six periods, 133^ days m aU. "Prickles," a half- 
grown female, has hiljcmated for tliree periods tliis season, the 
total number of days beni^^ 117^ as agaJust or^y S days last year. 
-She appears to be about the same age as was '^Stickles" wlio diej. 
suddenly on Octoi>er II. 1935. (An exannnation of tljc iuternal 
organs showed ihat she was not yet n^ature.) Il is, I rhiuL quite 
prnKible that the sliort penod of hibcratiun was rtibponsiMe for her. 
death, and that food shouki have been withheld dtiring those periods 
when, under natural conditions, it would not have been* available to 
the Echidnas. It may he assumed tliat they would someiiuies com*; 
out to bask> merely, and would retire, Tnodless, (o their burrows. 

Summing up, the hibernation j^eriods for l93b aje as follows, 


April lSi-21 .. ..... . . I .. 4 days 

June 6 to Scplenibcr IS — , . . EW .,. 
September 9-28... .- llj ,, 

TotAl . . M II 1 1 » t * 117 days 


7"^^ 1936 4nuit<ti E^hihUm 

*Apn] 17-22 .. .. . .... ....... ...... 

Mav 5-9 . 

May 13-23 ....;: , 

June I to July 21 . ... ..-, . . 

July 23 to September 6 .. |- .; .«. 
Septejiiber 9-27 ........ ... .... .,. 

rvit Nut, 
Lvoi. uij 

5 days 

t : 

IS „ 

Total ... ........ 

133!,- days 

Note. — A cliatigfi- ol ^iidcr will l>c noted Avith regard vo 
''SiickJcs" and "Prickles." As the masculine pronouii hr'xl been 
Uied for several monilis Ijcfore their &cx \\cis aj^ijarcnt. it vva.s a.'; 
ilifficull to change us a familiar name. In tht family "Prickles" is 
sr'H referred to as *'lie." 


The Slst Annual Exhibition wa^; held at the St. Kilda. Tov^n 
Hall on October 6 and 7, On this occa.'>ion, the show was opt-ncH 
by the President, Mr. S. R. Mitcliell. 

7'he exliibits Avere more extensive than usual, extra i^pace being 
available by the utilization of the adjoining sui>per-room. 'Hiis 
allowed for a gTeatly-iniproved inetliod of staging by the Plant 
Classification sectiuu and tor the adoptiun of >ep;iratr tahli':s for 
Victorian district exhibits. Districts rqireseiited jnchnled T^r^dale 
(Central) North Fast. Warrandyt?, A-Jallee and Grampians. Miss 
Jean GalbraiVh niMl her helpers provided ]jlerUy of jrifonnative 
ticlcet.s and students expressed their appreciation of the extended 
layout, which gave them rjiore oppoiTunitv for close study. 

In the main liall the Jiiost conspicuous exhibits were the Inter- 
state Flower Section kindly coUecled and transported by tlic Shell 
Company of Australi'a, tastefully tjtaged by Mrs. C. Barrett and 
helpers. Included ui this were two fijie individual g;irden-gi:o\vn 
exhibits, one from Mr. Bnrdctt, of Basket Range, South Austraha, 
which occupied the front of the stage, and another fronr ?/Ir. 
Ashby. of Black wod, South Au.straita, which formed a pyramid 
lacing the entrance T.ahles of flowers froni Tasntani;^, N^w South 
Wales and South Australia were also a bright feature. Flanking 
the interstate exhibits' were tables of cultivated native liowers from 
the gardens of Messrs- S. A Robertson, of Sale, Geo. CoghilJ, 
J. W, Audas, arid Harold Jenkins. An i)iteresting e.xhibit of Vic- 
torian flowers collected hy the Burnley Horticultural School 
-^tudems; ihe Orchid ;-;ection (Miss Coleman) ; a special Grampians 
exhibit collected by Messrs. CKas. French ynd J. Firth, including 
a rare dntible form of Epoc.ris impycss^; and a table of Centralia 
flower^ from Mr. "Morris, of Broken Hill, completed one of fhe 
mast decorative display b of Australian flowers ever staged. 

] Tho l9.h MnuQl E^i^fnytwn U9 

A fme colkcllon of coloured pbotogra^jlia of Austniliaii flower* 
was shown by Mr. H. Reeves Iti the supper room. Hie '^tug'e was 
ocaipied by thirty-five cages of Budc;;eng3rs staged by thu Budgeri- 
^r SocifLy, eaeli containing' l)]rds or a different colour, dlastrafing 
whnt scientific bre^ii:g Jms been iible to pruducc from our native 
green and yellow bird. Colours fangcd from pure yellow to hhics. 
and Tiiauvcs Other special exhibits included radiogrupli^ of Aus- 
traii'TH faini^i {Mr Fergus) illustralirj^ i\ new branch of nature 
stiidy and on^ \vhic1i Avill probably reduce the ncceisity for dissec- 
tion. Mtss Elleu Clarke scat a collection of Victorian craylis?! 
dlw^trative of her recent article in the Naturalist. Mr. Sykes 
showed Nnd explained a cr>nipreliensivt collection of spiders under 
the title ot the **^\-Ac\^r Znn.'' Mr. V H. F^^ivey exhibited an obser- 
vation bee-hive which clearly showed the various types of cntub and 
hrood. Thi^j Forests Cointnissiori had an extensive exhibit on this 
occasion illusfralmg ilie various*deitrnc[.ive pests of limber — ^insect 
and fungal The fungal exhibits were attractively niountcd on log.s, 
Photo^rapiis of the giant euc^lypts knovvii to exceed 300 fcec, and 
a comprehensive series of photos, showing erosion dne to removal 
of forest cover, also created interest, A collection ot birds' 3>esls 
M-as shown by the National Musemn. The sectional exiiibits vverc- 
as follow : 

Antbropolofv (Dr. Wfsbart .and Mr. F. Sirtith). — Australasian, 
Polyne&iHU and Melancsian artefacts, weapons, etc. r>j)tsfa«ding 
exhibii& in this sechon were a fishing kite froni the New Hebrides 
and some fine a>:C3 from New Guinea. A rable of abori^'nal work 
from various missions was staged by the Victorian Aborjg^inal 
Group and provided a contrast to Ihot-e froni the unsophisticated 

Entomology was represented by cases from the collection!? of 
Mr. J. A. KeV'rhaw and Mr A. N. Burns. 

Conchology (Mr. C J. Gabriel) v^as of special interest this year 
on account oV the simultaneon? pnhlicatioif of the bandl>:>ok ViC' 
iorinn .^ea Shell t. vi^ritten by Mr, Gabriel. His exhibit showed a 
comprehensive collection of the species; figured in that book, 
together with many otlier sheli.s of econonuc and .scientific interest. 

Geolog}' (Messrs Colliver and Frostick), — ^Thi? section is 
always particularly well ticketed, wliich greaily add^ to its interest. 
The building stones of Melbounie . a series to ilhistrate The lime 
j^cale of fossils: quart?, crystals and a niajxy-luied collection of 
mineral ores. (Mr. S R. Mitchell) were aniongM the feat^ires oi 
chis exhibit. 

MamiTials. — Li>'c exhibitt^ lent by Mr Duvnd Fleay includtrd 
juvenile specimens of the Grty Kangaroo and Wombat . Fxhrdna. 
native cats, opossums ajid other morsupiale were under the care 
of Miss Wigan ^id Mi§s J. Harjser, 

1. Vol. TJ1I. 

Marine Biology (Mr. and Mrs. Fracme'J was rcprcscntwl by 
mAny Apccimens. A |K-:arJ fn>m .•* frt?.sli-\v-ntcf nuissel, cola's. Leafy 
Sea Dragoon, fhe Si»>iie Fi>h Tre^ Clitvibing Fish of Queensland, 
and a Doot-Iace Worm many yards \0l^Q, weve sonic of Uic move 
interesting exhibit. A serifs of sharks eel, goaiina and ^nake 
$kuis were also sliowii to illustrate tlior possible econoniic use. 

Microscopes were diipbiycd in rhe wdf rnnm nn^'Jer the lejider- 
ship of Mr. Blackbovu-n during the evening ^essioni jinl lie m'AS 
assi-stfd by a willing demonstrator at eadi microscope 01 projector. 
This secijot^ alwuya interests the .i;cnei-al ])ublic. who seldom liave 
a cliaaco of obscr\'inj^ natural ol>jVxts invisible Jo the naked eye. 

Reptiles (Mr. Geo, Malcolm ,t. — In ihia section were Ncveral 
lix-e snakes, includm^^ a lO-fooc Diamond Python^ a green tree 
[ru^ and also some aijuafia confining spedincns Qf VPrl-tAileH 

The Plant Stall (Messrs. Hatnniett, Robley and Salau) and 
the Cut Flower^ Stall (Alisscs Bokijn and Haiti again contributed 
handsomely to tli** finances of the Show. 

The Bookstall ard Enquiry Desk was well ptrnni3tc<l, and 
eftlcicully conducted by Mrs. V. H. Miller and Mi-. CIin.s. P^ley. 
The new Shell Biinic sold well drring the e>:hd:tition. 

General organization was in the hands of Messrs. S. R. Mitchell, 
I-. W. Cooi>iM% W. H, Ingram and G. N. Hyai;v The attendance 
was apptv:)x in lately (be saitie as for two days of last year'5 ^bow and 
■is therefore ^ell below that ol the years prior to the deptession. A 
rather disquieting^ feature i"; the fact tlial purchases of tickets by 
ntatibers h Ifs-?. rbnn hrilf vvltat it was last year, A gratifying feature 
was an increased attendance of children and a nuvclLy was intro- 
duced by the pruvfsioii uf a questionnaire relatijig to exhibiJ^ to 
ensure their inlercst. About 250 were returned and smal] pri^e* 
were awar<lcd to the twelve childrea who returjied the niosr coni- 
pkte and be-^t answers. Mr Sw'ahy kindly prepared the questions 
•and n'iarked the answer?. As the .staging oi the Show entails a 
great d^'al o( work by the organr/ers and iS of great importance to 
the Club, it is hoped tlia< tbi^ Iflck ot inU'rest by some members wd! 
not continue. 

In addition t':> the names above mentioned the Club iia^ to thank 
many who helped in some degree to stage one of the best exhibi- 
tions we have had. At least ISO people conrributcd either bj' lielp 
or exhibits and many of them are not members. 


Dr. J. MauTJtzon. ot Sweden, wishes to obtain specimen* of inscU^. Will 
itt»:ijibers please co-<»pcra(e in tbis'tuallcr^ 

Vol. rri-L pacp 1 U, line l?,— 'iHa.V' adet October <>; vagc ll(k line 24— 
riPM^Oi'flSj instead of rt*H'w:fl/ff. 

laac J CotiiiVEB, F&isit Locatitics in and ithoul Afcfbatjrnc IM 



Part I — Royal Park Ccttinc 

For Lhc first of tins series I have chosen the railway culling al 
PoyJil Pnil« Originally mrant for railway tniffic it luis IjCCOiiic 
well known a? i\ localitv where inauy fir^t attempts al fossil collcct- 
iag have bctn nude. 

Mfiny years ag;o the Railway aiitUortiies, acceding to a re<ju^-%l 
by Those rnlei'Ciiled, among wliom were m€mt»ei-.s of Ihls Chib, 
agre<:d to keep th^ section reasonably open to colkclnrs. and also 
not to plavit the so-caUcd Pig Face. 

A note of interest and a moral can he here stated- Possibly the 
fir.^i thing Ihe \nfeilor li> the colling will notice will be its far greater 
width tlian is apparently necessary Jot i-ailwuy purposes.. The 
reason for this i? that the Railway authorities required a large 
amotJiir ofc hllinp;^ fni the Spt^ticer Street yards and c»htained ?iiosr 
of it from this lu;:3lily The moral is not to acceiH all dejjosits a$ 
being tn situ, without IJrst applymg tests; in this case the tertiary 
rfM:k'^ have hc.ttn dninijcd r»n to rt'<:enl dejv^siLs, aiid they may |-)rove 
(in the fiiiure) a j)n?.?.Ie to some careless geologist. 

Dr_ G- B. Pritchard, a CluI>.mcmL>er at the lime, was apparently 
the first to separi»ft^ ihcse beds, and he culled the lower beds. 
**Eoccne Age^' aad the ui)per beds "Mioeene A^^' or tlie iial- 
comhian and Kalimnnn series ix!spt:cttvely. A distinci fauna is 
pre.seivp-d in each bed, and the species agree generally wiUi Ihe 
assemblagei. lo be fonjjd in the Lower and Upper beds, of Muddy 
Creek, ni-^ia llnmiitoji, wltich are hsted injder the same series 
names hy Pritcliard. The belter preserved Kpccimens are tf> he 
fouwJ in the red fwnds overlying- the w-hite sands and elays. Here 
the fossils occur as crj-^ts and impressiuns in an iron oxide mh»**raT 
known as Hematite, and (hey are of tiie older age, i.e., Ihe "Bal- 
combian series. The younger age (or Kahmnari series) fossils 
occtir 111 fine iron sandstones at the top ul tiie cuttings but hi 
number or variety they cannot equal the lower beds. 

A good geolo^Kal hammer, a flat chisel or two. Hssne paper, small 
boxes and pai^er for )renei-a] wrapping are very necc&sary. The 
specimens as collected sliould he marked to indjCato From which 
b»^i they were taken. Haphazard eoHerting sboukl nol be e^cn 
thought of» as two different ages are represaueU Uy fossil beds 
here, and the iK'i^nncr is apt to mix the fauna. 

To euUc<:s the lossils, use lhc haimuer imd chisel td break ooit 
pieces of tlie red rock, and carefully look at the frcsli surfaces. 
Ca&ts or impressions of shells are suie to be seen ; most likely tl^ey 
are imall. bur the next |>jcce may yield a ^ar^e specimen. If neces- 
sary, carefully reduce the si/e of the .^pet imcj*. always remember- 
ing that to vcduc^ loo much very ollen means a valuable sixxirncu 

iJ2 CouJvw<, I*tx!tsH Loealhirt in tfiiti ahvui Melbourne [ ^^, j j','* 

badly broken or«ven entirely lost. Wrap the specimens separately, 
buf keep llii: casts and impressions of the one fossil in die saru^ 
wrapping: and remember thatau in^pressioii is veiy often of more 
use than the ca-st. The wrilcr ssnW be. pleased t6 assist by naming 
(he speciniens wheru fMTissible.. 

At the Melbourne end oi the cutting it wMI be noticed that the 
red l>edj; overlie a deposit of clay. Cl0;^f e.xamination will show a 
sfthojoidal stnicttne in the clay, and this is one oi the indications of 
weathered basaltic rocks; in fvict, this clay was ;^t one time good 
sound basalt, perhaps better kiionn as bkiestone, and as it mideijies 
the tertiary roclcs. it it» kntjwn us "Older Basalt." 

Some years ago, another rock was iilso visible just near here, and 
it consisted of a smali conical ouCcrf^p of sandstone, tieing portion 
of the bed rock of Melbourne and therefore of Sihinan Jge A*. 
Xhf. prest^nt lime, this is covered by dctrital material. The visitor 
should note the difference between the cby and the ironstone. 'I he 
day shows just as a mass, but the nvirine teriiaT-y has cistjnct layers 
r'f dej>o.titi(jn This is one diflferciicc between the sediniCiUary nncl 
the volcanic lorks. 

Shells arc by far the commonest finds, ^ilthough sea urchins, sc^i 
mat^ (polygon ), corals and even a shark's tooth have rewarded the 
wi iters search. There is always the possibility of collecting some- 
thing entirely new, e.^ , for instance, on one occasion a large si^cci- 
ineM of Crucibirliiiri, which is a genus of univalve shells, was also 
f<mnd by ihc writer. 

The tTicological Survey Map of this area shows tliat fossil Icaveji 
and fruits *ver^ collected from tlie red san<).stones in the early dayss 

The following is a list of the more coiumon fossils from the Royal 
Park cutting, and ujany of these should reward the fii^t attempt \>f 
visitors at fossil hunting, 

Echinodcrma ta — Cashopoda ( Un i valves ) — • 

Psamin echinus woodsi Laube VoluUi au-cUlotdcs Tate 

CidaroitI plalcA and spiives Comu hgoius Talc 

Crustacea — Comts hetin'ospira Tate 

Crab carapace and clieiae Cyprava hrachypyga Tate 

Pvlyaoa (Sea Mats) Notira %p. 

X'umcrot.ifi species Corithhmi flt^miiUftotittmu- 

Brorhiopoda (Lamp -Shells):—* McCoy 

MagcUania garibalduma Cdsm exitjua T- \VoodJ5 

Oaviftson Astmimm jahnstoni Pritoliard 

MagcUania insoUla Tale HfiHoHs munjosoides- McCoy 

Scaphopoda (Tusk Shells) — LamdUbran-cbiata (Eivalves)^- 

Denialium. m^nitcUi Zittel 7-Juta bassh T. Woods 

C*-pkalopoda — Lmalitla jeffrcyvdava Tate 

Aturia australis McCoy B/trbatia caUcporatca Tate 

• Crtvufloea corioeruis McCoy 

Nucula sp. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIII.— No. 8 December 8, 1936 No. 636 


The ordinary meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday, November 9, !936. The Prcsidejit. 
Mr. S. R. Mitchell, presided, and about 100 members and friends 

The lecture for the evening. "Indigenous Fauna at the Zoo and 
•1) the Bush," was given by Mr David H. Fleay. who has under 
his care the Australian Section of the Zoological Gardens. The 
lecture was illustrated by moving pictures. Particularly interesting 
were the studies of young birds and animals, also a series of slides 
showing some of the rarer marsupials, 

The President accorded the tiianks of the Club to Mr. Fleay for 
his most interesting and instructive lecture. 


From the Shell Company of Australia/statin^ that it was greatly 
indebted to the ladies of the Club for assistance in arranging the 
Company's exhibit at the Wild Nature Show., 

Letters from J. Leonard a^id J. W. Wooclhurn, who were the 
successful scholars in the Questionnaire Contest at the Show, 
thanking the Comnnttee for the prizes awarded them. 


Reports of excursions were given as follow : Toolcrn Vale, Mr. 
S. R, Mitchell: Bot^uiic Gardens, Mr, L W. Cooper for Mr- 
P- H. R. St John; Kinglake. Mr. L. W. Cooper for Messrs. A. A. 
Bnmton and W. H. Nicholls. 


On a show of hands Capt. G. McLaren was duly elected as an 
ordinary member of the Ciuh. 



The President announced that a country member, Mr. W. Cham- 
pion Hackett, t>f Adelaide, was present, and welcomed him to the 


1W- FicM NutnraHsis' Chb Procccdinfjs [voi'.LUi; 


Qut^'afion. — Sparrows were seen strippijig kaves oil cbiysanthe- 
niiHTi Inishes, The leaves ]iad no aphis or thrips on fheTii. Were 
liie buds using tlie leaves for their iicsLs? 

Jnsnm'S. — Mr. W. H. Ingraia suggested that the leaves vt'ere 

used for nesiiug purposes, as he had notice.f] Sparrows pulling 

])icccs from asjmrjtgus creeper- 
Mr. A. H. Chi&holm thought lh;u iJie leaves were stripped m a 

spirit of mischief, and Lliat oflcji buds and flowcns were stripped 

li>r no oilier apparent reason. 


Mr. A- R. Proudfoot reporter! tiiaf a Kookaburra had been seen 
raking the young of a V^eJJow-winged ]Ioneyeater. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver, with the aid of the epidiascope, spoke on 
Eurysy^oma duvemc^ a fossil marsupial from the post tertiary of 
il>e Darhng Downs, Queensland. This animal had the po:<^Mh[y 
unique characteristic of the width of skull being greater than the 
l<»ngth, the type specimen nieaiinremenu being: width 680 mm, 
and length, ^M itini. — maximum measuremen is in lx>th Cases. 


Mrs. M E. Fre-aine. — ^larine hfe, inchiding a live Elephant -iish 
and shell {ScuJus antipodes), Philmc atujasi and separated shell: 
IMieasanr S)iel! and egg capsules; Sea Hare, shell and <=gg girdle: 
Sea Snail (Nafiai sp.) and lErirdle; Sand Snail (Sanimior fyfupHs) 
and c^g girdle; Sea Slug (Stomaiella) and shell; Razor Shell 
{Sificn sp.)- 

Mii;s A, Cornish. — J 00 sjiongcs collected at Anglcsea, 
Mr. E. E. Pescott.— Disarticiilated skull and claws oF KiliR 
Island Wombat. 

Mr. C. French. — Three interesting Grainpians plants in Rower. 
v!^. ; Rosy Bush-Pea {Pvltc.nwa subdlp-ind {rosea) ), Blue Titise! 
l.ily {Culefiasia cyunea). Swamp Heath {Epanis paludosa). 

Mr. S. R- Mitchell. — Shell money from thi^ Eastern Solomons : 
alluvial ropaz. Saj)]jhire, Zircon and CaNSiteritc frcnn 1 Orringloiu 
New Soulh Wales: crumpled Slate from Bunker Flat. Victoria; 
Slickenside i collected by Mr. H. Reeves) from the Eastern 
Wonder Mine. Blackwood. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver. — C;jrbon»/cd ren)£nns oi a Grass Tree taken 
f i'on\ clay bed 104 feet Ix-lovv the surface of Princess Street, Nunh 
Carlton, in 1900, during^ lionrd of Worlcs excavations, Specimes> 
from collcclion of Dr. G. B. PriUhard. 

Dec T 

laaej NJCH0r.i.5. Phm.Uyf'is sqnomata R.Br. 135 


By W. H. NicnoLLS 

The Scaly Greenhood (I^fcrostylis sqmrnwfa) is an cxtreniL'iy 
rare glabrous species, usually un<ler 25 cm. in height. In general 
the whole plant is siniilar to P. ntjit R.Br., but has smaller flowers 
— usually tew (l-3j, rarely up to 8. It is colouvefl like rttja. rincl 
has more stem-bracts. 6-8, sel<!om fewer; the lower ones are 
imbricate. -It has also a withereil l.)a^al rosette at time of flowering. 

A])<-x of galea shortly-])ointe(l, lower lij) pendent, lobes about 
1 3 cm. long: lahellnm nvate-o!)Iong. Ilvsby, markedly glan<lnlar; 
extremely irritaliie, deeply channtilcd ( no mrsial nd(je ) , tip 
straight or almost so, bifid;^ lateral niargins anrl sides of the 
thickened and narrow base beset with king setae: column wings 
abiiost quadrangular; upper margins not toothed or ciliated. 

The writer has long sought this rarity among Greenhoods. and 
interested ft^lk throughout \'ictoria and elsewhere have iK-en asked 
to keep a sharp lookout for it. but without result tmtil this j^oason. 

( )riginally collected by Robert R>rown. ;^^atthew Fhn<lers' 
botanist, in Tasmania, I\ squauw-Ui has ordy f)ecn delinitely 
recfjrded from Port Lincoln, in South .Australia, by R. S. Rogers,=^ 
and R. D. iMtzGerald has recorded a very line form from New 
South Wales.® but the Victorian Records have always liecn 
regarded as **doul>tful.'' 

There are no sijcciniens of /'. sqitauuitu in the National 
Herbarium, Melbourne: the late Haron vcmi ^lueller harl personally 
Inbelled an undttubterl specimen of a comparativeh" new species. 
i,e., l\ pitsilla Rogers/ as follows : "This is the true i\ S(/!iiUJia(ay ; 
Ijut there is no doubt concerning its true identity. 

The main reason for writing this pajier is tlie fact that the 
elusive sqiuuiuilii lias at last been found in V^ictnria. Two fine 
exam])]es were received from Iknialla, in north-east Victoria, on 
November 10^ 1936. These sjx'cimens were found l)y Messrs. 
Victor R. Say and J. Stephens. Mr, Ste])hcns hrst discovered a 
colony of "beantiful grey-green pterostylis rosettes" early in the 
seascin (August), and both gentlemen visited the locality of the 
find on November 5, eventually discovering two set>arate colonies 
within a radius of one mile. 'Idie ].)lants were located on a dry, 
riK'ky hillside. One colony of about twenty plants was growing 
in rather good leaf-mould, between rocks; the other patch wa.H 
discovered in more open C(juntry. The largest specimen — a verv 

1. In the Benalla specimens, die tip of llie labella varied from slightly 
cniarpinate to obtuse. 

I. I'roiJs. h'oyal Society oj South Australia, vol. xxxviii, 1914. p]). 240-42, 
pi. XV. 

."?. AtustraliaH Orchids. R. D. FitiGerald, vol. 1. 

4. Trans. Royal Society of South AustvaHa, vol. slii, p. 26, pi. lii. 


NicHOLLS, Pierostyiis squamata R.Br. 

vie. NAt. 
Vol. LIU. 

Pterostyii^ squamufa R.Br. 

fine example — was 2^ cm. in height, bearing eight flowers. Two 
other specimens had two and three flowers respectively. All the 
others were past their prime, the blooms having withered. 

NkmollSv PtHtvityUt SiiU4jvi(il<x R.Bc, 1.17 

Both Mr. Say and Mr. Stephens arc to l>c congratulated on Ihcir 
siiiprising discovery, which definitt^ly estahlisht^.s this species for 

Dr, Rogers gives some intei-esling facts concerning P. squotvaia 
urid nliied forms, as foUows : '*The niie distinction be.twfeti P, 7'ufii 
and the other two {P. squamaia and P. Mitili^lHi) would appear to 
be thai riifa is the representative of those rut'ous forms which liave 
a jneiilbraiuats l;il>f_lhim, whereas ^qumiuitd and Mifchdlii repre-- 
seiH the forms with thick, fleshy labella. 1*hevefov«, although 
there may be some justification [or regarding P. MUcltMii as a 
variety of P sqitmtmfa, there seems to be very httle for regarding 
either of liiein as a variety of P. rufa. 

It is probable that less cunfiiSDijn will be rtceasroned by retaining 
the S]>ecific rank formerly 3<:^.igned ro these three plants, than by 
regarding two of tiiem as mere varieties of tlic other. 

After careful exannDation of living plants, 1 am convinced that 
P. sqxicmatQ^ is a gotid and I'ahd species. It Iras not hitherto bepii 
recorded from South Austraha. and so Jar it Jias reached mc only 
from one locahty. vjz, : Port Lincoln, where it wr*s found blooming 
towards the close of NovemlK^r"^ 

rjr. Rogers Irindiy forwarded tl*e Fnrt f.incoln si>e<:inien (No. 
4527a) for nw inspection. Even a casual examination iridicates 
tJic distinction between this species and itsitillics. and fully jusrifies 
Or. Rogers' conclnsions. 

The exanntialron of the fresh Benalla iipeciinens convinced llie 
writer (hat upon the labeHuni characters alone the Npecies is 
distinct the iiiosl salient ff*uturcs being the (feep channel traverv 
int;; almost the full length of the laniina, and also tbe pejcniiar 
formation of the base ol the labeibim — more noticeable when 
vi(.'wed from above (see ilkistraLion"). 

Tlie upper portion of the oblong-eUiptieal stigmatie plate is aUo 
interesting The nppcr jwrtion forms a definite hood and llie tips 
had to be forced aj^art (see Kigs. e, f), This hooded character is 
referred to by FitzGerald in his description of P. WooHsli, 

Key to Iixustkatkjn 
Pierostylh sqiwmaCa- K.Br. 

&. ^ — soeciniens Irom Bcnalla (Vic) (reduced). 

f — rolkn Trusties. 

of — column from from. 

r— <oliJmii hcad^ wings rcmovc<l ia show «mpty anthcTr rostrlluni j^nd hocidftd 

bead ol sligrnalic plal^. 
/ — upper portion nf stigmatic t>lalc, free. 
^ — coUimti from side. 
/— petal. 

J — Itfliclluin from below. Miowiiiir 6l)tuse tip. 
j — 1,-ibtIIurn from side 

k — iabcJI'JTii i'loni .^bovc. sliowidg deeply-grooved lamina, einllrgiiiati; lifv, etc. 
CAIl disscctiooii enlarged variously,) 

13& W<iOD JOMKs, 77i.- Tut! of ffu: HrMcha^ \^y^^ ^l^J; 

By FkedI'JUc WoodJonbs 

I suppose xhal I he student of no other avian group is so depen- 
dent iipoti chance und adventure fur provitling his nvileriyl a*t ts \\t 
who would make some study of the Pcirck ami vMbatrosses- He* 
js dependent on adventure, since to any of these birds m their 
breeding Inuints means, us a ink. a |"»vccavious Jandn^g upon some 
iflajid situated ni unquier >eas. He is dependent on chance, since, 
short of visitjtig the islands upon w[iich th-: birds breed, he nmst 
awaU the hazArd of stray specimeiirJ heuig cast itsliore u]>on acces- 
sible niainland beaches. 

The op]:iortu)hty for adventure can only come to most of us at 
infrequcfut intervals: h\xi the opi^ortunuies of chance wait upon 
every winter sloim that sweeps onr coa5l.< T^e ^oll i,»f Ihe beaches 
is alM'ays beinR added to; but tliere are ihncs and seasons when 
wave-cast birds come ashore in unusual aiul surprising numbers. 
There have been times when the soul hern sliores oi Victoria have 
iKen littered with corpscK of the local MuUon Bird [P. fcnuiros- 
tn's), and on occasujns *he l>ndics of Prions are hitrewn in vrnmbers 
along the nde-iine of mnnv of our beachcf;. And, wivl^ these bird^, 
llicre- is alway.'i Ihe chance lltat some more unian)iliyr Petrel has 
come, wind-blown and wrccX'ed, among the jetsam. 

A Diving Petrel ha* hcoji found at Ballaiat, and a "WiUoti's 
Slonn Peliei at Marshalcown. an»:l these are the extreme advance 
^-lards of storm-driven v,'andereri. the rrijdc and file of vvhich are 
to he found among the wrack along om southern bcacJics whea Ihc 
storm has iViJ^scd. 

There is a wealth of ornuhological material coming ashore upon 
our coo.T't^, deconiposing and being disintegrated, and so lost to 
science for ever. Only a litile is ever preserved- In^rlale, in New 
Soulh Wales, Wliitloek; in Western Anstr.^u"a, and Condon, fu 
South Aus-tralia, have already done s|."ilcndid service m gathering 
and presenting- t)ie toll of the beache.^ over ]imit(*d aneas. But it 
should be possible to achieve far mora than can |)o>sibly he effected 
by tiiese isolated elforts, iusiructu'e ;md important though their 
results huve been 

As a rule, the Albatrosses, Shearwaters and Petrels that eome 
ashore, wrecked in winter gides, an'ive in a condition good enough 
foi many of the purposes of science 5omc arc sufBctenrly fresh 
and perfect to suffice for Ihc preparation of mus^e^un skins; for 
recording the colour of tite soft i.cirls . for collecting of Ihc puraiilcs 
and for makinj^ anatomical specimens. This is the ideal: that n 
bird should he picked u;? and sent to a mu'=(Cum within a .^hort time 
of its oimiing ashore. Obviously ih.s cannot alvvays. or even often, 
be achieved. A fresh bird o*.st up by the wavc^ rirns various 
haj^ards in difl'erevjt locaiiiiei. 3n ceriain paris of Victoiia, rf jtis 

ifj^vj W<wn Jo?cl^¥,, The T0II ^J /^i' fStackes 


not: retrieved fairly soon after tts arnvaf, 11 wiJJ aJnio^it inevitably he 
carried from the beach by ioxcs. 

OiJ ove- occasion I vi.'jile*! rhe rtjiast of W^Atern Virtori.i upon 
which ati eyc-wilncss had noted the arru-al of -a vast floclc o[ Murton 
Birds in a dying condiMoii. He liad seei^ tlicin ca&t ai> by the waves 
in thou^mds, and strewing the htiacli arotand n licadland (Pomt 
Danger), sn iliat the shore was covered with chcir brown corj>ses. 
Wc vvetu together to the spot a few days alter ilie disaster. 1 
was in search of the ^leads 01 (he birds fiom \vlni:b lo pipjvjrif 
skulls: but T did not secnre italF-a-dOien heads, nur wdm ihetc « 
single bird upon th<: beach. Strewn through tlic [ow ba^h for half 
a mile nibntl werre the rertuiins 01 !^<'veral hnndrpcl hird«., carried 
from rhe beach and lorn by foxes. *J'be whok vail Hoe.V had been 
carri'^d oft and distributed over the nxlarid bush, a v^iiig hcr^, a 
body tlierL*. and nothing left v/hole. In ahnuj^t every lotahty on 
our iouthcri3 bc;icJiCS a bird will not he for lon^ npon th<? wet sliorc 
before sea lice destroy its soft parts ni winter or blowtltes in^Qde 
[[ in Slimmer. KuL, de.spite all tliese eliancp^s. oni' N'luscnnis couW 
be greatly ennehcd v^rilh uiuch-necded cabinet skins if iVSlcmaLic 
eiYor'-S were made to snivc fresh birds soon after tlieir arrival at the 
mercy of the win<l ;ind wiU'ct.. 

Apart ahn^erher from birds being picked up in snch perfect 
condition as l*o I.>c capable of preservation ns mnsenm «l<in:=., are 
iltuse cast beyond reaeJ! of thp waves to dry up and hecoine natural 
luummies. A dried up and fairly nitact bird may be just as easy 
to idcnuiy, lo exaniine atid to measure 2iy a nin>;ei,ivn skin and, jriore- 
over, ifmuj* possibly be prepared as it complete .skckton. Short of 
complete fresh birds and comjjlete dried np birds, there are the 
decomposing reir»ain.s ttiat may be foimd on most beache.s. Of 
these there ts ahvavs something- of value to ornithological science. 
The l>e-id ma)- be more or less mtad^ and a ?.kull n^ay he pi-^pared. 
The witolc corpse may retain ouongh [eaChej's for idenlidcaMoti, 
and parts^ of the skeleton may be secured. Tliere is Inlle or nolliiiig 
of a wavc■ca^t nieniber of the Tubiuarc^ t\iiil ta i)nt of Ubc ta tJic 
ornithologist whose interest m avian stnictiu'e h not limited to 

With these ideas in vie>v, I have attempted to secure oone.'v])nn- 
dents ui varn?ns pbuces along aur Victorian ronr^rlirie. Mr. A. 11, 
Chisliolm has j;iven geneT'ous pnl>lidty n:> thi.s scheme, and tliruugli 
llis agency I hnvc received Aorne valnalV.e h**-Ip. For the pnrpritics 
of the present conimumciuion. 1 x^tli Innit myself to the ie.suft$ 
achicverl by co-operation with my oldest coiTespoudenl in Vicrona, 
who has imdertukeri the pairoHing oi a compaiaiively short line uf 
shore hi Western Victoria. During the 1a5t few years I have 
received from thi-:? sunrce material from winch T iiave prepared 120 
perfect skullb of Fuffiiiu^ Unuirosf.ns. as w^pII as other ]>arls of ihe 
skeleton and numerous spirit specisnetvs. Of itie New Zealand 

Muttnn Bud (P tjriscu\) I have ol»k;iittf.d 12 skulls ;inrl |^^ri sj>cci- 
mens, as well hs> spnt-]>ic.sen'ed whole hiids. The KlLiUenncr 
Shcanvater I P. gavw) \s represented by iive (rcsii birds, one ^kull 
wA unc^M<?<oii Oi' ihe All.iatios>;eii, tlie Bl^clc-browed A)baiir>ss 
(/> ine!o-nof-'hryx) ib t'e|>ircseine<i !>}' (he two tr6<»h birds ^ml sjx 
skulls anrl th»f Sh)' or Wh)tp-ca|J|>^d Albatmss {D canta) by 
cigbi fresh birds and eighl skulls. 

Of Jlic Wliilc-hcadcd Pctioi {Pierudronn^ hssOjti), i hav« 
iGceivcti thrci^ dccom|x>^(l spi'cimcn«, from whii:h skulls and pait- 
sW^letons wrrc prepared, and of the Gieai-vNinged Petrct fP. 
imuU'Optera) on^ decomposed bird. Two headb ot x\\t Gi^int Pelrel 
i^MacfoiHUtCi gtgantcus) produced perfect skiiUs, and (wa cx- 
<iinpks of th^ Cape Pig<ion {TJopHon c^tpcuw) provided skcklons, 
Hiioiis <:^f vari<>us types ha\'e provided one ^in, ov«i foily skvdls, 
and several spirit specimens; and the Diving Petrel {J^clccan aides 
unnithir) is represented by two &kir>s. half a drjzwi skulls, and 
several fipirit sixduicna Thl.N is die loll oF the hcachcs ;is it has 
l>cen ijafhercd by thR efforts oi a %m<i}c corre.s|x>nden» in a very 
Jimited area of the southern coas^ of Victoria. 


The Club excursion u* the Toolttn Vale Sai)c(oary was held on i'-Joveiu- 
bci 17 under fMVOiir<»We wr^rlier conilition.?. Jjf, J. ^iiuritzon, of the Lund 
Uiiiwrjily. Sweden, acconipanied the jiarty. 

Tlie priaicipaJ object was oraiUiology, and several speoes of Wrdi. with 
ne?t<i, were nan\l Uufoiis Whi5<Icrs vyrrc rc:fMjrtorl liy Mr. Osvcv to Sc 
very ifunieroui' this se:iM>n, and their soiig* tr-oiistilutef^ a Jia>i|)y lealure of die 
Sancluary ; scvcf^il pmis nirrv bCcn. ami one nesl under cnnsu-ucnon. 

Oilier species noleii weie: V-rllow Robin (iicsl), Sj»ccMck{ WarUlcr (wUli 
jvjunp), Yellow-taileH Thcrnbill (two nests), OrtuK^-wingcd Sitella (pzii) 
(Jrc> Kaiitail (neSt). Grfy Shnke-tlfruilt (lUiil). Whil^j-cartd HunLyeatcr. 
Bro\vn-hL'udcd IFmicycatcr fncsl), Y^^(nv winged HoncsiaircT (nest), WbUe- 
Iwuwcd UaW>Itrs (icvwal Uied nests). 

Ow'"g lo shottogt of tinie. tbe patii" was unaMe lo visir <he itior*: reniole 
jkiits of the SancUjary. wliert* ucslii of Spofteil Pardslopr, Struterf TtiCimbill, 
Mistleioe^ Bird. Brown TItonibill (nest lias iwo entrancai], K-wkaburra, 
T^twiiy t'ff.iynioutti, Grey Cinr^wnng^ CoahdM'k, Whitc-win^td Cnough and 
niitncrous Blue Wrens are under oK^c.rvAtion. 

Mr. D'^^cy ineriiiOntd lltil a K'jokaburra rixieiitly was sctai to dive into a 
^3r<icn 5ttiub an<i carry off to fl nearby tree a bird, which it beat a^ain^l a 
bough for >*.'v^ral minulei to remove the f^athtrs. Upon \Km^ called, Mr, 
I>ave.v 5«i7td h\% gun, crcr^i swihJy l:>ehind scFme shrubiy and fired intu tiic 
tlikk foliage- c1l>sc behind the Kookaburra. The surfsrKcd bitd dropped Its 
vtchni and fled to anollier iree. Upon aligliting it began to "bujli/' U \m»s 
f<tiiod thai th^? vicliin wan a iiia*urc y<.lluw-t^'init«:d Honcycatcr, a v^ry actWe 
bird. PrrJ!jaMy it had been pounced upon by «he Kookaburra while batbhtg 
in the dewdaiJcn l4»id€c o( ihe ^hrtib. 

7.3t«*T in the aficrnoon wc I'ir^it^d Wc^t Cotmadsi, where Mr. W. 11. 
NkIioIIs crmduCkd us to very good boUiMcal colIo:.tiii^ ^roimdv A *ine 
<isibt was acr<*.s ni napt>nr-Hcath (firiickyhina tiaphntyidcr'). intcrsj^rscd 
wiUi Tantouii {Ls^ioifvfs^fum ffiivc.'iCi^n:i) , in full fl«rtwci. Among th« orcbids 
colltxlrd wire ihc Duck Orchid (Colcofia vtajor), BrownttKirds iCoi/n:hihf$ 
Robcrtsomi), Unddyh'jods {Ffryt/^hilh /'irjiV/w) ai>d the Wax-Hp \GIoX' 
iodta major j, — bi.RM. 

jgj,^ j ByiT?v Um-fiiat Cchuxinffx in Orchid Fhivcrs 141 

:notes on some unusual colourings IX 


Ry THE Rev. H. M. R- Rupp, Raymond Ten-ace, NSW 

. I. OJurix puiicfato Sm. — YcIIow-flowering form. Tlie Rev. E. 
Nofn'Min McKie, of Guyra, on ilie Mew England tablelAi^d, sem 
cxcclltrnt specimcnis of what I was at first cli\sposed to regard as a 
new spades of Diuris, fotuKl on Mi. T. P. Skinner's ptoperty, 
"Gfcen Valley,'' Guyra. Critical examination, however, proved 
IhaC in every morphologjcal detail of importance the fiovvers con- 
formed perkcUy to the type of D, punclnfa, Tlie following if ^ 
dt:scni>Uon ot ihc colouring; Dorsal sepal and petals canary-yellow, 
the elongate lacera) sepaJ.s green. Dorsal sepal vein«^:d on the lower 
half of the inner surface with jmrpli-sh veins, l^etals on i>iiiplish 
or purplif.h-brown cla\vs._ Labelluni chrome yellow, witii a few 
minucc bi-own spots about tlie two parallel ndges 

] recollect many years ago iinding the helioivopo D. phuctaia in 
western Victoria, vvith a strving and delicious perfiinic. In New 
Soulli Wales I have never yet found it fragrant, though it is coin- 
mon in 7nany districis liut Imniedtateiy I optitned Mr. McKie's 
parcel, Lhtr perfume of Mr. SkiuntM*< y.-llow flowers recalled to 
mind that of the \'ictorian D. punctata, winch I )iad jiot collected for 
fcTty years. 

2. Dciidtobiiiin linguijorme Swx. — ^Yellow-fiowering form. Tliis 
came from Mr. F. Fordham_, Brunswick .TIeads, Norchorn New 
South Walos. The type has wlnre (lowers, and I had never p>rc- 
viously heard of any variation. Mr. Fordham !?ent flowers only in 
19v^5. and these were bright yellow. In 1936 he gave me a small 
plant, which bore one racenie : the flowers, however, were very 
much paler than rhosc of ,1935, The variety came from the CasiTii> 

3. Di'ttdrobnun Bccklen F.v.M. — Lilac flowers. This al?0 
reached mc from Mr, For<lh9in. Typically ihe flowers are whitish 
or pale green, with purplish veins on the 9egme:it^; Uibellum whsite, 
with crjspcd bright purple margint.. Mr. Fordhani's flowers are 
pcile Itlat. marked as in the <ype. Mrs. C- A. Mcssmer, of Lindfield, 
stales that this year (1936) she noticed a Few in<iividual f!Qwer$ou 
lier bu^i^-house plants with this lilat luit. 

4. BxdhopIiyUum Elisac F.v.M. — Dark brown flowetrs. Mr. 
F. A. Weintha], of Roiseville (Sydney), st-nt this from the Dorri^ 
forests. Tl^e normal colour i.-^. vivid tureen 

The Coruniittec of the Field Natur^JiSts' Ctut> o( Vktorift invites memtiers 
of Jcindr-Etl societies who tpay be visiting Melbourne ta attend ihe ClobV 

H2 Bifds Kfttesfrflin Sperm H'l.ah Hrflrf [vd.u?L 


Sincf- 1924 I hav6 eiuleavourcd evei^ fm»i* years, during the 
month of SeijTeni1:)er. (o make special obscrvatioi^?. on flii: bird life 
fn (he Lakeg. Natioriril Vixy]., and adjuecnt areai. .it Sperm Wlialc 
Htad- The ohjfxt in view was to nsccriain the following «Jala ; 
fl) the avev.'igc nu.'uhcr of species to he ^eeti each day during the 
ftr$t week in Sepromber ; (2) the total number oi species to be notc<| 
for tht week; (3) the Tinmbtr of (hyti durint^ rlu* week on wliicb 
each species n noted; and (4) the total number nf species to be 
observed during the montti. Thus, from these records it is possible 
1u judgl^ with :t reasonable amonni of accurncy. whether any par- 
ticular species or binJ life generally iS decreai^'mg or odierwisc. 

A reference to the result of my obser\'ationf; up to 1928 was pu1>- 
lisjie<l in the l^klorlan Nnhtralixl (Jnne, 1929, Vol xlv]., No. 2). 
In September. 19.^2, ] wins^ unfortunately, ub£.cnt from ihc locality, 
50 the following year an attempt was made to carry out tlie ncccs- 
s^iry ob.^erva(i6J)s, but T wasi nnable lo complete them. This ycar 
( 1936) . however, there has been favourable ov^pm tnnily for n»nlcing 
a further record, the result of which is most c':ratiiynig, in that jc 
indicates tha( b"d bfe on the \vholc is being ftill}* maintained in Uic 
locality. This fact is revealcfl by ilic folfowing compilative figines : 

1924 1928 1933 1936 
Total number of r^pecit's .v?cn during w^tk 36 
Most seen on :}ny one day .. .. . . .. 37 

Daily average during week ..../,«... 2? 

T^>tal Dumber ieeii during month . . . .71 


It Fs pleasing to rejiort tliat son)e of tlie smaller bird.'?., rarely seet^ 
or \vcrc not recorded in 1933, are rjow nmch more in evidence; 
among tlio-se ;ite ifie Willy Wagtail, Grey Fantail Striated Thom- 
bjll. Sprnebill Honeyeater. Red-tippc<l Pardalotf?. and the White 
fronted Chat Notable amoujtj "abs^ntces*^ are the Brown Fly- 
raicher and rhc Yellow-laiU'd Tliornljiil ; iIk- latter species, oncc 
commonly seen, has not been recorded ior n'any ^caj"*-; its com- 
I»leie disapi>earance is unaccountable. Most water-birds i»re 
apivarewtly holding their own; these include the Bkck Swan, Sdver 
Gull and Casj-Jian and CreslcJ Terns. Cormorants, perhaps, are 
-i;iTlior too Viuirerous — at ], tfiat is Ih^ contention of the local 

An tnieresting^ fact is ttie recordinj^^, this year, of the heouiifwl 
White Egret on five dv^ys during the week, where^i.'i it was not 
included in [>reA'ious li^ts. Of ducks, the Australian Teai and 
Mountain Duck predominate, th*? latter being on rhe increase; neM:5 
or young broods of hioth spccjcs have been seen, this season, on 
swamps m\<'] waters at, or adjacent io^ Sperm Whale Head. Other 
nests observed in the vicinity of ."vwajnps v/ere of the UJadc 
Swan, Spur-winged Plover and Black*fronted Dotterel; previously 













J MalU'ft in {he Noi^tlhea-si \^3 

a nc^t oi tlic last-named species had nftt been f^porle^l ffoin the 

NcwcoiDei'S recently recorded are the Australian Spotted Crake 
and tlie Little Grebe The presceice of Crakes had Ix'tin .su^p<;cie>'■l> 
nnd confirmation waij raaclc possible through the discovery of a 
ffcshlv-killed spe(.;imen — a Bulcher-h[r<l^s qiuirry—iastenccl in the 
fork of a swamp paperbark. Three introduced hU-dii arc definitely 
on the incrcsise 

The Suirling is multiplying rapidly, and is likely ta become the 
commonest specie*, ot the opcti-rimhered country— ;it the expense, 
I fear, of cert;-iui indigenous birds: already it has been noticed tliat 
hollow iin>hs, fornieriy used as ncstmg'sites by Diamond Birds, 
Parrots, etc., now are occupied by Starlings, Th« Blackbird fir&t 
appeared at Si:)cnn VVhale Head about ]921, when it was erro- 
neously recorded a^; iln^ Sj:«angled Dronj^^'i. Its loud calls and 
numicry are now Cfuite often heard in rhe hu^^h, *yo evidently jt has 
come to stay. 

Though uot a resident species, the Goldtinch lias, of late, been 
more fre-iuently seen, sometimes in flocl<$ of thirty or more; its 
movenietus are influenced. cJnefly,, I thhik, by food .supply. 

The House Sfxiirrow is seen ordy occasionally, thouj^h it is picn- 
ciiul at Payne-svillc township, fotir inilf.s aCfoss Lake Victori<i; 
obviously, conditions here arc I'iot to iC5 liking — a fact which, f 
■vcmtnr^ to say. will not give cause for any feelings of regret. 

PavnesviJIe. Frko 13ari um 


[ believe ifiai nc record hap ^ecii published oi the existence oi any 
specimen-i of TVlall^ in the nortli-cicl of Victonit,* lhou;aIi ii i*. kitown that 
izJh'(ibf*ins vtyidj.'i urow? very ntcur Kusbvvurth, 

Sonic years ago 1 was riiucti interested to iearn from my brolhtr^iii-lnw, 
Cr. W. Frederick, oi Ciniambo, near Oookie, tlist there i^ .1 consickrable 
nuanti'y of niallee in the Gwanprdie inUs, about ten ot twelve niil^i'^ irntn 
Vj'alct Town, and including a lew j^pfcimens ou the Violet Towii-Nalinj^a 
r<j3d. wliicli J had. ni y liule di?^uiKc. mi-^mk^n for si>e(;iti»eii5 of Acncia 
fyctuznfha of spindly growtU 

On Scr-lcnibcr 23. i^-^O. guided by Mr. Frederick., I vislled a upot a tew 
miles to thv; cast of that menlioned nhove to seo and menjure some of the 
timber, whkli 1 bad been 'old w^^s itnu-^'UaMy lar-fic. 

The 5Uc wr-s a stony hill where grew fiucalyptus wclUndarti- and E. 
pafyaiUhvjna, Aicnia pyc^tiintOa ,=»nri A acifHiccc A. few flowers w^re \n 
bloiiini: CQlthirnio carnca, GlossoHio vraior, Lissa:tlhc ^■tn.yosa. l^'cromya 
pcvpliaio was plentiittl, but it wtis only in bud. 

Some iTMlkc iE. iin'uli'>) was growing by the roadside -md we took AOinfi> 
iricdjurcni-cnts. ai follows : 

No 1 — GiT\h ru 18 iocties was 3(? inches: height about 35 tect, 
Mo. 2 — Girth ^ little k>^; height abouc A\^ ^^^\ 

No. .T — Girtli al 1ft iiKhea wns 24 inches. This had fallen and mcaitired 
M feet. 

In all adjoioine paddock there were many tnaliec trees, not growing 
densely, however, over an area*>f several acres. 

24 foot 

fatleii «a 

plinil 10 aid 11^. 

Cjni, a! 4 ft. 


3 /t. Sill. 


2 a 5 in. 






5 ft. 7 in 


5 It m 


5 ft 9^n. 

Wc measured the gJTtU oi several ami estinuttf<| ilic height, uiiiig a 

FoUo\vi"K are the tnea5iircmpni% : 

Bsht^wivd Hciuhi 

50 It. 6 in. f fallen and measutert) 
57 ft- 

(Koi lecorded) 
55 ft. 
60 it 

[ did not ihink tci malrc ;iny c-5f"iiatc o\ \\\t average siac, Inii from 
ni»:mor5' 1 slioolrl say chat most ciX the liees were tiver thirty f<^rt in huight, 
but as a rule much more £|cn4lcr (hat* any of those act(i;<lly mc^tsnrcH 

— a/w, R. Vkoland. 

Noic, — It is cloviljTfiil if The presence of JEwafyptHS viridis, the Green 
M"allcc, hi the norlh-east of Vir.toriA. hitherto br.en hrought iinritr 
tn>t5t;c.. It h :i iocAlity where one b^Lrdly ejcpects to hiul inalle.c vtgeiariont 
Througlioul Victoria, howovor, there occur ij)nr;iiiic oucl somctinics fairly 
I'xlpiixivc p.iir)ie5 of mallee eucalypts iis.. e.g., ii^ thi^ approach in the Werribce 
Gorge, the Wnlpsticlc Scmh Iwva near E^it^lcKiwk io Kaniytooka. the 
vicinity of RusUworth, and thf scrulj n'>flh iii Tngl-.-wfurfl. A m.'^llcj: roii- 
acricr. E. Kttsotuana, Gippslaud MaUee. h found ori the isthmus north o\ 
Wi't^on's PrOitiC'VJry, ami ;t siiccinirn was obtained 5oii1h oi Scalers' Cuvc. 

There are. no rl<nii>i, other i>atcheb nttm *iJiJ there away fronj Ihv usu^l 
malice hahitst in the norrh-wcst, ;ind the Question Arises whether lhcw: 
isolated CJuitiiJ& ar€ ret-idual plants from a rentWc period wiitfO Diallet vfificta- 
Hnn hurl a much more cxrcnsivc r^nf^^ towards the cenire and sovith of 
Vicloria: or aie they, as is possible, inlrus'ivc migrants from the iiorth- 
we'-r d»5liict, 

U v/ouid apfiesr fmni the data, iumisheil by Mr. Vroland that, under 
favourhig ccnditioiis of soil a^id rainfaU jtonie mallec eucalypls assume a 
Tiiorc ruhusc habit of ;;ruwth aiid a more dcfimtc arbOrcal thardctcr thau 
15 cus-loinary in the di*y nortli-westem nro.u. 

In the c-xse*^ spocitird it wntild he rrf interest to know if the charflCteriSlic 
lutit .system, oi w-hidi Eiu-a!yfiUiS <i:tnwS<i i& a iy])ical <'Xamplc. lindcrgoe.? 
modification with the increased height .and f,Mrth of the trees- — C.D. 


The Cup B.ty (Novfrnber :?) excursion to Jvinglalce attracted ai> atten- 
dance oi thirty iTicml>er5, the wcafhcr bcinp partictJlarly fine. Mr. and Rlrs. 
A. A. I3runtoii kmdiy plarcl their week-end eoliacre, sttimted on (h«i Sni?nr 
Ural Road, at the disposnl ot the paity and this was nw.df: headquarters for 
Ihi:- day- Walks were taken to thi; gulTies on Mr. BriMHoiV^^ pfopefn.', ami 
ati'j to the beatuilitl ^ut httlc-knowu Mason's Falls in the Kini^rlakc Kfirional 
Paik, One of the outstanding sights of the day was the large areas of thr 
Rosy Heath Myrtle [BQuckea romosis.'ihfin)^ in fti^l tlovvcr, the •'oIhIii- 
v'<iying from ^deepest piak to nearly white. 

Many other wild-flowerr. were observed: riic G<»rsc Bitter Pea i7^j?.'fi'Fin 
mxaviii, rnsriiolm), tbt: Har.dsoTne f'^iii- Pe<i (PhvyhbUui *oritu>Tnm). 
tfie iiHcMy Parrot Pea (Dilkif:^nta fiotiprrina) and tlie Cretpm-; Gi'evOtea 
(C-irv\fh^a ri'pcna). btjiiig particularly fine. Among the oivludfl colle'-:t,cd 
were ttiC Common Bird Orchid iChilog'htth (hmsm^y Pink h'iiigcr:; (Cala- 
(tenia carni?^), a beautiful colonr form of a new Natlnual Park record hi 
rhc Early CaUidenia (CaMcnia pratFcox) and Cahchihus- Roh{*rfKOi\ii^ com* 
nioillv k,"OW(i ^^ Tirown^^cards. 


The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIII.— No. 9 January 7, 1937 No. 637 

Tlie ordinary n\eeting 01 the Clab \v^s Vield at the Royal 
Socictj^V. Hall on Monday. December 14. 1936. The President:. 
Mr. S- R, Mitchell presided, and alx)iit 100 mcmf>ers and friends 



From Mis$ Raff, thanking men^bcrs tar their expression of 
sympathy in her recent bereavenient. 

From Mr. F. A. Cudmorc. thankmg tlie Club for the .sympathy 
extended to him in his bereavement. 

'FroiTi Mr. Edv/in Ashby, thankin^^ the Ckib lor copies oi the 
Ncturalht sent him to replace those lost in fire some lime ago. 


Reports of Excursions were given as follow: — Healhmont, Mr. 
F. S. Colliver, for Mr, E. Wilson; Beaconsfteld, Mr. A. S. Chalk; 
EUham, ^'Jr. Clmlk. for Mr. Tonge: Hobson's Bay. Mr. G. N. 


On a show of hands, the folJoM'ing were duly elected as Ordi- 
nary Members of the Club; — Misi- M, Ferguson, Mr. T-. W. Lang- 
ford, tind Mr. G. O'Neale. 


The President, on behalf of the Committee, presented to Mr. C. 
J. Gabriel a bound copy of Vktormi Shells^ as a token of appre- 
ciation for his vakiable work. 

Mr. Gabriel, in thanking the Committee., referred to Miss Joyce 
Allan's invaluable help. Her drawings of shells were perfect. 

The President stated that a copy had also been bound -for pre- 
sentation to Miss Joyce Allan. 

The President announced that the Committee had decided to 
present to each monber who had joined since May last a Club 

The President then extended the season's greetnrgs to rnem- 
Ijcts. and the Secretaiy responded on their behalf. The meeting 
was adjourned for the Conv<;rsazione, and supper was ser-'ed in 
the tlownstairs room. This pleasant innovation was fully apprc- 


Mrs. M. E. Freame.— Spcciincns lakpn on tlic- Clul)*s dredging 
exclusion, including Bubble Shell {PhHmc aiujasi), Chifons. Fill- 
bups. Sea Sqniit5v. Ghosi Sbrimp.s. .Senile Worm*. Cvabs, SAiid- 
hoppers, Barnacles, Wnnns. etc. Also Hermjl; Craijs. Prawn and 
complete r^rapaoc and oilier maiune specimens. 

Mts. C. Barred. — Snake Flower Oi'dnd (Cyi^tbidiiwi suave}, 
irom -V.S.W- Specimen gtown in glassliuusc. 

Mr, C. Barr-ett- — Gt^o-wing planf of the Moonwort (Botryclmm 
Imnirki) received from Mr. H. MorgaiK Cobun^ra. Victoria. 

Mr. A. Coniifih. — Fairy Penguin^. foutxl on AugUstvi lit-tach* 
and hf:ad a( Dog found on I-Iampton Beach. 

Mr. E. S. Hanks.— Timber of commercial "Sandalwood**: also 
pOiti(tn oi water-bearing root' of F.ucnlypius olrosa (Oil MidJec), 
from Jron l\nob. S.A. 

Mr. C. |, Gabriel. — Marine Sbclls. Chlaviys f/hbcy, Linn, to 
-5h<>w vurielics : specimens ■from the lVleditc:rranean : also Dacoshi 
aust-ralis. Sow. from N.SAV.: Cumrochnetia losmonka, T. Woods. 
from Victoria; and Himiphroym siraiigci, A. Ad<ivns* from Vic- 

Mr. -S. R Mitchell. — Preaious and common Opiil. opuliiitid wood 
and opa!izcd shells, from White Cliffs and tlic Stewart l^au^e, 

Mr. C. French. — Copy of Dr. Jolm K Gray'.s fJ::;Or(^.\- of At*s- 
tuihki- n.fi4 Ne^< Zealand (Londfui, ]tS67)^ n rathei- scarce publi- 

Mr. tinuiton. — Fossils, trilobite aiicT coral, Trom iCinglakt*. Vk- 

^Ir. F. S. CoUivcr. — Specimen? of the oldest land |)Uint in the 
world {Barag^ixinulhw lojujifolJa), Lani; ;ind Cookson. Thi.v is 
an Upper Silurian fossil :from the 19-Mile Quarry on the Yarra 
track, and the age was <lctcrniincd by the associated Graptolites. 

Mr. Ed. E. Pcscutt. — Flower oi Dais coliurfolni (Thymdia- 
oene),, the South Afrituin Daisy btisli. exhibited to show 
affiivr)' witli Hie Ausfmhan Pinwhui . flowers of Ffoeararpu.^ rcij- 
cuJatus (cyanrus), the "Bhieberry Ash" (cultivated), native to 
Eastern Auotrah'a; flowers o{ Say('ocliilus fifsgrrafdi. F, v. M., the 
"Wedding Orchid," 'Pamhounjie Moimtairis, Queenyland (ailti- 
-smted) ; water-colour drawuig of Moloch horriiiiis, die **Dcvil 
Liz;ird." by Mis& Rosa Fivc-ish : book.. Tlir Evfomohfgv oj 'Ins- 
.trdlm. by Q. K. Cray. 1833. showing coloured plates of P/ta.\rna, . 


37 J 

CoLEMAv: PoUinofiou of Calla Lily 


{/Ainti'dcschhi aciUio[*ii\j) 

Hv I^niTH 0)1,EMAN 

The so-ealk'i! "Arnin" (ir Calla '*lily" of oUta^c ^anlt-iis { Zuu- 
tcdcschiii act/fiof^ii'ii } is out of fashion, hut ^t^^ardcn-lovers win* havt^ 
seen its polhiiHtion will always find space for a ])laiiL I b(nitih 
reseiiiblin^' an Arum, the Calla lily is not a ])itfa]l infloiVMrna-, a.s 
it is so often dt'scribeil. The minute florets are ijolliiialed, aee(>r<l- 
m^ to the hest floral traditions, hy fHive ]l?es (.If'is ini'llifiiu). 
which visit them for their ahundatu jxj^len. 

The apparently ob- 
vious explanation of cer- 
tain structures frequently 
proves erroneous. Each 
f^enns ap])ears to he the 
emiHKliment of bi^bl\ 
orii^^inal and in^eniou^ 
ada]>tations, which se ■ 
cure pollinatitni. 

Zantcdcsi'liia is no ex- 
ception to the rule. f 
have seen nothini^ nmre 
impressive in flower pol- 
lination than the hus\- 
"Deborahs" m o v i n ^ 
swiftly over an oranj^e- 
coloured spadix. scratch- 
ing away at white heat 
in order to pack a few 
more grains on Ixisket- 
(c(.»rl)icii!a ) aire a d y 
banked hij^h with prdt- 
yellow pollen. 

Tn Zant'.'dcschia the 
jK'taloid spathe is chalk- 
wdiite. not j^^reen, as in 
AnanitaJxcum (describefl 
/•,.V.. Jan,, V)i(i). See- 
inj^ its daz/'.lin';; pnrily 
in sunshine, (»ne catmot 

doubt that it serves to signal the willin;^ Iteu, and, one- assumes, from 
a considerable distance. Male and female florets are biirnt- dh a 
fleshy spadix. There is no sterik- terminal pnrtinn. tin- (birfi> 
eoverinjj^ the whole of the spadix. 

At the base are sessile. fnnnel-Nha])ed fiMuaU- tlin\'i>, with, 
scattered anionj.^ them, a few infertile, ovate male florets. The 

Upper patiiu ut >.paili\ ui' Calla Lily, liearirii; 
tnali- H(irrt> witlitrinji, and ovarit"' *vUi.'lluiu. 

148 Pollituilioii of Calla Lily 

rvic. NhI. 
L Vol. Lin. 

female florets, carpels mercK', Iiave neither ix-tals nor sqjals. luich 
one terniiinates in a white, glandular stigma, which is cushion- 
shaped until pollination takes place, or until the close of its period 
of receptivit^^ after which the rounded, stii^matic disc sinks, form- 
ing a shallow cup. The rest of the spadix. right to the summit, is 
co\'ered with crowded, much-fiattent.Hl, sessile stamens, the anthers 
dehi.xing by minute apical pores. 

'Hie pfjllcn of most flowers is 
dischar«j^cd nt jhossc. In Zan~ 
frtlcsrhia a grain at a time is 
emittetl from each tiny pore 
until the whole of the stamens 
are veiled in pale pollen. <^ne 
may rob the bees of a spadix. 
Let it lie for a few days to see 
tlie shedding of pollen, which 
lies in wavy lines, like fine 
sny;ar. Witliout the bees, pol- 
lination wuul<l be impossible, 
I'fir male and female florets are 
effect.' vely se])arated by their 
[)ertods of maturity. Thou^li no 
])ollcn is produced by the sterile 
male florets^ interspersed among 
the car]K'ls. bees traverse the 
whol-:^ spadix. thus pollinating 
rt'centivc female florets with 
])olle]i Collected on their hairy 
legs and under-surface. T have 
seen four bees in a spathe at one 
Itcriod. each with corbicula 
piled h!gb. One may see a bee 
hover about a spathe while she 
packs more closely ht^r rough 
masses. She will then re-enter 
the spathe for yet a httle more 
of tlie i>n'cious dust before fly- 
ing to the hiv?. It is a pretty sight to see the busy brown workers 
on a vivid orange spadix, against which the baskets of pale pollen 
,^how so clearly, 

W'bL-n pollen is abundant, the hee makes orange-colouretl patlis 
as she works up and ilown the ht-^avily-].)Owdered sjjadix. I->ur- 
dened with great, rough masses, often nearly as large as her abrlo- 
men. she is forcer! to alight on leaf or spathe while she packs ii 
neatly into her baskets, c^therwise her flight nuist lie greatly 1mm- 
]>ered. T have watched lx=es at work on the Calla lilies frtnn 7 a.m, 
until dusk, always confining their activities tn these plants while 

Eipc fruits of Calla Lily, showing 
cffici'eiicy oi" tho poUinatioti. 


Plate XIV 

1M3T J 

C/it-UMAN : I^;tllinati(>)i o' C(7//(i /j7' 


pollen IS plentiful. Only once have 1 sp.en a bee on a spadix with 
pollen of two colours in her baskets. It wa.n Jale in the aftcrnoofi. 
I assumed cliat, having" exhausted the pollen of flowers upon which 
she had been working, she tame to fhe C^\h iilv to complete hei" 
load, reluctant, no doulit. to return to ili-e hive with liiiH-fillcd 

When dehiscence ol the atitliers commences, the smgle g"rains 
are hardly visible to the niukled ey? ; yet one nuy see her ali^'ht. 
'with empty panniers, and. next moment, the funndation oi her 
logd is laid '- One is inipres?>cd by her infinite patioiicc in coikc't- 
jng pollen grain by grain, and of such m:nutencs-S. f-ater, when 
the stamens arc veiled in an abundance of poHen, she is just as 
expert in dealing with it. The grains have a very adheisive exiae, 
so that they cling- tog"eth-sr_, a feature which facilitates |,>nckmg niro 
■baskets. They are thus never dispersed by wind, nor ure they 
adapted ro dusting insect bodie?. They must he cousgjousIy 
removed by tlxeir patient collaborators. 

The flowering of Zanfedrsclm 
aethwpica covers a _ lejigthy 
penod. The spathes ai^ visited 
by bees unlil pollen is exhausted. 
Certain small jusccts hnd Ihc 
florets attractive, but. as Ihcy 
appear to die within the spa'th-e. 
even though tlie passage is wide 
enough to permit their escape, 
they ca.nnot be regitrdcd as "oAV 
cial" pollinators, I have ex- 
amined a number oi* them under 
a lens. None of them hore pol- 
len on it^ body. They aie ex- 
qui.Mie little CTeainres, and. if 
removed from the spadi.x. are 
veiT active. Sonie have been 
sent to Mr. J. Clark for an 
opniion ODncemhig the object ol 
their visit to the spathes, They 
Appear to be interested in the 
iuicrtilc male florets, which 
prolmhly provide palatable tis- 
sues. A leaping spider ircquents 
many spathes,, and finds in the 
siiiall niseots an easy prey. The 
iruus do not inyite di?^semmation 
by binls- They. make no adver- 
(iMinent. bi:t remain ' hidden 
withm'ihe spathe until they bcconv 

Above ; Much - llatteiie;! male 
florets (se,s:5ile .^tamoiis merely), 
with inimitc ;iiiii"ai j)':>re3, Viewed 
from above. Bolow ' Ferule flofct 
Vcarpe'), with routidcct glandular 
fiJiRina. Two iuterlile malo Horeb 
.^Iso SnOWO. 

swfillen anO \)\\X^\. th^ c<:»nv<»- 

]UTcd ponion cit at. Sonietinics ihc sleJii bends, just below (he 
sparlJx, antl npe. \dlowish fiuits full to the j^roimd, or are cast out 
by the wind. 

Though poUiuation is invUcd. increa^ is not dependent npon 
*sced A crorpiny root^tuck, as cvei*y gardener kijows, mak^s the 
Calls Hly ^ very siKrcssiul rnmpetitnr toi space. It js frequently 
found as a garden e-^cape. h\ the south-western o:>rner of Western 
Australia I saw acrcH i.d laud covered wich beaiitii'.d specimens. 
Mirrored in every ]>0(.il. and the nvers they triog^d, the^' njadc a 
delightfitl picture. 


A. A i;p:uti:v. .sbownii^ (In'.lOw) U:xx\ix\t fturett with pOitCii urn Sligmas. Male 
florets (abovt:). just Miature, and tihccldint; T>Olletl a grain Of tV^O ai a tJittC. 
D. 1 he same si'^dix, turtjtd n>ui)<l. Miiielcfii days later, with BtiRfnas 
withe.rea. polleu cliiigioii '\\\ mas&es. C. A M^atli^- slwwiug bee with pollen 
Ita^kets parity hHufj- The masses will \k e-Diiootliecl, and more polJeii artdcd- 
Pollen einitrecl a graid or two at a lime, from minute <»picii] po»T5, is gathered 
vruh jnfHiite patience. 

The morning ox >?ov<;mbcr 28 was vrry hot anH oppressive, ;tnd only cigl?! 
iDrnthrrs. inrlu<-ling" tl>e Iraclcr, Toc/tc part lu the cxcurslr>ii tO' liKhani. Jii 
The udcrm.ion the winU changed to a cool soTjVhcrly, making conilitioas more 
plc^-sant U\r thr outing. '"Bird lift" w;is iwvl iu plentiful as we could h&vc 
wivhed, irnrch ai the tmiLer Ii3vii>g been cut out, disturbing lU'? iiejc;n& of 
many birds. However, several uesls toiiiaiiung ege^s or young wert noted, 
including Q<ie of the Wl»ite-plmned HoneycafcT. .vin one of the Brown Fty- 
C3tcl?€r. Among the biHo see'^ iinrl hv:-.ird were. .Safrt^ff Kanf;fishcr, RuinuA- 
l>r^it.M<Nl Wliistki, Tlri'iti7.c-\vi"Aed Piii**on. Whtfc-W'inircd Triller (onf- oi the 
in^fc ^ti^^ls *A.f*s husy /juiuliiig .1 iifP.1 in a Box-trcp.), Scariet "Robin (f*nd 
young Robins odi f\i their iir-Stki). (irey Thfii^ih. Thornblils Par/^;iIotes, 
Cuckoo-Shrikt. Olive-backed Oriole, Walllc-birdi, Gr-ey Fanlail. Rvifoa.t 
Fantail (a m-ile). YclJow Kobin and Dusk\' Wood-swaJlow. A Tawny 
Frogmouth wa> '*een silling on its nest, containing a young bird about five 
wiclcb old, the oihcr having; lr.ft ihe ticst on the previous day. 



A large pirty attended the excursion fr. tli<- MiilfHmrne Botanic (larrirjis 
o" S^rurday, Oetober 24. uud wlt« iavourfd with jjerfect weather condiiion^- 
Mr. P- R. H- St. John, .'« fnnnrr Prpsidcnl ol ibe Chab, conducted <hr. party 
through the gardent pointing out inan;^ iiitereslvng fc-utures tlint atp. otlcil 
overlooked by the ea^viai VTSiCor. The nursery. propaRPttiiiiS houics and 
licated glass houses were ^tso visiled> (he leader eptpJaiuing the various 
funrtion.s and me(bof!= jidoi>t'=d in each. Mr. St. John Jiko f^avc a shr>rf, talk 
OH the correct nai^iing oi AtiMraban r'anis. jioiniing opt several cates whurc 
the present names urr incorrect, It is interesting to noto that nearly all of 
i)ic trees in ll»t Australian Scclion were planted oy Mr -Si John Wiiit:;e)f, 
di»rin^ his nonncrtion of i.rv'pr forly ypa^s with the '^i*^ of the Gardens. 

The thanki of the members are du--^ to Mr. St. John for his_lcintJncs5 itJ 
ffiviiiR up bis Saturday aftcrnoan for their plcHsorc and education. 

— L.W.C. 

1MS.7 J Gmxive*: fossit LocaHlies vt mui Atwui J\>icfboHrnc iSl 

By F. S. Colli VER 

Fart II — Beaumaris 

Tfl reach Ihis Jocality other than by motor car. H is necessary tO 
go by train to Sandringham, by tram to Black Rock, and then 
by motor bus to Beaumaris. alighUng at the Beaumaris Hotel. 
The best collecting grounds are the cliffs h.t\<\ the beach for about 
100 yards on either side of the boat sheds. 

All the cliffs in this nciglibourhood are composed of Tertiary 
Sands and clays, and at several plac<^ hetween Hampton and 
Mentooe, small fc/ssij patches occur; hut the richest place by far 
is Beaumaris, which is well known for the abundance of a fossil 
Heart urchin {Loveim- forhe.^- T. Woods) and the number atid 
viiriet}' of fossil sharks' t<!cth that ha\'c been fouiul there 

On th*; Melbourne sikW of the sheds, the cliffs are practically 
vertical, and a layer of Aomc of ih<:se Heart urchins sc/n^e feet wide 
will liC noticed cxtenduig for a consideraI)le distance around the 
cliffs. Many perfect examples can be picl<ed up on the be«ch Jus: 
below this Lovenitt band ydW he seen a layer of a large white hivalve 
sliell {Oosinra sp.) ; these unfortimately are loo chalky to collect i 
but it is possihie to obtam fairly good casts and ntipressions- 

Otber lypes of Sea-urcViins — a flat, so-called "Biscuit" species 
{Aradiiioules ausfmlis l..aube) and Cly{>ensfcr tjipi^slL'^tdscus 
McCoy are also fouiid here, but much more rarely. In searching 
over tlie shiiiijlc. however, many small triangular fragments, not 
unfike teeth in oppt!ar;incJe, may he found; these arc t^ections of the 
Biscuit urchin (Amthnofffc^) 

possibly the besl-kuown fossils from this locality are the sharks' 
t&ah^ At one time it was possible to dig them from the cliff face, 
where they occur in a nodule bed. 'I'his section is now almost 
irpiccessible owing to a cemented wall lx*mg built over the more 
easiiy-workfd beds. A search amongf the phing^le. however, should 
yield some examples. They are rurtr thai) they were, but never 
yet have J failed to obtain a iew spctimtns. 

Most of the.^ie took like teeth; but some, thai otite belonged to 
an ancestor of the Port JacWson Slmrk (CcsfrncifM <:ar>ior:oicus 
Chapmsn and Pri^chard) are not tinlike small beans, and are not 
really teeth, hnr crushing platcs. 

Bcsidcs the sliarks. many other genera of fish are represented, 
and teeth, lower and upper jaws, etc . of Porcupine fisli (Dtodon)^ 
Eleph<mt-fish (Bilnfhafffm) , 5ringr;*y {Mvdohqiis) . Wrasse 
{Lahfodt^i) etc.. are not uncoi7imon. 

The maminalrj are represented by teeth, ear hones {Celoioltthes) 
and skeletal bones of wbalcs, and also teeth of seals. The tecdi 
ate rare bur whale bone fragments, and sometimes vertebrae, niay 
be pirked up on the lieach. particularly after henvy .sea?(. 

-15*2 Gw-i.irfek> J-'bi'sif L<K<iiirm t*/ </itiV Ahottf Mt'thtfiinu' IvoltlJr 

MoHu5ca are here also, but with the €>;ccption <}i OyMvrs 

(Olstfra) and some of the more lesistanl i>t)pa, tUey are only 

obtainable as casts Hn<\ impressions ; fo&sll Crabs (complete ones 

nardy) m [raginenis arc common; and barnacles arc further 

trophief. to he. obtained. 

One must lje a careful collector in this locality a& :-=ievei"al 
diflferenc series are well represented. 

With respect to the fossils nicntioned up to this >taj;e, J have 
been dealing witli those suggested to bolong to the Kalininan varies 


-■ Oil the hcach tlicic arc lUimeroiis rolled fragments of a white 
liujestone, and fnssiJs. mostly casts aiid impressiViu.5., but soiuetinies 
the actual sliells, hi"^rhipods, polygon, .^x^d sharks' teeth may h& 
iionnd ill thera Tliese are definitely older., aud ^re leferr^d to the 
Palcoinbiaii scries, the series name coming from BaIcoml>c Bay, 
Mornington, where similar fossils, both in type and assemblage, arc 
preserved in a blue clay Agriin, similar fossifs aic to be fcn^nd in 
:thE previously mentioned (Part I) lower Tertiary beds ^ Royal 
Faak cutting and Muddy Croek. 

One of our Chib members, Mr. F. A. Cn<jmore, luis di%ctiveicd 
thttsc bhie K:\'Jty beds m situ, at 3caimiari<i. • They occur under 
water, well out Iroin the beach, and are nuly accessible at low 
itdcs. These clays contain the white hmestonc iiC^dnks with the 
casts and impressions which ^re found on tt»c he;ich. as well aS 
ihc other typical fossils of llie series, mcludiiig a fair series oi 
.sharks' teeth, and it is believed that the teeth with the bluish stain 
■ihaf are fo»iud on the hr^ch came from this and are thu.^ refer- 
able lo (he Balcombinn and not the Kaliumau (nodule bed) acries. 

Yet another age is represented at Bcaufnan^ as will be M?.en from 
the followmg: in 1897, Hall and Pritchard {ho^. J^oyvf Soc. 
FtV , vol. 10, p. 57) rccoided a fossil marsupial tooili from the 
shingle on the beach. The specimen was snbinitled to C- W. 
.Dc V'^is, who suggested that it belougc<I to ''PcfIo^'clu\'itcs/' 
a gentis uC gigauttc kanguroid unmuls, and theicjore it seems 
possible diatthis specmien tame trrwn a still higher Ivd whieli may 
be referred to ^^ of Pboceue age 

So at this locality we may collect FossiU frumthrecr distinct ages, 
the Olrgocene, Ain-jcene and Phocenc, or, as soitictimes ,staled, Ihe 
Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene. 

Before leaving the district it tnay be well to note Ihc conditions 
of weathering and of erosion tor this ixnt of the Melbourne fore- 
shore. The chffs here are cohiposed itiainh' oi sands and clays, 
and as sueh they olTci lutle resistance lu the ;iciitjn of Ihe weather^ 
in fact "atmospheric weathering*' goes on far more rapidlv than 
the "isca'-s erojsiun," which is proved by the cliffs tllcitiselves, as 
they indijic hacJcwarda front ihi.- shore. Yet genen^lly the sea U 
blamed for the cliffs falling. Here, and cLsewhere^ [c>o, far grtater 

•Tun. 1 

CoLUVKR; fossil Locoliiics at and Abaitt A4clhoiiruc 


damage is done by the destruction of'the natural vegetation, thus 
dllowiiig" the w€atiier Cull play on the soil. 

To the iKginncr at fossil hunting, it is sugg:ested that all strange 
things be collected ; objects of no vakie rA.u be du-own away later. 
The writer well remembers his early r)ay5 of roUecting ios.sils, and 
remembers, too, that some si3ecunens now known to be of particular 
interest were passed over through lack of knowledge. 

The following is a list of the commoner fossils from Hcaumaris, 
and the majority of those should reward the earnest seeker fur a 
few hours" work. 

JBalcombjan Skries (mainly as casis and imprcs:iions) — 

Molhfsca (Bivalves) — 
Cnciillam conocims McCoy 
Biirbatia ccUcparacea Tat^ 

Molhtsco (Gasteroj)ods)— 

Ceriihhnn apheles T. Woods 

Voluta. aruiscalaris McCoy 

Cypraea spp. 

Conxis sp. 

Cassis sp. 

Turritella sp. 
Polyzoa — 

Vaviotis spp. 

Kaumnak Series — 

Molhisca (Gasteropods) — 

Liopyrga quadrkniguiQia 

Cmxcellaria iimmoneusis Tate 

Tylospira sp. 

Ancilla sp. 

Noiica, sp. 

TurrifeJh Sp. 
Molbisca (Bivalves) — 

Placmm-itmrna iatw Gray 

Ostrea arcnicolu Tate, 

Ostrea fiiamibriata Tale 

Osfreo wgens Zittcl 

Limopsis sp. 

Glycimeris sp.. 
Polysoa — 

Various spp. 
Crustacea — 

Crab fragments. 

Fislies — 

Isiirus hiufalix Ag. 

Lamnn npicuhito- Agr 

Sporidyhts pmedaradula 

Limopsu' sp. 
Glycimeris sp., 
I.eda sp. 

Ccstracion cciinosoiciij: Cliap. 

and Frit. 
Odovtaspis incunut Davis 
MIyi-obatis moorabbinenns 

Chap, and Pnt. 
niodoii formos^4sS Chap, and 

Edophadov sxveeii Cliap. and 

Labrodon con^ertidefis Chap, 
and Prit. 
Bf^chiopods — 

Mayoselki compia Sow. 
EchinodermQ' — 

Loi/enia fo-rbesi T. Woods 
M mwsiychio attsfralis Lanbc 
MayJimnlM ( VVhal es ) — 
S'culdicetus macgeci Chap. 
Sctotolithes sp. 
Suiidi-y skeletal bones 
Mmnmaiia- (Seals)— 
Odd leelh 

154 GiLJ.. Thv Ti^^masiian iVrt/'m' Sfotf& Isufihmiifs tVa i* 



By W. H. GrjLJ. (MeJboiinit) 

Tliere oNists a very large and definite series of sloim hnpleinents 
toniii'cl^d Nvjth U»e njaiiy tribes indigL-nous to Tasmania. Each 
Sfonc ifxjf was ajjparcnfly cvolv^'cl fntm a rlistiiict' *vpe» ;ind 
presiimaMy was made and used for a spe^^ial piir|jose, 

Jt is most diftailc to understand why such a large series of 
types exist, more especially when it is known that (he tribes founcl 
hv white men posse-sseil only (wo rnn^h wooden weapons and a 
ivood nre-rJrill. J'he |>rohIem. (hen, »*> la discover why so many 
types of iiiiplc!7ienls were mkkIc aaid what they were used for. The 
iihjftct of this jJcipLf i?; to mist' disrussinn U]i*iri this niystr^ry. 

A iheory has bfen advanced rhat a survey of the whole tield of 
Tasjnanian sicmc culture would i>rove tliat there either existed a 
previous race of primitive man on tht Tskind, t>r that the kite race 
Icnown io ns liistonViilly rctrograiled on arjcount af their long period 
01 isolation. With no infiltration oT a more virile and warlike 
pcoplc> tlicy gradnall)^ hceanic staj^nanl and lost their A'ilalily and 
illltures. in suppnrt of these possibilities I offer the following 
facta I — 

The Tasmanian natives h^d a definite series of stone implements 
of such cliaracter I hat at ien^i two or more phases of culture are 

From the earliest explorers, and up to the latit of the Tasmanian 
race, the only evidence known of then vvopden weapons, or any 
udicr objccis matie o{ wood, is (hat they possessed u crude si>ear, a 
simi)le waddie about 24 inches long, and a wooden fire-drill. 

N'evprfludcss, tlu*v had a mast »''lalx>r;ite series of stone imple- 
menis. which mny lie. classed into nbont twelve or more distinct 
types, with many variations in s)7r, and they devclo|ie<l many 
types ot a special character and form totally ^t variance with the 
Australi<m Natives* tools, and they nltimatefy evolved a very hig-h 
and perfect technique, probably superior to the Southern trilies of 

Critical examination of any large collection of Tasmanian stOn€ 
iinplcnienls should prove that there exists definite, e.videnee of 
diangcs from rough crude forms, and a primitive technique iw 
flaking and chipping to a complete advance dispUying perfection 
of forms highly developed in (vjX: and stone culture. This is 
o^ither pi oof of a gradual evolutinn on the ]rarL of oite Nation from 
the roughest tt'chni^pie to the. mcsl elahoratc in forms and work- 
nunship, or tluu an earlier race existed in Tasmania \vho were 
rcspous^ibk for the rough and primitive i nUure.s, 

There >^ ali;o to be lalten into constderatinn the fact fliat a f^rcat 
nunjber of the Tasmanian implements show very considerable evi- 
dence of patination Ixith m ochi^ous utkI bhie co}our$, 3tm3 us I his 

S*"? J Cut: The Toimiim'tin Naitucs' Stoiw imphatntti 1S5 

cjiiesiion ot pariiiatioa is receiving much atumiOrt by En«;lish 
arcliiEologtists. with the object of arriving at some dear idea of the 
a^^c of ston^ >mpl?irje?il.5 by th<t c.kj>rh and colours o( the ]wtma- 
Cion, its it«iK)rtance should receive atlencion l^re. 

All stone implements unquestionably were mad^ tor a definite 
l>nrpose, and tradition from ancient times governed their forms arid 
tvpeSj and as witli the Tasmanian Natives rlierc was na outstd-e 
dnflncncc-s coming fn to create new fomjs, or change iheir culture^ 
k is -fiiir to as^ilI^^e that tlieir respeL'rfv<' fontis reniyined constant 
over long pertod-S oi time. 

The 1 asmaman natives displayed no evidence of creating new 
ionns or material advance in their wooden weapons, possessing no 
spe^r-chrower to give additional length, precisiot! or speed when 
throwini^ their 5>peais. no shield to guard themselves, no wooden 
food-carriers or domestic uteiisils ot any descnption. and no 
hoo3T?erang6 And, ktrther. they possessed no Creative ornament or 
cai'ving of any description, or totemic objects of a. decorative 
character. But there exists one curious feature in their culture 
tliat has remained constant, that is. ihc ^rt of weavin.y:, in the 
making of rush Iwiokets. Is this a iurther evidence of an outside 
]atc iiuLture coming nt. and so connected with the race responsible 
for the more advanceo and ])erfect stoiK- industry/? Or does it 
belong to ihetr original culture bclonpinc;" to Hie f^rsr comers? 

Although there are also many probicins connected with the 
unknown uses of the Australian n?jt3ve stone iinplements. the mys- 
ten* attached to the Tasoiaj^ian natives' inipkmunti js still greater 
for the reason that they liad a nnich largt^r scries of the use of which 
nothing 1$ known. Oi their known ty]>ft:^ th^ [ollowing may be 
classed and accepted as f)eing jnade and usc<i lor definite purposes- 

Heavy hancj a?;e; For cutcing Ii3})l>5 from trees. 

Medium !iand axe: For notching footholes in trees when dinih- 
ing. and for adzmg down wood to roughly form weaptnis. 

Scrapers: For gradua'ly forming to shape wcaponS- 

Convex scva|>ers: For tinatly rounding the forms oi spears and 

Borers : Shdrp-pohited tools for boring holes. 

Knives: For cutting and general domestic U5e?. 

NB. — Ko mention is neci-ssary to iocKide jwtural-forine'J stones 
M^ed as pounders, grinders or liajnmcrs. for the rea'^on that they 
are not either flaked or chipped to i^nw an implement. WTiile 
retrainuig irom quoting <fxtiactit from Ujc many authoritative 
books 00 the stone cultures and weapons of the Tasmaman natTves. 
which are geiicrally so conrrHdictoiy: the foilowing extracts are of 
sufficient inlerest 10 warrant attention in support of the views 
expressed in this paper: — 

(Frwn Eagk^tawk an^ Crn?c', by John Mathcw. i 

Preface. Page y. — I demonstrated, as 1 had never done beiorL*. that the 
langiwge c^ the extinct TaamnniaiiN was the subitialuni Ol Aus^traliau 

Jaiiguag;csi Jc;>cliniif h> the cnncTusion that tlw 'J'asinanfnns were tlio fir'it ocai- 
l^nU of AustrnHa, and xettLin(r, 1 hope, a quesfion wliic.h h:»ri previously hem 
in douhr. liit., Hiv relations of the Tasinaiiians to the Aur-.lralian^. . . . 

Page 4^ — ^HaviTif^ now tlnmorutxaUTi hryiMK? all <<ui*.Kti<tn, it- h hiiqieH, th.1t 
the Ta?^ni^ni.ins werr the lineal cfcscc^iularits ot the prmiitivr AmtrnliMn 
t&i'e. . 

PaRE 22. — Ax ^;OnTiiaied wilJi tlie nili>lexii«iUs» ilinJ wcIiduiik d! the Contintmt. 
the paucity :)f these iii ihc hands ol ihe 'lasniirnaiis, tJitf rudeness ot the^ 
Sorms. aiid ihe inldfiority of Uie workmanship -idggfeiij a difference ti 
liticeiu u: the oiakcrs. Rul the lower skill oi ihc islanders may be (;:i&i)y 
accounted foj i>y the supposition that ti-icir i>rofl:<:tijiofs had alfe^idy reached 
Tasmania before the bcttcr-cnnim)ed race reached Vjcloria, and thai, ■j^tici 
the fir^r seiHemcnt of the hUnd, wl^ich may liftvc i>ceti ^udc vs'hoi i1 Nvaj 
miJCT more arrefisiblc lh;*n now. no further communication ifiok |)iacc Wth 
the main land. . . 

It is hardly uir to coiupare (hf* wcapor.s tA tiir; Tasmani»n^ with those <if 
thi^ Australians, and from die dissirnilarilv Ut deJuto abscin-.c of racial AffiinK 
hi the owners, lor the jtulation oE the Tasiroaiiianir reduced them to depend- 
ence ior advancenieni on a very liniiltid llUlab/^^ ai rnindtj, and thfy may have 
iTKide little or do progress aher (hey <:ro?&ed Mass Strait, whereas thi'ir kin 
on the mainland were overwheJiiicd by a race bringing" with them superior 
art. vvH^ch. oncf inti-oditred. only faint rrsces of Uie wotk o* the flriniilive 
ltilt.ahirsnl.5 mif.;hi hp exot^r.ted tr\ hnpfr on. 

It- IS I'ttiti- fit ask whether all tht^ Ausfr.illaii iin|j(cinc'ns -ifc leptiJented 
irt Tasmania. U the im))lran^uts ai Tasmania he alsu iound m Aitstrali:!. 
ahhxugh of iiuprtv.ed manuiacture, ihat >V?ould lie -^uffifipot u* yn}\iy rhe 
theorj* propctinded lietein ac far as (he argument front suvh VlMit^iiit's ]ms 
any forre. 

The lact that cerlain weapons of the continental natives an; absent Trum 
tiie i-iland sonns part nf Mr. E. 1^1. Curr's rta^nns for suppD?i('g rhnl the 1'as- 
Tnaiuani vi<tc not of .Atslralian descent, a metlMxl of reasotnnj? which "would 
L'Md tneviiibly to Utc eontlusiou tliat some of the AtHtialtan tril>c5 Witee ttot 
oC A^aUifliau descent 

•if John llaihcw's contention tliat The lasl rrice of Tasmaniaos 
"wxre the I'lne;*! fle^fcndants of the primitive Atj;tiralnn racp. M*ho 
were- graiiua)ly driven sotnl) by the ik'w hi">rdes that caiiK- in ivotn 
the north. wJao crossed over to Tasmania by the ongjTial land ridge. 
then it ^cTiis fair to advance the theory thyt they fotmd a race of 
peopk :ilrt:ady in Tasmania, whom (\\cy aLsorljed. and that the 
earlier race are responsilile for the rough and crude implements. 
find the late 'I'asmanian rare known to us hihtoriially a.s icsiTOnsiWe 
for ihe i'liier and mor.* perfect (mplements. 

On the other hsnd is tlic very delinirc couchision^ arrived ^t bv 
Professor F. Wood /otiefl, who is acccoicd as one of ihc greatest. 
oi our authoriues. He declares l)jal the Tasnianian nauve ot o\n 
rlay W3> never in Auscr;ihrj, but txiine iroiii uverseas. Here jvc Iii^ 
wordr^^ as pnntcxi on |)a^es 14 and 15 ot his intcrcHting booklcl. The 
fKiT^fM-Ami/y Atistj'olnn Race ; 

If the Tasm-inians were to reai:h Tasmania dryshnd they must, perforce. 
ha\v romr hy a land-hritJjiye in the retrion oi T^irreJ: Strait to Anslralia. an(] 
fmm Australia they must have, migrated aCtO£3 dr>- Jand thai stretched across 
the j*rwent Bass Strait to Tsirnfiiua. (j\\ this supposilion il has beconve 
halijii/al wlUi one school of tluxt^ht to assnmc thur the Tasmantatu at one 

Jan 1 

imJ Gu.t. : The Tasnjmtimi Noi'm^f*^ SfoHr J »iPhfitetits 15? 

time mhabiiwl the oiaiiiland of Aus'tralia, ;aiid from thert Wf u d'ivoil fidutt) 

into Taunia^iia l>y llie invading Australian native 
There is not a scrip ol rcral evidence in favrjur ol* ehis il)tf6r>' 
The Tasmaniati native alaic«< ccrlainl)* came to Taimaniji as a stifarefi 

ja*;t as the Maori canit la New Zealand, and tho alxsriginc cajnc to Austrjili^. 

Noithci of these authorities ilis^^iisses ihc qwi^stion of wha( the 
invaders found when they entered Tasmania — diJ Ihey inntl an 
inioccu]wefI i^ipnd, or was another race there: Professor Wood 
Juiics slates that the Tjisinani^ns w^r<? a true Pacific negroid 

On the hypothesis tiiat tho Tasnianiaii natives cj^me lo tile islaniJ 
tiiher hy water or lancl-briJ^c, seeking a new counity. Ihe fol- 
lowing f;ia& are of historical intfrcst- 

If they came as a hoid<; or fatnily group, ?i»j tin( .t»s incn vi>y^ 
agers. then they must have brought their wcmcn with them to n)i^- 
(iply, or, again, iht;y came a5r men voya.^er'i only anrj {aimd a jirior 
race on the island with whon^ they wtre nltamufelv jjlisorbed; Just 
as the Macri-c did on tlieir coming to New Zealand, who found ilWre 
the ])rinT race oF Moriori And the following fiicts are iraportanL 
to notice^ tliat the Tasmaih^uis, wherever iliey cahk*^ from, brought 
with them one of the most ancient cultures eonnccled wit!) primi- 
tive man. the u.^fe 01 and anointin^r ihcir bodies witli rhc sacred red 
ochre — Wood — the sviiiiiol of h'ff. Also the art of weaving — the 
making of rush baskets. Ai>d, further, a iuatter of gre^it hisioncal 
viiliie is thai, in connection with their btonc culture, chey hrnajjhl 
with Ihcm and relained tticir fipeoiahzed individual scone implement 
lypei. whose forms arc quite distinct, and lotally at variance with 
;i\yy Q\\sihvg grouji iypss of the stone cnlttncs of any of our Aus- 
tralian natives. 

fn connection with this imiKTtant statement is offered the 
opinion that if these spf.eialiTied typ^^ of stone inplemcnts can be* 
traced back to th^ir original creators in rh^ Pacihe isiajul, ^r else- 
where irc>m where the 'Pasmanians emigrated from, then there Ues 
the fvohltion of tlie present mystery of knowing *.!?fnritcly from 
whence they came. Thus tlicir knowledge, customs and use of red 
ochre, which is in itself a ningle hnU in the chain of cvidtuice we 
]K)Ssess, proves that, no luiUter how they came, or where the> came 
front, they knew of, )nonght with them, and maintained the use oi 
throughout rhejr lon^ i:)enod of life, the mn?.t ancieni cult coti* 
ncctcd with the life, custom?, and religion of primttivc man. 

Thitt, at least, is ot sujjreme nnportance to help [irove that (along 
with thi: Australian natives^ the Tasivtanian i>ative3 nriginally 
lielonged to wme branch stocK of ancient man. 

TTie stcqic imjjlemenfcs of the lotst race of Trtsmanian natives Con- 
slitiRc the only evidence we i>05ses.s en the subject nf tlieii 
antu]Tiity. Witliout exception, their implements are of the I'akco- 
hthic period (25.000 years), and generally ihey possess rc.itain dis- 
tinct formv and characteristics, such as the "duck-lwll/' with its 
mo*t minute: chipping lechmqne, the elliptic form of ni>cdiuin'Size 

haiid-axe. the alinost ^>eifoci ''angfJc" formed iinijicracnrr the bluiU 
bull-nosed tool, and that still titore mysterious sione the perlcdiy 
round "rauffiu." with tlie H)g<L daliorar.dy flaked perpendicularly, 
of wlilch the use is unknown. 

Coniparl^on between (Ue most primitive types in forms, with no 
effort to protea die han(L> from injury when using the tool, and 
mostly only roughly flaked, wilhonc finally chijjpinij the working 
edgc/and those c-i the verv many distinct form^ of specialised iiit* 
plemenis establishes that there were either two disthict coliuriil 
peiiods. Oi* that the primitive types represent the stone culture of 
one race, and the perieri tyi'xis the culture o{ another race. 


By A. J Taocgi-L 

On i Ijeautjhj] ^lay early in December I w-ent for a walk o-jt from Yarra 
Junction, ov£f Che viifdant i;-v:)muryr.i(:ic, ;ilr>iic yctt never nloiic. My desliua^ 
tiOil was ^ht Btii&^iVui Fal's, ^bout ^cvax miles distant. 1 liaJ done t)i< 
walk Iwicc prcviouJ5ly thh r^priv^.g, sr» ] knew what to expect, and I was sur- 
rounded r<ll liny by Alount Domu Buaug. Little joe, :ind VJi TujeweU, Jitar 
which ar<^ th* Bfitamiia FaHs. 

I rr)»de a detour *o find Orchitis like Ptcwsiy>'is jofcaf^ ia a iwainiJ. witli 
Thftyvutrn t: pi pad aides, and nearby, on the less wcl g.round. Muro^^'* 5t'id 
Ptasispivyllmn odoi'dtum, for it is jl hnd Lff swamps, good iot collcttifii^ in^ 
though not too tarly jii spraiij^'. Draciffii fff»WMT- w^s here. ;^Uo MifrCLUtrx**^* 
serpyiiijohd'. Thi.<; pretty, small tobubr cream-coloured Howcnug jii.-^iii 
ha5 flowers so small Thai even <i iKtckft ItnK will hardb' detect iltc org.'^n? 
lo allow inspection, So 1 -.ought ihc aiH of the Govcmincnt Botajiist in 
dctcrintni'ig it Jt is -jO ynltkc it«. sister li- pari^io.xa, tlur one must: be far- 
given ji die fftinity litr^ne^i- i? iinrccognixed, and it is reg;tndcd sl^ rare and 
alptHe, notili-c^uir Here. At .i^)!** feet shove ^:a-lcvel, k grows outsidt'* the 
swsmpy conditions, Hut when the soddened nature of tlu! counlry has passed 
it will be ahuitdanc in the erstwhile ';wim|:*.. A lowly, interesung plant, 
now ]*ecofdcd Souch. 

Two Asperuhi-* are herd- Thi-5 gciios was revised at ilic Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew rti 1928, and 15 so difovuti Ihcit c.?:iktI= arc dcixivcd hy it? 
connection with the Galinms. A. Gunnit. wfnch 1 had isn^sflonsly found on 
Ml Fcathert».tp. at 6,0lX) fi>?». i^? btrc gi'Oi\/ing on clod?: rd cnith uiu ohovc 
die waler, and nearhy in water, clinging lo Poa cacsp){os\\ grass- by its 
roitg"h st^ it Otp tail A. .-nrophylh up to 18 niches I^igli. Wliac .1 con- 
triPt in site.' — tlie former so small as lo be casi.'y passed, and the latter f<i> 
tall, refusing tn be uniecogiii7-cd. Bat 1 find I have de'iaycd too Joiig in Ihts 
jntcre^Unu .«wamv. <.o drajs rnyseli away from rich Dtriculaiiiis, Baucfias. 
Scvpa^dra. taJt Epacrids. and handiiotiie Ly.opodi^m htcmk. I Jiad in- 
Icnoed crossing itio 7-i«1e Yarra two hoi«s earh^^r. if f svas to collect round 
the falls, vi^till :ion>c miles di^^tai'it. The oM timber track passes- through a 
long swamp, where are s<eti Phr-^gwitcs, Fatmoniay tall OJc<jrw fomih 
hsa.^ w^th many ?jUd:-h'_'ads tonlainirit? the oraiigc- coloured larvae of a 
nativit frnit fly, Trypetidw 1. kindly ideiiiiAed by the Government Biologist) 
Tbe fine nvtt is closed to fi.shin,? all the year round. a> Iroiitlets are turned 
iino Jr. iiiglicx U0, whercv even at Powelllowii, ten milei> distant, it is a bca\i- 
tiful moLiritaWi jiream 

ft h grasf-timc, so llchrnopfigoi^, Mlcx-olmm, Aim. Slipa, DkhvhrMnr. 
Prtff^ DcntliOim and Colt3i'ia^r*\stU titc profusely flowcmg, witl'i Bhiht}'>ia, 

mil y^ifCai: y^t'i Jftffcii&*t h iSniomia faJh 199 

iWw Ti^irarrkcna. AUhooir'i <»<'€ inav reach ihe BiiLaiiiiia Crr^V Uy cross- 
roads, one of Oieiii tl-iree imJes fiom Yairo Judciion leading li> WirhurtoiK 
and be Uuided not more tlvv'* one -imd a Itali "I'les irom ide ialU near Bri- 
tannia Hnuse. I pK?lci \o Wce|i to H>e •dtKt.^t.-icd tra)-n-uai;lv, iMrning dh ihft 
|>i(itO road one sn*^ A halt' mill**; frnnt iVic t<twiwlitp. The 'rc'i"* rail* li^tve ticeh 
rf^itivc'i rroni lli':^ trark. and much malprial lio<» f.l;trlfc<) ailjst'mr io ihs. miJ- 
Way I'Mo, f.-.r trantniix&ion to Japan, it i.^ said. t> wny of Mf lliriuroc Thvf^ 
are not wanting pleasant coltccliiig areas en roiHc. Bouksia ioUW\n is ahun- 
dAni. h\ii sttuwiiig Traces tjf bad treatnieiU hy itie disjiitioLi^ bush firei of ^ 
year c»r two ago, v/hen the wl>ole covinlr>'=icSc sulVencd scv-rrcly. i"aH imrpU 
head^ oi Comcsf^^nuii (BA*tV*^Mfi\V'.'.'o) brigJiien the bush, w'dh lo^vlv Lobe- 
liOi, two Paltcnxa.i and DilKvyitus are nt flower. Hnfrcar^, three specie:-, and 
as many <>* /(•>^MJ/^r»■»Mw^l. :irc just axrer 

Pa-Hsinjc the »ca.soniag kiliis mI' the HardKvood Coniiutiy, (he "now di»i- 
majitJc^J track Itficonics wcL rotiuh. and ib little used. Jlrrc. O^rylatrfutn 
alpcAlrc Aiid (*A rlifft''cwn shuw uj). bur only a idw fl'jwcrs tcntdiin ox 0. pn'^- 
fiUH^/.'t'iw, th*fl was a l(la?c a niuiilh hi^o. hui it^ flj.1. tH''>di*t'* jiotls ure iJT'.'tiv 
Svi^li lljt^r k'tig', iliict, yoiiiti:*! hrftcls Oi) tht f:^al^k^ is >^^it/Va/i •".•>((.* in llow^r 
and (run. and. Howering jiforuscly, Geinffinfolmito: Jlb lac^*: Aii>phur flowers 
are a dclrglif. Ac£c».a£ arl" liere ahuodaot also. W Jtvfb<>hi, vJ^<nfnis, />r*i- 

ftnistird flO'A-cring during Tii€ past nfio'Uh .4. f'.i;i.'; ivyyi^i^ a tph jitriib, IH<^ 
vmiicxJiatn, snnrie ci^ht teet hi.crh, so difTcrcnt from the lowly ionn .-^t .^nvid 
riLif;h;itn, and so-.miidi lilce the .^eL-ond ^^r-ccies as \o he repardiyl, iKg Utc "Mr. 
Jftodway M>'s. as like a broad-Ji'aved form ot vcrtii.iHata. 

loflUiiWjabl*; gracelul Ahophih tn!e-ieriLS rci^l in the tiKiuntum gullj" 
below, tlCrKafii ecumf: relrtihoieiii iroin ihv dvifliiiR mOi&l'jrt: floa'iiii; back- 
ward and torivaid wiih Uie chan^iwe- wiinij ia ilie tiioumaiiiii It is- a ixgw ut 
Tair> to tHe youhp, nionnt^iiicer it the -cJond-i o( luist blow io itie regu:r«l 
<iirccti<)iv and he Ic-aios lo noTe Hiat Ih-e du'iawoug leave-" (he .neigr'nis for 
tfcc lowlands wh$rt Kohiy wcither j? jinmiiioni. A ieedc:f crfrek •>5iOe^ '•» o»> 
my right hand, and 1 miTi^ P-*'micth, ciric/jx, cypcraxrcous plants and c:ca?cli.x. 
ranwicuiu-'i plchcnis, XuUaria flacnei^, o*'^»*''i>j, fTfn/tii/ri. and h very- pleasant 
surprise, Ih^ old iuight-h icwilcd an-usJ; {Miimu'us DtcscUvha). 

J Ivave oow arrived at a long, steep clinle- on llie inouniahi Mdc. alcove Itlit 
on iny riKht. v-'hcrc t'fnb«r wa5 shpped dow" ai'ter beniL; cacried ^m^^*y m'lv^ 
on trucks irom |lic loccsts hcyond. The otd cables :^nij oiiliRy.v and the 
large hc'^p of sawiloti, pro'laii" ^louH \sliaf 'oi^st ^t:;tnl«i li:<d hr^n lalrl h^sy 
in the past. A whirc hriard Mailed h» .1 rucalypt nti iTiy left wrMilil tell Uit:, if 
the writing were now visible, dial hne ;ne the IBr.t^ntiia l*all* The ht-ifeht 
above sea-l^vel is ?"70 feet, and \he falls vhcmsetvt'- arc 150 icv^ from lOVJ 
to bottom. A hrcjjiace indicales where the billy may he boilec. and the treek 
may i'c iccn oi few yard-* distant. One iakct wemiag of fire-, from 1he H'vera] 
Uryc clearings cxtL-iulin^ uf and dwvn the KuHy sides, ri»:*dc a^ nre-hrcak& 
after (he ^aa tHutv. oj[ i\xc t-iajft. >Joth'"ig cbc indicalcv thi.- iatb. lo the 
-strang:ef. so h^ tniisl tuss-ii.k for liiiiistU, ^lS 1 haij to do' A trdck, int.)i.)t ovvr- 
grown, may he foUowed for 300 y'ari.l->. ^od Ote soi-r-d of I'tislting wSiHt*' wHl 
Eie an indi*-aior. But Se warnecj, as the fr.iclr is not only oi-ergrown. bu|- 
leadii uphill, and inixeci'i bDu!dfT<- ar<^ apt to c/Hnc ii> the way of the unv,ary. 
A fttick IS oi hltle use here. After bcin^ iiacrfully .struck on the Jcnec?- 
ca]). atid fcelitii: ii lileediiiit, 1 rollfd over heavily, anH vva^ glad to riac and. 
t*t<OvCr jrom my ilim:>:, sitliiia dov/n the '.vhilc. i follow up and \lowil 
stfcam, bvil the h^U^ cr* overgrown, ami largt- rocki itnpi.-iJt: prourcj&s and 
make clinthmg dtflicult. TIm$ Is tlit source of she Y^f-^ Jiinrrion U'Wnshipt 
Wfitcr fl^3i>pK| -and the Trujt has laid. large pipes nnniing from the rlanmied- 
ttpi'rcci:, first to ihc filtering bashn^ in <hi' ground, ro direct the* vvAtcr to the 
dintant houKholds- 

Otwc to BnJaontfi Houw, and for at least j'our miles bcyoitd, a nlr^ly- 
^■ruded ruad, li^abl*; f»^r i*>0Tor traffic, has httn consinictecl, wlnrli i uns afrnw 
a. newb' 1j»iU hndcc- Thic jkis5<:s above tlie timber chute nc^^r ilie fr*lU, r-iiid 
|)rovitl€£ 3 flel'gh'fnl return ;.Hinioy, ihcai^h the walk tnay I-ht rc<i1niHfd 
iM«cli further, sill .-^mc Inits ar<; r»:achttd. that Boy Scouts luve pcrmi^^sioiv 
to <ar<t for -anfl i'.ontr&l. \ local movemeiu Iiag lieeii on foot for ilv:' pres€''vfl- 
uon of the olrf liridgcs Tumiing along the Irrtck, so llial hrcwood might >-»>i tc 
fii^jrtr r>i rhf hridg'i mate-rial, and in nianv nls'-cs. withoot tlic corchiroy-tikc 
flAttcnrd timbctrs, mucli ol Oie track \^on1d hf i-nipaS'Sablc. -^^ ^ ■fcnnt.i io \hc 
wrttcr pan oT ii.y c;irljei* sprinp: vistT^. Tin nifely-fiVkileii rrwc' l>sirt; ilns 
waj is dchffliiful fo the wcilkpr. whcfhcr liolaotst \^r hiker- Tin: iV.ctooncd 
Cleitiatis-covered Irne? .Trc tvfri><i|iiiiir. a.s Uip. hro^il road passps iiver the 
giiUies, s-oi>ietinic«; nn omc ''if^c-. And »t tiii>rs on thx ^^\]^tr side 01 the ihady, 
verdur^' hiM*'idc's. 

A freak speoi>i*»n of Indian Pennyworl^ Jiy^i-m-.oiylc (C^n^r/Z/i) asuVfca 
waS' f.olti^r.leH, aUt^rcd by cuvJronir.pnt from a lerreMTial to an an>]ihibian 
pl?uit. LT^iially thiS plant grows iti daniy situations, and ha.t -Jatk grecn_, thick 
Ip;%ves, tootlied and simiatc. w-ilh a few crowded red tlowent. Tt mcrense5 by- 
rtidting at the nodes in thick ronts Often it ir. matliUe. My iVcal^ three -tccl 
lung. grcvWn.e on \he edge o\ a ^hyllow narrow pool, wis ;inthortd at each 
end zt ^ lerre5tr"al. Tl is branchlcKS. and the cyhndric stems growing in the 
water had become fl^it and incmbranconr., with cToscly-set acales ]dfc the 
teerii oi a snw At iho nodes arc urowdcd rootleis. some: hems as lonj; hs 10 
inches and 12 imhci, ?unilar I't the flattencil sitms, with additional ihrcnd- 
likr or hairy ruollfts .^t inlcrvalt of }iali an iaich The leaves arc scvcriil 
inthi'V' apdrt. wjth i'i>ikc-likc cOg(;f. ^::scrrlblhIg sol't pri^^k'es, and sire on h-iig 
tttalks. Was the ylant rf;*ching' out ior il:e ^nh at the lx>iioin. and covdd 
it survive afitr tlie poy) 3iad drii?d up' Tliis i>lai!t )i3s known ijiedicitial 

Otlier rarirfc-^ foniid were the Hutterciip (^<*uuni-uli<s hppacrus), with tco 
petals (u^uaMy fmind wirh ionr or five pclal-i wily), nnd two sjjrcics of 
Micmti-i Orchid (.iV. parJt^ora aitd M. nhlomfa). both hlorch^vl. -viscid. Atid 
iulcatcd \^^th thfjps. 

Alt UKcrcsTiuji' case nf fly «u-ti;c w:i': ejiroi-inttTed rormrly, while Imntint; 
lor nise<ls iij '.ht J»>\v oAisial feCfub at Black ICOck. The day was warm, and 
bJiie-longMc l.tsard*. were on rhe tnove. One of thf^e r-^jitiles. which 1 hid 
pick-d lip to cK^n>inc iov rirk$. harl a wound ak>at ball aji inch m diSniiilcr 
nn rach ride c*i its body — }iin as if someone lifid ^hot it vviih a nflc of &n)8ll 
calibre, and later decay had enlarged the opening:;. The hcle-5 appCfifCd to 
cormiiunit^te W4lh the bndj ca\iiy. and r..< thr Hitard strained to escape my 
^rip. ] W3iw oi" soinethine nsing to the* .'uiriacc in c:ach wound, 
Nivnt?roii> Tiia^g*or«. we're lynig cJojc t(jgcther. tnid sidi: by :;idc-. widi Ihrir 
hrad^ itirericd inU> the Itxarifs Vitals Using, a pair oi forcep;.^ wo cii- 
dea\\nired Tn nh^tai't s|h'ciincnc, tntt at die fir.>t touch llie niaggots rapidly dis- 
persed into the !>>:!)■ of tUf host. We killed ihe hV-ard. and tc>i'nd. on opening 
it up. inaggO'ts in every part cd t!ir body cavity. However. :icli).*' rnm<')< 
of the tissues was- r-Diilnied lo the original wound vind it<; nrifthboorlKiod. 
and TO ihf- dc^h about rhe* vcnthral rolumn. In thi' latter |\sri nuny ribt 
ami vertehrac had l>eeti i.ornplctcly sinppe^i oi flesh Miss Ivait', v,\m 
e.^afoined the larvitj pronounced ihein to be those o( one ui Mic sheep b'ow- 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIII.— No. lo Februan' 3^ 1937 No. 658 


" The ordiaar>' meeting of the Club was held at ihc Royal 

Society's Hall on Monrfay, Januaz-y JL 1937. *lhe Senior Vicc- 

Presideni. Mr. Geo. Cogliill, occupied tbc chair. About 90 mem- 

bcrsi and fncndy were present- 

Jl wa.i announced that the President, Mr. S. R. Mitchell, the 
Hon. Secretary. Mr. F. S. CoHiver. and several other Tjiembers 
of tile Club, were atteadmg the meeting of the Atasir^ilian ;niij Nevr 
Zealand Association for the Advancement of Scteilce. at Auoklaud, 
Kew Zealand. 

Tlie Chairman took the opportunity of wishing all members* 
a happy and prosperous New Year. 

Ca[)t. G. McLaren, a new inemher, gave an interesting address 
entitled '^A Ramhle in New Guinea-" He showed many fine 
lantern slides and moving" pichires dealing with native life and 
customs, including some valuable films illustrating a visit to Tcndi 
Island, which had nol Viirherio been visited by a white lium ami 
whose inhabitants are completely primitive. He related many 
incidents illustrating^ tlie psycholog}' of tlic Polynesians aiul 
Alelanesians in this area. A tujmher of questions asked and 
answered indicated the interest of the members present. 


Fron] Miss Joyce Allan, of the Australian Museum, Sydm-y, 
acknowledging the presentation hy the Committee of a bound copy 
01 the Shell Book and assuring the Club of her further assistance 
in the future. 


On a show of hands the following wtre. duly elected: As an 
Ordinary Member of tiic CIuIj : Captain G. McLaren: as Ctamtry 
Members: Messrs. G. Mdntyrc, Bulranald. New South Walcs^ 
;ind AIi)ert Green, of Maccdon. 


Mi.W. H. Tngrani relerrcd to Blackhu'd^ eating caterpiIlarH 
voraciously- Mr. V. IL Miller stated that he had observed Starhngs 
al Colac g'orging thcm.s<jlvi;s on catcrpillara- 

Mr. Chas. French said that he had attended a flower show at 
Auff'esea a.nd in a class for wildflowers had noticed a V'ise con- 
taming at least 1.000 native orchids, and anolher containing <dniosi 
as many. 

1(52 FtM jYatufatuiy Cinb Proceedings [vIS'.^il 

It was resolved, on the jnotioii ol Messrs. >"rench and Proud- 
foot, that this matter be referred to the Comi-nittee for coosidera- 

Mr. Cliarles Barrcrt mentioned rhe necessity for 500 acres 
of the Corrandcrrck an=a at Healesville being added to the Sir 
Ccih"ii MficKenzie Sanctiiar^/, especially for Koaios. On the molion 
uf Messrf,. Barrcte jind Hyom. the rratier was reicxrcd to the 
Committee for immediate attention. 

The meeting then adjouiaed for the Convcrsa;nonc. 


Mr. Chas. French. — Speeimens of Spiranfh-es densiy. "Austral 
Lady'.s Tresses " and cotton-like scale insects. Puivii^nno tccf'^. 01) 
Kiinsca; both exhibits were from Warburton. 

Mr. A. R. Varley. — ^Tortoise shell; opercnhim from Turho 
jourdani;. Ivory nut from Solomon Islands, nmrine fungus From 
Point Lonsdale : "dilly-bag" from Bloomficld River, North 
Queensland ; mangastan from T?-va. 

Mi'S. Chas. Barrett. — Orchid, Cywlnfiium indifoHum: :ind a 
liiy (Crinum sp.) from Queensland; both cuUivatecl in a gla>s- 

Mr. H. Stewart- — Ninely specie*, nioslly in flower, of flora 
collected at Mount BulTiilo-, akitude 4.000 to .S.fiOO feet, inciurling: 
Ai'tphy'lla sknplicifoUa, Mountain .'\ciphyll ; Bra-chycnme tdocorpn^ 
Lobe-seed . Daisy — achcn,c> immat\u*c ; CatadcHUt cayytoa-, white 
forms; Cordaminc dkty(>spcrma': EpOi-ris brcidfiora: Hakea Vil- 
tata. showing two seasons' fruit; H'i>cToch/oe rcdolens. Sweet Holy- 
^rass ; Hymericintkcra dcnUiia, Tree Violet— foliage Only; LMms 
4Xii-styaUs\ Phehatium podocarpoidcs, P. s^uamvlosufn'^ PimHm 
c(pina\ Podocarpus utpiva. Mountain PUim Pine — foliage only; 
Tricoryiic clado}% imn-jijture floiverA ; Wuhlcnbcrg'ia vhcacflam, 
immature Hovvers. 

TfH> Study of the Soif in the. Field is the title of a very useful 
and inccresting litde book by G, R. Clarke. Lecturer in Soil Science 
in clie Depurtmenl: of Rural Economy, Univei.^ity of Oxford. It 
is published, at the Clarendon Press, under the auspices of the 
Tinperia' Foreslry Jnsiitute^ University of Oxford. The author 
has made a special study of rhe field aspect of soil work, winch 
demands, nol only an extensive knowledge oi natural science, but 
alfio "a faculty for keen and uccuraie obsevv;»tion of details which 
are by wo means easy of observation.^* Rns&ia leads in i>cdology, 
but Europe ;ind America are? not [nv behind; and even in Aus- 
tralia WG have 5oil scientists who arc doing much valuai:ilc work. 
And field work i6 of the firi^t imjJOrtjmce; when n soil saniple is 
taken from its envtronnotnt it ^*di«a." ' 




Lloyd. Further Notes on Australian Utricularia 



By Francts H, Lloyd, (Wales), f.r.c.s., f.l.s. 

Last April, in company with my collcagnies in the DcpartiiK-nl 
of Botany of Sychicy University, I visited a locality rtcli in tour 
species of IJtricuhma, one of which was II, biloba. It [jcing the 
close of the season this plant was scarce, and was found j^rovvinj^ 
on the higher and drier ])ortions of the habitat, a small, sandy 
swamp fed hy drainage from surroitn{lin«; low rocky and san<ly 
hills. Unfortunately tliis locality, included in the subnrh of 
Malabar, near Sydney^ referred t(^ in my previous paper in this 
magazine {Vict. Nat\, liii, 91-112, Oct., 1936 j as La Perouse. 
which is the general locality on the north shore at the mouth of 
Botany Hay. is soon hound to disajipcar, as a hal)itat of native flora, 
before the advance of town building. 

The substrate on which 
1-. biloba ^rew was a dense 
mat of fdjrous material 
nuxed with a little sand, 
and very few evidences of 
leaves could be seen. On 
exhuming the buried parts 
I found only stoKjus, anr! 
no leaves, except a few 
s]>atulate ones which 
tiu'ned oiit to belong to 
IL cyanca. Tt was notice- 
able that the end of thc 
flower scape was buried 
at a consideralile depth, 
about 5 cm. The traps 
were found to be c>f the 
IL vulgaris type, which 
are found also on l.\ stcl- 
loris and U. flexuosa, to 
mention Australian .s|"je- 
cies, but in particular detail 
they are identical wnth 
those of f7. rcsu/Jiiiata of 
North America, and some 
other species. The failure 
to find the leaves of this 
plant was the more dis- 
apjx-)inting because of the 
absence in any of the current descriptions, all based on the 

Fki. 1 

a, Lateral view of young flower, some- 
what distorted by pressure; b, front 
view nf cfiffilla; r, scales snhtonding 
t^oral pecticels ; d, caly\: with ovary 
sp. spur. 


Lloyd, Further IVofcs on ^'lusiralian Ufrtadaria |_ 

Vic. Not* 

original of R. Brown (Prod. 432): ^'Leaves very small and rare 
at the time of flowering" is the sum of information. 

A few days later another visit was paid to this swamp, and 
I found in a little pool in some depth of water the complete body, 
with exception of scapes of which there was no evidence^ of a 
plant which appeared so unique in form that I was taken by 
sin-prise. The only other species whicli it resembled, and that 
closely, is (/. paradoxut F. E. Lloyd and G. Taylor (in press) 
found in Angola, West Africa. The plant consists f>f a network 
of fine horizontal stolons buried in the mud with branches ending 
as leaves sent up into the supernatant water. Illustrations were 
afforded on j^ilate 12 and f[g. 2 of my ]>aper (I.e.). A search in 
various Herbaria (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Pertli) failed to 
discover any material corresponding with the plant in cjuestion, save 
only a small fragment collected by Mr. C. Moore,^ probably in 
the same locality or in one of the ponds of the now Centennial 
Park, Sydney, where it was found also !>y Miss Alma Melvaine, of 
Sydney University. Moore's fragment, which had evidently been 
seen by Ferdinand v. Mueller, was a part of a leaf, but it remained 
unidetirificd when 1 found it in Melbourne. 

In the al)sence of evidence 
to the contrary, I concluded 
that 7 was dealing with a 
novelty, and I described it, 
^'despite a lack of flowers" 
(I quote from my cited 
])aper), under the name U. 
Laws on i. 

On my return to Sydney, 
we again visited the locality 
above described, and we 
now f(mnd the plant in 
fiower in the pool which 
had previously yielded the 
sterile material. This titne 
I was able to get the jilaut 
entire out of the loose mud 
so that the scapes came out 
wi th stolon s and leaves 
attached. On examination 
Tin's was December 28. 

Fni. 2 

Sliadow photographs of floral parts. 
Specimen in Sydney Herbarium. 

It turned out to be U. biloba R. Bi 
1936. At this time we could find no flowering scapes except in the 
pools and ditches in deepisli water. In places not subtnersed I 
foimd mats of minute leaves showing the branching form charac- 
teristic of the species, but no scapes, f/. Lawsoni must therefore 
be discarded. Instead of a new species we have, however^ com- 

t J L»<*irn, furtlifr Nttift xiu. AnstraHan flti-kufatia 165 

plelc Icnowlcdge of a plant pfeviously kiiown only by its flowt*r^ 
an J scapcs- 

■ . The plain n>nsists nf a widely-spreading and {requenOy branclicd 
horizontal system of thread-like stolons prnetratiug the muddy 
substroiutn Jl ^ dc]jLh of four to fiv^ cm. the lower end ot 
i|k^ ftcapf. is colnurless to lliis def'th, as this arises Uon\ one of thr 
hoii/onlal 5.1ofons, it being, with ihem, buried in mud. Fnjin 
these stolons leaves als4) artsc through the mud into the supernatant 
water where they hninch, and fiave the ;ii>}>eiir;iiicc oi Wiilt ti'ees. 
Th€ "STolons aie provided with many traps on rarhcr Inng delicate 
stalks. Traps occur to some extent on the green exposed portions 
of tbe leaves, but these arc much ^jnaller and not often well 
devp-Ic-ped, The basal pare of the scape ht-ars several rhizoids, 
;i.j^.<in i^iinilar to thOie ')! U. vuhiuris. The main axis (j( a rhtxoid 
near the base l>cars very short branclicd leaves, the Bci^ments of 
which are tightly curved* fhc whole, with its ncighhour serving 
as an anclioiing system of barl-^ed struts. The seape 3S tall 
(lipward of 10-50 em.) and is vti-y brittle. The Rowei in addi- 
tion to being generally blue in colour has iwo yellow swellings 
on ihc palette- The j>od is orbicular, about 3 u)fn. hi diameter. 
The seeds avc angular, due ti» mutual contjivc-'^siun nn th^ largf. 
orbicular placenta. The scales of the Mtape are "hasisoUire/* i!ut 
»s. the base is prolonged hacl\'w<ird niak-ing thu scale peltate. 

The form wliich b produced when the plant ^rows in mud 
covered with decplsh water ^jtajids in di.siincl conliast with (hat 
which is produced in wet sandy lurL llie leaves uf the foimer 
are long aud nntch branched, in the latter minute and simple, bdnp 
merely a (Jtpering, tcrcio leaf ni few mm length, or wmewbnt 
louder and havaig nue or two branclie.s, ci'xrcspondingly shon. 
Densely packed, they ^ovin ;i mat with a curly, green i)a|) quite 
diffr^rent from ihe gteeu i>iats forJiied l>y other terrestrial torms 
with spathulate leaves. The plant cajiuot strictl^^ b/e calh'd <ei'- 
rcbtriil; it \rA>s two forms, an aquatic and a terrestrial. 

O. .Sch\\artz {FlanUiC ta/Viit: %/cl nnuits cofjnUae Austrot-iite 
ir4>pkat, p. 9S) cites U . biioba as a primitive Au^tralian terrcstri;i! 
fotn with which hrs {/, (craiophyUaidcs n in close rcbtionshi]). 
Through the knuiucis of niy incnd^ Profe.ssiT von W^^ttstein. of 
Bcrlin-Dahlcni, I liave received a small fragment of the iyj>e 
material of U. ccrafophyJIoid*^.^, exarninarioo of which bhosvs that 
the traps are ^uite those of U. vulgi^ti^, and are therefore si»nilar 
to those of U- hitcba. Both on tins count and ba^nse of the 
basisolute ^calci a^. well as. as we now know, on the general form 
Off the veo^etutivc jjart.s, ihe e.onipari.son made by Schwartz ia just 
enough. As to the "blue" tlowers, thi.c. is Icsa certam, bur I hav** 
not seen them. But it may be seriously ques>tioued tliat (/. bilobtt 
is a "primitive Australian form/' The Lrafis, with baiisololc scales 
and the form of the plant body ate all cosmojioli r:in in lyi)C. With 

166 Li.ovD^ Fiirtlur Nvh'S un Ausirafmn Utriathria [ 

Vnl. LllL 

Schwajlzs vjew that Kamienski's svsleiii is due fov i^vision 1 <An 
only agree. 

U .ximpIcA- R Rr. :: J founrl ilns very small plant nt^r Albai^y, 
VVesterti Ausiralia, probably in tlic type locality. Th6 iniderground 
jiarta :tn:: vk:t\' scanty und tni^lle, ;ind viiry dIFficult to exhume. 
ihcse were found to be Quite like diosc of 0. lolcnflora, .mciudiri^ 
the traps, which arc aux-iri^ ihc smallest found m any species of 
Utncularia, The figurt^ in my prcvidus ]mpt:r (l.r., p, %^ fi^r. 12) 
sliows the sTrnciiire. Ii is interesting to note that R. Brown 
a&sociatcd llicse two species without tmy knowlcdj^e of the parts 
Oiher than the Hovver and leaves, whic)^ lattei- are. oi doubtful 
^'alucL The flowers are of very similar iorpi. Tlierc are Ihrcft 
i»peties l<:liHvti 4jf this typf? i\[ trap, t] . caHiphysia 5iapf, found hi 
Borneo and in Ceylon (if the Ceylon plant ts rhi.s species), 
U. s'lViplex, Western Australia, U. lateriflora^ sonth-vvcst Aus- 
traha and Tasni:mi.!i. 

UtHcvliiriit "■infiinilJfoHo'': Jn (he Sy<^i^f'-y 9pil>7Jiiunx "there Jss 
H Single sheet bearing scanty jiuvcrial of a -ipecic-;* with loug 
-scapcH (60 cm. ni mure), beanui,^ long (4-5 cm.) li^nlate or some- 
what :=p;ithnhiff. h^.avf.s and anchoring hbres. No traps- or othw 
-Substi*atnni liad been collexied One- mature Rower and one 
young flovi'cr allowed an accairaie description. Calyx t upper 
IdIk broadly ovate, slinost orbiculate. ohtu5e: lower lobe -^inwlar 
hut deeply emargrinare; corolla- upper lip, coritraded above the 
ha^c then Hpreadinc' miu a cordate upper \^ri^ l-he npjn:r limb being 
CHiarginatc; lower lip: .spieaduig, ca. 2 c^^^. hro?i,d, the side-i form- 
ing an angle of c^. 100-110 degr^^es with each other (much less 
Ihaii m U. voliihtlis, for whicJi ii might be inistake^T, particuUrly as 
it grows iu the same rei^ion). tht^ htwer edge foTininf; titc segiiient 
of a circle, sh^htly '.Tenulatc. bpur short and very obtuse. The 
n>Ionr i^ pinlc or The Rcapes of llic specimen fiavc 
ba^iohire scales and show no tendency tu iwi^t into spirals, so 
thai il is probably uoi a elirobnig plant. The. label reads as 
follows : "R. Brown, Ilcr .Australicnse, bS02-5 / (Presented by 
direction of J. J. Bennett. 1876) / Utyicularia yolmuHfoUa / King 
George's Soimd / Ex Herb. Horr. Bot. Reg. Edin." The name 
and InraJiiy are writi«i by a hand other than Crown's. There is 
no " r):A}indi\oUit"' recorded ior Australia, at all events, and the 
nani6 iti quite inappropriate It would be appreciated if collectors 
iii the region vvhcrt; Brown did hi.s hrsi collecting in Australia 
would look for thic- plant- *i'he accompanymg figures show the 
known characters of the plant (figs. 1 and 2). 

. FMMKX k^ NATVn/JJSr, J.4N-UARY, 1937 
Corrt:cilo»5. Nctfu^-clfst, Jnn.. ]^37, pagt 147: BcncHtli tl^e captlofi. for 
■pautrt" tc-tH "pnrhnn.^* Ifonrili paragraph: for "ArHm-halycnui" read 
".■1ni»? italicion:" l^age 148, sijith fidraffiaplt : for ''debixjnj;" read 

THn VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. lih Februaryy 1937 

Plate XV 



33 "I 

Feb. n 
1937 J 

Coleman. Polliuatwn of Anutt itaUcum 



\\y Editit Co[.kman 

Tlie remarkaMe iiiellind of poUinatitm in ilu- Motllcd-lcaf 
Cucko()-]>iiit {Anan imuulatum) has often been dt^scril>c(i. That 
of the V'cint'd-h'af t'ucko(j-])int {A, itaiatui) is even niorr 

l.tit: .irn}!{ ihiltcmu, blmwitiH cluM>ttl spadix, Ri^lit : I'Vuits (green), whlcli 
later hecome scarlet. Clubl>ed S[)adix withered. 

interesting^. Under L'ultivation. platits of this species are more 
robust, their florets i)ro])ortionatc]y larger, so that pollination may 
he followed without the use of a lens, tlKiugh t)uc is useful in 
revealing the structure and ttie opening of the florets. 

It is a handsome plant with attractive arrow-sha])ed (hastate) 
leaves, which are veine<l with wliite, not mottled as in .-J. vincu- 
hituiu. The lobes of the leaf are longer and more s]>reading. The 


Coleman, Pollinatiott of Arttm italicum 


ic. Nat. 
Vol. LIII. 

clubbed spadix is yellow, not purple or pink, as in the smaller 
species. The inflorescence consists of a fleshy s])ike (s]:iadix) 
on the lower part of which are many rows of closely packetl, 
sessile, male and female florets. 

At the base of the spadix are six irregular rows of fertile 
female florets without styles, which are no more than vase-sliai)ed 
carpels, each one bearing at its apex a much divided, transparent 
stigma. Later, from compression, the carpels become s(]uat and 
obscurely pentagonal in shape. Above them are two rows of 
infertile female florets witli stylos. Then follow five or six rows 

Micro'photo. b-jf O. H. Coulaon. 

"Moth" midgets {Psychoda), which pollinate Aritm itaiicum 

of fertile male florets, stamens without filaments merely, their 
bright yellow anthers dehiscing by lateral slits. Above these are 
three rows of infertile, tailed florets, probably abortive stamens, 
though opinion on tliis point is divided. These I shall term 
"bristles." All the florets are naked. Thus the plant wastes no 
energy in producing unnecessary protective parts or signals. Petals 
and sepals are not needed either for protection or attraction, while 
the conspicuous yellow club and an unpleasant odour signal the 
pollinating agents. 

As male and female florets mature at different periods, outside 

jj,37 1 COKtWAN, fioflituiihfi -of Arnm ^itsUmTn 1*59 

ag<fncy is essential for their pollination. TIk fiorcLs are markedly 
protogynous, the females maturing from one to tbree days earlier 
than the niak florets. Hot wealh^i ;ippeai'.s to hasten devclopmcril 
of the stamens, when the difference is less marked. The fleshy 
spacfix is enveloped in a green, leaf-like bract (the spathe) whii:]i 
is convoluti;d, and coostrictcd at a point Qp[>cisite tl»e '^bristles/' 
forming a closed cylinder below. 

Wh<?.n the female florei> mature & faint, foetid odour is apparent 
— a |)owerful attraction to hundreds of small moth-like flies 
(Psyckoda), These find an eajy j>«'issage rnfo the cylinder, but lo 
retuni is another niatier, the ring of "Ijti^iIcs" acting ou the oJd 
curved-leeth r^it-lrap prinapl*?, lo the confusion ot the small 
visitors. 3n their quest for freedGOi) the baffled captives wander 
over die female florets at the base of the cylinder. The stigmas 
of these fJorer? are receptive /^nd readily accept -^tiy pollen brought 
by Che flies from a b|:»idix on wliicli niaJc florets are mature. 

After pollination the silvery stigmas wither and become hrown, 
a drop of nectar now showing in e^nch brown centre. All this 
time the anthers above have been tightly closed. In from twenty- 
four to seventy-two hours tlicy dehisce by lateral hIiIs, shedding 
their pollen en the hosts of living and dca'l captive^ below — pollen 
which is impotent on the now non-veceptkve stigmas. It will be 
noted that, with dehiscence of Ihc anthers the barrier of '^bristles"' 
has withered, tuv} contracted towards the floral axis, leaving g 
passage between them and the constnctecj ]xircion of the spathe. 
Thu? any living flics may now depart, carryin*^ with ihcm pale, 
golden dust, from the male florets above, with vvhich they will 
pollinate receptive female florets on .'i younger spadix. 

The fact that ilieii withering coincides with dehiscence of the 
anthers suggests that these ''bristles** may be regarded as infertile 
male florets, the 'lails" representing filaments. Signs of ^fTective 
pollination iirc soon apparent. The (^varies swell and become 
green. The spathe droops, and the club, no longer needed as a 
signal, withers and becomes brown. Effective fertilisaLion is seen 
in host.-? of seedhng plants which spring up wherever there are 
fallen fruits. 

All the insects that Ansit niy plants, belong to the genus Fsychotfn, 
They are exquisite, moth-like flies, whose iridescent wmgs are 
very large in proportion to their snnUl l)odies. On warm days they 
flock to the spathes in hundreds The "cylinder"' may be half 
fiHed with flies Many die before dehiscence of the anthers above, 
and the consequent withering of the ring of "bristles" to allow 
their escape. An adequate number survive, to ensuie the pollina- 
tion of female florets m another spathe. 

Tlie flies are most numerou.s at ;ibout Ham when ihe tempera«- 
ture of tlie spadix 1$ probably higher, and the attracting odour 
more powerUd Experiments in this direction have shown that 


Cor.HMAN, PntHnation of Armti halscitm 

LVol. LllL 

]n several Arttins the temperature at ccrtaitt periods may be higher. 

by some 5 deg. Fah. than the surrounding air. The pollen grains 
have only a very shghtly adhesive exine and are well adapted to 
dusting insect-bodies rather than to carriage in masses. The 
efficiency, ol the small pollinators is- evident in the hosis of red 
fruits and, ultimately, the .seedhngs that appear. 

It must be admitted that, m a 
garden, the Cuckoo-pint is a -great 
monapofist. With a rapid vege- 
tative increase, it is not dependent 
upon seed lor reproduction. 1 have 
counted tA\'enty-five small tubers 
(twenty - five potential plants) 
upon one parent tuber! The etTec- 
live pollinary device doubtless 
serve.s two important purposes: !o 
carry on the species should thc- 
pavent stock perish, and to safe- 
guard young plants from any re- 
cessive detects which may be latent 
in die parent stock. 

The fruits are said to k»e harm- 
hd. bur they are eaten by birds 
without ill elTcct, The Black- 
bird and the liritish Song-Thrush 
strip them from many a spadix 
in my garden. I have seen an 
Oriole feed them, whole, to an 
importunate baby — ten fruits m 
3ucces5^cn>. My svidden inovemeni 
sent the n:icthcr to cover. The 
I>;d\v utuiired a few imperious cal't^j 
but., hnding that they did not 
I>ring his mamnia, Jlie big bully 
hopped down and fed himsel f ! 
Wai tic-birds evidently ai.^prcciate 
the "pulp*' winch surrounds the seeds. T havu seen ihem punctme 
and dislodge many fruits. Douhllcss they carry many of them 
away to exploit at leisure. The seeds are thus widely dispersed. 

Caution should be exerdsed wliere there are children. Tliere is 
cei tauily an acrid juice hi die seems of the Veined-leaf Cuckoo-pinc 
which leaves a stinging sensation in one's hnger.^. 

r am indebted to Mr. P. R. St- John, of the Botanic Gardens. 
and to Mr. J. Clark, of the National Museum, for the names of 
plant and Insects. Botli are ahvays generous in giving such 





J Gabrikl, a PeatUcr Bhxtlve ShcU 171 

Mr. Clark tells nie that tho Psychoda are not named in the 
Museum collection, and thut, at present, there is no literature on 
the Australian species. Very little is known about them, tlunij^^h 
they arc sometimes abundant in moist places. Mr. (J. H. Coulson 
kindly ])hotographed the insects. 


Pollination ot Arum italiatm in tlireo stages : 

A. — A spadix, with spath(j cin away, showing (from the J)aso upward) 
mature female florets, each with a silvery, receptive stigma at its apex; 
a few infertile female florets willi styles; immature male florets; down- 
pointing-, tailed florets forming the "trap." 

B. — Female florets have been jjollinated, stigmas withered and tirown, 
ovaries swelling; male florets still immature. Many insects in the 

C. — Anthers of male florets have shed their poUen; "bristles" have 
withered and no longer block entrance to cylinder. Living flics have 
escaped carrying pollen on their bodies. Many dead flies at base of spadix. 


Key to floretJi on each spadix : 
I. — Infertile florets, probah'y male. 
ll.^Male tlorets (mature) with anthers dehiscing by lateral sTits. 
IlL — Infertile female florets with styles, 
IV. — Female florets (carpels) with much divided stigma at apex. 

[Note — This paper should have appeared before the one by Mr^. Coletnan 
t^uhlished in last month's issue, in which reference is made to Ayi(i}i iialicntn. 
The two papers were received together and inadvertently that on the Calla. 
Lily was sent to the printers first. — Editor. 1 


By CHAK1.E.S J. Gabrikl 

At a recent meetinj.^ of the Club reference was made to an 
interesting Victorian mollusk, Iluniphreyiii ^trangei. which is not 
infrequently met with (^n our shores and in Tasmania, Xew South 
Wales and South Australia. It was described in 1852 in tlie 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. One often hears 
it referred to as a *'Ttd>e Shell," the animal in reality attaching 
itself when young by the ventral edges of the shell, and during 
its progress to the adult stage extendinj^ the \'alvcs l>ehind into 
a tube, the tid)e being attached by its base to a s!tell or stone and 
sometimes showing nuich distortion in growth. 

Dredging excursions by the writer in Western Port have from 
lime to time yielded very excellent specimens of lluinpiwcxin in 
h'ving condition, some of which may be seen in the National 
Museum, Melbourne. IJuring one ^>f these expeditions, in 1905, 
at a de]>th of four fatlic)ms on a stony liottom l>etween Phillip 
and French Island, the writer took a juvenile form with the 


Gabriel. A Peculiar Bivah'c Shell 



ir. Nut. 

animal. For examination and comparison this unique specimen 
was placed in the hands of the late Mr. E. A. Smith, Conchologist 
at the British Musuem, who found the state of preservation was 
not sufficiently good for minute study; liut in the Proceedings of 
the Maiacological Society of London (March, 1910) he made 
some very interesting observations^ as follow : 

Httiiiphrcyia strafijfri, Younj; (hifitily magnillctl), after E. A. Smith. 
Right : Adult. 

"Shell very small, 5 mm. long, 4 liigh^ consisting (jiily of iwtj flattish 
valves which are placed over the dorsal end of the ovate-globose body ol 
the animal, covering only a limited portion of it, and diverging at the 
umbones at about a right angle. They appear to be closely attached to 
the surface, and exhibit, within, faint anterior to posterior adductor scars. 
Externally the vaivcs are covered with a thin, pale, olivaceous i>eriostracun»» 
which is more apparent towards the outer margin than at the umbones. 
The surface exhibits fine yet quite distinct lines of growth, radiating series 
of minute granulations towards the umbones, and faint traces of radiating 
sculpture ui)on the rest of the valves. The hinge is edentate, and consists 
merely of a ligament attached just l)elow the exireme margin of the valves 
posterior to the umbones. Interior *>f the valves white, almost silvery, 
concentrically wrinkled here and there. The body of the animal is enclosed 
in a sack-like niatUle, is soft, i>vate-globose, terminating posteriorly in a 
thin whip-like process. . . . What may be the function of the flagelliform 
e.vtension of the body 1 cannot offer an opinion upon. Can it ])ossibly be an 
anchoring appendage?" 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL LIII.— No. II March 3, 1937 No. 639 


The oi'dinary inefting of the. CHib was he.ld at the Rov;il Sodetv's 
Hall on Monday. Febniary 8., .1937. The President' Mr. S, "R. 
Mitdiell, presided, and about 100 members and frieaids vvere 
present. ■ ■ 


The subject for the evening was an illustrated lantern lecture on 
''Erosion/' given by Mr. W. J, Lakeland, of the Forests Com- 
mission. A fine serie5^ of slicics. i^howing contUliuuS that bvin^^ 
about efosion^.and its results, both in Australia and overseas, was 

The President thanked Mr. Lakeland for his very interesting 
and in.strucHve address, and stressed the position in America to 
illusirate the need lor conserving our forest cover. Other members 
expressed apprecialion of the lectuie, 


With reference lo U»e reported wholesale gathering of orchids al 
Anglestia, the Hon. Secretary reported that the Coniniittcc had 
decided to sen<l a letter to those concerned, pointing out that nrchids 
were protected, and asking tor help in the ''Plant Protection Act " 


The President referred M'ith deep regret to the death of Mr, J. 
Stickland, a Foandafion Member, and of Mr. Jarvis, a Country 
Member. The death of Dr. R, Tiilyard was also mentioned. Mem- 
bers stood in silence as a niark of respect. 


Reports of excursions were given as follow : Seahohne, Mr. }. J. 
Freame; Mt. Buii'alo, Mr. H. C. E. Stewart; KalHsti, M.r. L.' W. 
Cooper for Mr. A, J. Swaby; and a brief report of the Science 
Congress fleeting in Auckland was given by Mr. S. R. IV'litcheU 
and Mr, A. S. Kenvon. 

174 ' Fi'M Natitralisiy Club Prccr^^dms [vri'tiu.* 


Mr. A. S. Ken3ron read an extract from a letter from Hermaniis- 
bxirg Mission Station, stating tliat tht laying on of water had g^-eatly 
beneficed the aborigines there. Further contributions to the fund 
were needed to pay ofH indebtedness. 

Mr. Charles I3arrett su^^gested ih^t a letter be sent to Mr. R. 
Etidie at Heaksville. congratulating Iiini on tlic fourth anniversary- 
ol "Splash's" captivity. Tliis was agreed to, 


Mr. V. H. Miller recorded the presence of the Pilot Bird at 

Ml Buifalo, and stated that he had obsej-ved a Scrub Wreii feed- 
ing u young Fan-tailed Cuckoo. He also spoke of the vandalism in 
the park, and slated lie would brhig the matter before the Com- 
mittee for consideration. 

Mr, F, S Gulliver said that he Iiad bea^ told that a pair of 
eagles nested on the ground 3t Toora. 

The meeting Uien adjourned Eoi the Con versa ziooe. 


Mrs. Fcnton Woodburn. — Luminous Fungus found at Black 
Rock, and Sea Horses from Port Phillip Bay. 

Miss. A. Cornish. — Sea Urchins {Moiretia sp.), known as ^ea 
mouse, with and without, spines, from Mornington and Seaford 

Mr. H. F. Reeves.^ — Coloured photographs oC Australian tlorg, 
and also a photograph of a Bulga Park Scene, 

Mis$ E. K. Turner and Mr. T. S. Hart —-Plants collected at 
Mallacoota during December, 1936, and January, 1937. including 
D'wneUa coerulea, whicli must now be restored to the list of Vic- 
torian plants. 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel. — Marine shells from V^ictoria: Cowries, 
UmbiUii h-^sitato- Iredale, and white variety, and Conus an^mof^c 
I-au)., and white variety. 

Mr. F. S. CoHiver. — Geographical specimens from New Zea- 
land, including wind stones from the Oaraice Delta, pumice from 
Mt. Ruapehu, and sinte, v^'ith plant impressions, from Rotorua. 

Mr. S. R. Mitchell. — Adzes of greywacko, drill points of jas].>er 
and chalcedony, flalves and scrajxirs of obsidian, from Waiki Beach, 
New Zealand. Model of Maori fire drill, wood and bone. 

Tlid Committee of tUe Ficitl Naturalists* Club of Victoria iiivilcs mcmliers 
tii kinrirecl societies who may be visitiDg Melbouinc to attend the CKib'S 


J Discovery oj Fttsnlmd PcTfymmfcra |?5 


Bv'Fredk. Cuapmar. axs., uok. k.k.m.Sv and Waltetc ]" Pah*, 


What ere the [•usittinids? 

The Fiisiliiifis, as a gioup of mure <tx Icsh spindJc-sliaped Fora- 
millifcra, sverc fust bruugltt under notice in 1829 by Gorthclt 
Tisdicr (1771-1853), who wa5. bon at Waidhei'm^ in S<ucony, and 
Imt-umc- Professor ot Natural History m 1804 lU the Unn-eriity uf 
Moscov/. Kfsclior <k Waldh-eun, us lie k generally railed, was' the 
first worker ta use the tenii "pabeonrology" as applied to the 
study of fossils, altliough ii appeals co have been cmijliiyeifl at 
Kihoui rhe same Ciinc (1834) by Jc Biainvilic. 

Fisclier de WuldUcim, in hi5. .^hulies. in ISZ9, oi the Upper 
Carbonifcrous or Mountain Limestone of Miatchkuvfi, tM'^ar Mos- 
co\v% and from which the older buildings o£ thai city have been 
bntit, found myriads of small fotaininiferal shclk making up the 
bulk ci these Russiari limestones, from "which, as the blocks .were 
broken, zln little J^MsuUna lyl-mdr-ica djopped out like rice grains. 
So inipgrt.ani: a part, in tact, do liic Fiuidinas play in the foniiatioii 
of these Mountain Limestuues, that they arc compatvable to thft 
NuTurnuliles which fonn a largo portion oi the Kncene hmesloties 
of Southern Eurojjc, Ej^ypt and India; ihe latter are, however, of 
much youni^cr iige. occurring in the I-ovver Tertiary. 

For a long time these Palaeo^oK FusuUnas were regarded as 
belonging to ojxe genus utUil, m IS77, Prcif, Valerian von Moller 
separated other recognizable tonus, i:jiving thftni new generic 
n;ime5, ari Sdjumpcrimi and Fusrif-inella. Since that time other 
genera hav*^ be^i ptoposed, increasing their number to Ttincteen, 

A.S to the age of the lusnlii^jda; they all occur within a fairly 
limited geological rai)ge o/ Itmc, namely, Lower Pcnnsylvanian 
lo Llpper Pcnntan m America; whilst in Enmpc (the Mrditer- 
raucim region) rus^ilina is found at the base of the Coal Measuies 
(U).>per Cavbonifcrrju^jj mii] Vvrbeckina and Srhivog-'^riua ui the 
Lower Permian (Artinskian) of Falcrnio, Sicily. In Asia nujuc- 
rous genera are recorded from the Upper Carbomfcrous to the 
Upper Permian, of India, China, Sumatra and Japan. 

The fusuliitids arc iherelore good zone fossils, and as such, and 
from the f;ict that they yrif often associated with petrolit'erous rocks^ 
as in the oil country oi Russia and iexas^ arft very i\nportnm from 
an economic outlook. 

Australian Occnnmcc 

The ptTtsent discovery is primarily due to both Ur Arthur Wade^ 
A-R.f.-5 . F Ct.Sj and liis geological party working^ for ihe Frenzy 

176 Discavi*ry of Pumfmid ForammfsfQ [yaiiml 

Kimberl^y Oil Company, nmJ to Mi.s$ IC L. Prcnrlt^rgust,, 
of the University of Weiien^ Auscfalia. wlio il$o recogriizcd the 
relalionsliip of i\w fossils lo the f usulmids. To Miss PrcBdeiga?t 
and to Dr. Wade we are indebted ior tbc opportunity of txaniinin^ 
these i-ock speciniejis and fossii remains in detail. 

Scirrii«ich frvMti two localities luvc bceji forwarded lo us by Miss 
Pr«ridergast. They arc as follows; 

•*B J31 (s3.inples wrongly numbered, lor. ciinrcf). Six miles 
north- west of Korth-We&l Hill, ICintb^tley." 

**B HfS. Fo5silj< from the calcareous, ferruginous stotic scat- 
tered on the surface, at south-weAt comer of the North-cast Struc- 
ture 3t Bell's Ridge, Kimbetley.*' 

In a letter received from Dr. Wade (lo F.C} on 30/11/36 Ut 
states that "This material ib trom the higUesc beds uf ibc Upper 
Ferruginous Series, whirh I hnvc i^it dov/n as yt' Up[>t:r Pcmiinn 
Age. and is just below Uie fre^h-water beds of Ihe Erskine Series.*' 

Macroscopic Description oj the Rock 

A reddifh to dark-brown ferruginous breccia, with patches of 
cream' rn Inured fragments on the fracHn*ed surface. Some of these 
lighter fragment? sliosv numerous siuali iiacreous biviilvcd iliclls, 
described below as a new specific type of a genus not prcviouily 
included inthc Aiiscialtan ity^^d fauna, uaruely, Coj'homcoia McCoy. 
Corboniroia. and irsnllied genu*; Avlhrncomya, nre used for zoning* 
the Coal Measures (Upper Carboniferous) in North Statfordshirc 
and Souili \Vale.5. The preseut Permian examples may be regarrlcd 
as micromorphs or survivcik ot the Carbouiferou^ fauna elsewbeie 
and show a ^itron^ reseniblauce to Corhorncalo .d.tfiilts {ijrown) 
. The bicccLated matrix in which ihf'.^e. hh'nWc^ aie enclosed may 
ha\'e been denvcd from a slightly older rock* probably of lacustruic 
or brackisjb waier origin, as indicolcd by the genus to vvhicli these 
abiiudaut httle iJiells are referred. Nn nther fossils, excepting a 
fijuatl bivalve re\?enibling Lcda sp.. were seen in as-sociation in 
these hrecciulcJ fragments cnntainirg tht^ Caj-honirol.(j, The lafrer 
were somewhn.t cinifibed. in niost cases, before iheir inclusion in 
the sediment, hut are very abundant and >n places closely packed 

The fusuliuidt in this, rocif, and wJiich seem to be indigenous, 
.are here referred lo the genera 'Ve.rhe.tkina and N eoscht\jiujcynia. 
They arc represented by only a few fragments ot tlie te5t.'%. in a 
poor state of preJ?erv;ition. Two of thej^e were counterparts ot a 
fractured surface of one test (one ot the.ce sii5ce lo^C in invesli- 
gating- its stnicture), which shows a cavity indicating a large injUal 
chanibcr or prolocidu^ and the succession of whorls surrounding 
the axis at l}ie ^hcll. TIic reinaindcr, reterred lo Verbcdmia, are 
fairly numerous lu fragments, these being now ahnost or entirely 

ronveitcd into daysiOu€^ with <nily -vcstif^ea here and there of tlic 
original ^lifll-wall. 

Microscopic Description of ihc Ruck 

T.\\ Ihiti section this m>n.stone rooV is seen to contain occasional 
quart2-grauis, partiaJly altered elicll-fragnients, both of brachio 
pofls :^JLnd bivalv<?s., the latt<;r chiefly Cm'honkohh aivJ fragments 
of polyxoJ*. OtlitT remains present- shew striic-.hapf.d and cnn-'ed 
fragtneiits wjih a ccmb-likc oinanieni on one itde and which may 
possibly have, a relationship lo iasiilinid orgainsms: also j few 
doubtful radiolari;in tests, o^it^Lil:o^l vjilve-frri^mLnts and replace- 
ments <.if rotalifonn foraminiieio. Tbft rock-cmshings yielded a 
douliiful spccimeu of ihc iorauiiuiier, Rudilaah, 

Denription 6J th^ FtiSiilimds 


Siib-fainilv Vcrbeiekuiitiae. Genus Verbt^ekiiu SiaJf, 1900. 

VERBEEKINA sp. Tlaic XVI. fii^^s. : 3, 4, 5. 

The shell is ovoid and with approximate diameters of 8*5 x ]0 
mm. It consist?- oC nmuerrjus volutions, up to 10. The first three 
whorls each nicasure Cibout 35 Uinj. in hcf^jht, tht* later coiling ift 
kss regular anrl the whorh gcnerall_v losver ihe )>roioculris has 
not b^en seen^ but fi'on) the evidence obtained ni making llie s^c- 
Liom, it h small. The wall as ihui. cx»nsisliug of a tectum and 
Iccriothcca, and measuring up to 0*05 mm. m tluelviicss. Number 
of chambers to the whofl iloiibtful on aiTiuunl of the preservation 
of tlie shell, only an oornsional septum beini^ -v^isihle. '.I'lie sqto are- 
plane. No parachomaTa are visible :iu the axial sections. 

The present 3pede& is rep resettled by fotii* fragments, all frooj 
Sample B 331, aiid it hasj theretore. not been practicable to attempt 
nnjre than a g^ntric deCernunat:i(»n. Tlit genus Vcrhi:cL-imi i% 
known only from the. Permian of the Orient. 

In Ug. 3 \ve illustrate a iraj^tient of what migiit appear to be a 
fu.^ulinid gt?nuii; belonging tO ihe Suh-/amily A'V/>;rc//wfl/.7cV*fmr'(ri^. 
The wall-structure is similar ro Uiat of the forju described above, 
except chat .^qnula sci^m to be present. Thcye birnctures wc rcg.*ird, 
Uoweverj ;ti of iuurgunie origin and merely due to the: dilfcrenlial 
staim'n^ of tlie material in tillin}.y the cbambervS, That they are not 
.septula seems to be definitely dt'tcrminecl hy the following: (a) 
Thoir irregular shape, placing and length, all of which are tmlike 
anything known in the Nc.oschn'ogcrumai: , (b) some of them divide 
and otiiers auastoinosc; (e) the majority e>:,rcnd from the roof ir> 
the floor ot the chamber, but this is not the result of the pendant scp- 
tub meeting the parachomata . as no Ntmcture corresponding to 
die latter is present. For these rea<^on.=. it is considered that the 
genus representc-d is Vt^'beekino. with undoubted speamens of 
vsblch it is associated. 

J 78 Discovery cj Fstinlinid Poravnnifera IvoLLUL 

Sub-farniiy Nenschwagerininae. Genus Neoschwagierina 

Yabe. 1903. 
NEOSCHWAGERINA sp. Plate XVI, figs. I. 2. 

This genus is represented by a fragmentary spedT)ie3», embedded 
i») matrix, from Sample ii 146. The oaturd] I'rJiaiirc reveals. ,111 
axiaJ section of the Ic^st, wliich has a longi^r diameter of 13-5 mm. 
The proloculus is ovoid and large. JtH lesser diameter beitig 0*6 
■nun.; owing to the imi.Krfcct preservation of the specimen the 
larger diameter is uncertain. There aue cipproximatcly 25 whorls, 
tlie first three of which are comparatively low, measuring each 
about 24 mni. in height. These arc followed by six closely- 
coiled whorls, each with a height approxunaiing 13 mm. The 
remainmg whorls increase in height gradually, until a Sicight of 
6 mm- is reached. The chambers are very numerous, numbering 
aliotit SO in the ? ZOlh wlioH. and are then 4 mtn in length. The 
iiepta are plane 3ind are separated l^y short, fairly tltick septula, 
^\^th apparently an axial septulum alternating with each septum. 
TJie wall is thick, measuring 1 mm. in thickne^ss, and consists 
ot a tectum cind keriotheca. 

In its veiy l^rge proloculus, the present species resembles N. 
tijcgct^pliijcrka Depral, which occurs with Vi^rbeckina iti the upper 
part of the Middle Permian of Tonkin. Dcpral's species differs, 
however, in having only twelve whorla, wlndi regularly increase 
in height as added. 

DcscripHon of the Bivalve 


Genus Carbon,icola McCoy. 

CARDONrCOLA iVTINUTISSIM A sp. nov. Pbte XVl, fig. 6 

Dcscripiion oj Holotype: . 

Shell small for the genus; ovate, oblique, untbo moderately 
inflated; rounded anteriorly, ventral edge rather strongly convex; 
umbonal ridge developed, especially towards Hie post-veiitra! angle. 
Surtacc pohshed, nacreous, smooth near umbones, with concentric 
ridges more or le-^a rounded, 6 in type. 

Length, 2-7 mm. .; height, umbo to mtd-vcntral, 2 nun. , thickness 
of valves on the umbo, 8 mm. 

HoIot>Ye. from loc, B 146, JJell's l^idge, Klmberley, Western 
.Australia (colL by Dr. A. Wade). 

General DcscripHon of Species 

The great variation of this species, in characters other than size, 
is seen in the following: 

Umbones often more depressed tlian in the type specimen. 
Concentric rugae up to nine, with moi"C or less numerous finer 
(intemiediate) concentric lines. 

TH1-: VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. liit March, 1937 

Plate XVI 

J'hotti. F.C. 

Ncoscliwa^crina, Verbeekina and Carbonicola from the Permian. 
Kimberley, W.A. 


J Discczfcri^ <ii FuSnfiUid forammft^va 179 

Interior of vaJx-es show cardinal area widely cui'Vetl. with blunt 

c-ardiiial tooth and posterior lateral. 
In thin section a nacreous hyer, both internal and external- 
Thickness of shtil) averaging 1 mm. ar the thickest part. 
These tiny bivalves niay i.»e at once distniguished (rwn the some- 
what similar phyllopods, Esllu>rin, by having a distinctly shdly and 
layered test, rather tlun a corneous one, by the character of the 
hing^e-Iine. and by the irregular nature of the concentric lines of 

The above species is commonest at the type locahry. B 146, but 
is also, and more sparing-ly, met with at loc. B 131. 

Fig. i. — Nec3ch2{K>f/cnita sji. Appro-xmiattly ?aij4':tal section, in matrnc. 
Loc, B 14(3, X Ji. 
-n Z^Ncosch'i{:aiycri>ia 5p. Part of same section. More hichly magiiifiedi 

X 12. 
« 3—? Vcrbeckii^n sp. Part of axial section. T,oc. B 13h X \2. 
,. 4 — Vcrbcckhm sp. Obliquctv sag'ittul section oi another spcdmcn. 
Loc.. B13L X circ. U- 
- ^^ ^.^Vcrbcckuia sp. A ihin section, cxctatric. Loc. B 131. ^ 7. 
'.n 6.— Carbonic In jjiiivMissivui ip. tiov. Riglit -^'alvc. HololyyC' t-oc. 

B146. X 18. _ 

>, 7. — Tljin seclioo of tbe oiatrix of B 146, sliowing siiclions ot shells c£ 
C&rbomcoh and iragmcntj o? r rii=.viliiiid?, indet. X ,}7. 


Scicntinc records of the Noith Queensland Python {Python 
etneihysimus) are desirable. It Avas reported in a London joui-nal 
rec^rjily, that on Cape York Peninsula pythons 30 feet in length 
could be seen ; while some buslimen say that^pecimens measuring 
more than 20 fret ar« not rare in the Tully and other districts. 
Knghorn (77n' Snakes of AustraJia) gives 21 ket as the limit for 
this snake; but a si>ecim<?n 22 feet long was lolled on Hincbinbrcok- 
I.sland, where the jungle iii said to harbour many *'carpet" snakes, 
a=. ihey are called, of fearsome sue. A live specimeUp ciiptuicd nc^ar 
Cairns, measured only J 3 icet, but "20-footer5" are met witli in 
the district occasionally. 

Smce its fliscCiwry at Cravcnsvillc in north-ea.5i VLclorta (A, B. Craine» 
}9\7), the Elbow Orchid,' S pi ciUcpa H-imtiaKa {F-v.M.) Sdiltr, bas been 
found in a niunber of dtstn'tts, but dtk-fiy in the north-east and ea.5t oi the 
Slate (.&te Vic. Nat., Lll, March, 1936, p. ]90). While on holiday U\ the 
Mar>-iV!lle diarrict during; February this year T found this orchid to be w*ll 
djslribut^d throughout tlie hilU, one f.pecimen being collected lit Uie town- 
ship ilsclf. Good examples 20 cm. in height, with tout flowers, V/cre found 
on Mt. Gordon, along the Talbot Drive and the Cumberland Road, etc. The 
«ujority of the specimens had suffer<id somewJK^t» due to ^raxing — i>robahlj' 
Vfailabies were re.'^ponsibk. 

W. H. Micn<iLt&, 


By W. H. NxcHOLLs 

Recently I received troni Mr. A J. S\>'aby ipednicns of C'aleaTio 
minor ll.Br. and of a« allied forni. dcsigiutcd by the sender as 
^* freak forms" of Robert Brown*s plant. Examination proved the 
latter to be exceptional specimens of Mueller's C ^'^r/Zti/atri/— ^ 
rate orchid originally found in <he vicinity of Mt. Zero (Sullivan, 
1882). and in the Wonderland Range (D'AIton. 3924 and 1926), 
remote i>art5 of the Serm Range, some 40 miles east of the new 

Mr. Swahy wntes: ''The specimeiis were collected on the jsoulh- 
west slopes near the summit of Mt, Byron, Black Range (south- 
west Vichr^ria), hy Messrs Harold Smith, Gordon Fra^er and 
myself. My two friends went to considernble expense and incon- 
venience to reach the very difficult countiy where the plants grow, 
whicl] is rather out of the way of n>ost collectors. We found the 
specimens in depression^. ?nd soaks, fiKvoys in nvossy pfecesj ihe 
tubers on tlie rocks. The 'freaks' were gio^ving in association 
with C. niwQV and species of other genera " 

RTr, Sv\'aby mentions also the va^jeness of the reproductive 
organs in the "freak'' floors ". . . the end of the ccluinn never 
could form an anther, and the labelUuy> ha^^ no inclination lo move/' 

Additional specimens of C. Srdlwn.nii (ext.-ellcnt ones also) were 
forwarded to the \^nter by Miss Lorn<;i Banfield, of Ararat, who 
Collected in the Moyston West district, near Mt. William 
( 10/1/37) . The specimens were 16-20 cm. high, and bore as many 
as eight flower:*. Th'CM: details are of some interest, because the 
members of this curious genus are all nonnally fcw-flowcrcd (I 
am not including here C SuUhK^mi hec:;iuse the majority of the 
specimens received had coniparativcly many flowers), possessmg, 
as tliey do, usually one to four blooms; rarely docs the number 
exceed five. The writer has seen but one specimen of C, major 
K.Br. NN'ith .six flowers, and Mueller lecoids a solitary Tasmanian 
specimen with eight, but it is true that C. minor has not been 
recorded 'tvith mare than f^jx; while C. mgrira Ldl , a Wc^tialian 
form, and C. Nubliiigii Nid^. (tlie latter is another instance of pre- 
sumed degeneracy) are few-flowered. 

There ajjpcats to be little justification for tegurding^ the plants 
■of C. Suilhfann as mere "freaks." The fact of possessing a habit 
rather more vigorous than that of C. jjnuor, and producirg more 
flowers, despite some apparent degree of degeneracy, suggests a 
longer association ^ith the locality. To my mind the "i'rcak*' theory 
is disproved — a study of the dissected flowers is interesting. The 
a.ccompanying line drawings, from fresh matenai, will give a com- 
parv=itive idea of the salient characteristics of all the known species. 


J a Botanical Problem I^V 

thus enabling any reader tlie more readily to reacli his own con- 

The individual flowers of C. miliar show practically no variation, 
<fxce]H in the nniniportant laheUa-glands ; the same must he writ- 
ten in regard to those of C. Snllizvuit, of which there vvere approxi 
niately 30 individual bUxniis. The conclusion anivcd at was C. 
Sullivaiiii is a valid form, but perhaps should be regarded as a 
long"-siu"viving — now* uni-sexual — -representative of the <^enus — a 
transitory form, perhaps; once abundant, but !iow existing in scant 
numbers — actual and comparative — in isolated and few places; 
subject to a less severe com]-)etition than otlicr possibly extinct 
types. C. SiiUivanii, following further degeneration of the stignia, 
is also doomed to extinction. 

I cannot trace prior records of antherlcss orchids; probably C 
SuUminii and C Nnhliugii are unique in this respect. The siniply- 
constructed labellum of C. SuUwauii constitutes — in the al.'isence 
of pollen sacs — ^^i useless appendaj^e. It is not irritable as in all otjjer 
recorded species, hut still retains some slight degree of sensitive- 
ness, as a relic of the past. The stigma, from a hud just about to 
expand, was critically examined. It was well-formed, with a slight 
trace of secretion, w^iich appeared to increase in volume when the 
flower expanded fully. The labella-appendage was the first seg'- 
luent to relax ftdly. In it there a]>peared to be little life: but when 
some specimens were being photographed later, several lahella 
slowly closed,'* and could not be induced to oi.:en a^ain. Some time 
afterwards, however, they were again observed m their former 

The stigmas in the mature blooms of C. Sullivaiiii are, more or 
less, misshapen by the formation of irregular grauidations, which 
may he the result of insect action — possibly the agent concerned 
in the poUination. A strong lens brought to light traces of what 
were presumed to be pollen grains immersed in the now dry secre- 
tion around the margins of the immediate centre of the disc-like 

These facts, and the evidence in the turgid, liard ovaries, sug- 
gest, not a useless sterile plant, but a member of an association. 
still performing its work and thus exercising an im[)ortant influ- 
ence in nature. C, minor is certainly a diminutive counterpart of 
C. major, dil^ering mainly in the presence of marked granulations 
on the lahella-lamina — a character of note in C. SuHivcniii, but to 
a lesser degree. Is it reasonable to suggest the association of C. 
mnjor and C. SnUivanii, producing as progeny C- minor? These 
two forms an- not fcmnd in close association, hut that (natters little. 
C maior and C. wifior are both fairly plentiful throughout the 

*Thc Ial>ulluni in C. Sidlivanii does not, owing to its cliaracter, close effec- 


NiCHOLLS, A Botanical Problem 

Vir. N»t. 

Caleana species. 

] UlcHOlts, A ffotom'oal ProWm I M.I 

disincts wKrrc C. SMllknimi liss beai found, but C. major is [oiind 
chief y On the Unvcr U^vtils. 

'i'lie presence of C, Nuhlingii in close assoclaiion wiUi C. minor 
anil C- tJr.(T;r)r in the Blue Mountains of Nf.w South Wales Tunhcr 
comi>licate5. rlic problem. Ti weliavc to think of C. SttUivam a<^. a 
fnjak form of C imnOr^ what i.s (he jjnSJtion in rubtion io C 
Nnhlmgii''! There arc, in th<? flciwct parts nf Mnelkr's species (as 
m <ill thft othc'Ts) , .srime which may be tenncd charactf^r- 
istic ones (see fig«r€:s). And wIjo hun to]\f.<:\.td specitiien^- of C. 
mmor with as uiaiiy as eight flowers? — the maxiaiuni number sq 
far recorded for any of the specii.*5. 

Notes by A. J. Swaby 

Ml*. Nichollij has. kfndiy 3l!owed me to read his MS. Tlic invcr- 
cstinj^ views par torward, backed by liis wide Imowk- il^c of orchids 
and tlie genns Cakana in particular, muse he c^iven due considcva- 
fion. Ftirther, he h^d a ^^^§^ number of specrn^e^s under ohspi v?<- 
tion for sunic time Nevertheless, it may be of ioinc nK<ircst lo 
liave the reasons :or my very tentative spi^cHlatiun. \\'hUc the 
facts ^re \THic:h<;d ^ot\ I rnv^r admit th?it ev;iminat;nn \V7i5 too 
citrsoiy for my liking. 1 was in haste Lo get the specimens awa/ 
while trc3h. Continuous observation in the field was Impossible. 
The orcliids %\^rc iticidental amongst a ^rt::?it mass of malen'al froni 
a liic;ihty rarely travftr?.ed, and -very difficuK of access. 

1. None of the ^^[rovvnjig specimens 1 s.i\v had any po.sscbjhty of 
anyiJnng capable of containing po)))nia- 'I'liey e;<hibit<'d 
dc^^rues on* aborli'.'C attempt. Some had inereiy a red, ujidulate, 
pctaJoid lamini, comparable to petals towards the centre of a double 
ro^e, or tho*=t* ■Sf'en m Icclanrl pt-iipe** late t"n the .^rai(jn. Others 
hsd developed ronfyl^ patches, deeper in colour, or even sralscd 
areas with paired pits. Parallel malformations ;irf owh^ r.ommon 
in garden ilowers wlieri? «he tetidency lo make a «.howy flower, 
encouraged by setoction. has resulted ui the sacrifice of the male 
orf^ans. It is as if the flower liad reasotied thu^: ^'I rrjust hav6 
sr«ds ar.d prefer cross-pollination. I shall .set myself to attract 
the pollen-bearer« and let others look alter thcmijcives." That, as 
Mr. Nicholls points oul ^rom another angle, must result in racial 
&uicidc. The type specfuien of K.v.M. at ihe iVational Herbarium. 
collected by Siillivan, and :spccimen5 collected kter by D'Alton, are 
also willjout antliCTs and apycHfcntly could Jiever ha\'C had them. 

2. No male plants were discovxTcd- The search on the second 
■visit was tuade thoroughly l>y five <i))scrvcrs, who devoted the 
greater pari of the day to it. it is extremely improt>ablc that any 
orc!iid capable of supplying pollf^n was within i-easonahl^ di.stanre 
except C. vti-tior. 

3. The plant at Mount Byron is constantly as-sociated with 
C. minor, of which there were scores. Vegetative features are 
exactly similar, except vviiere mentioned by Mr. NIcholU* 

164 >JiCHCU-$. A Boianhoi Probhm [VXf!m. 

4. In C. Sulfwaiiii, the labelUiin varied very greatly. The sim- 
plest w^s merely a Jinear-Ianccnlatc, acute \iCi'd\ v^-ithoiit flififevEn- 
if:iLe<;J ckw ; there was no immecliat(^ rv!Si:)onsft (o toucln ; and but 
■ttnt papiilns. with a tew dots surrounding it, was present- At the 
.nrher extrenic, a deep poucli, ImlgiiU} iniimrd, quite ^.i> deep as 
wide, was cvA'»':rf^d with iiapiili; vaore promirtcni tozvard the centre 
<yi the bulge-: lEie acute up was very short; and Ihe claw was inwe 
in evidence. "Response to touch, if any, was very i)o\v. I saw none 
■wHiicli harl hent duwn njlurully. BctVk'Cvjn thtse cxtrenics y^ctC 
•Several int€.rniedi*ate5, sometimes diflfcrent on tlie nne point. All, 
however, \v*^re a lon^r way from tlie fonn of C fitjuor 

(Apart trutii the question of freak or species, this gTadatioii is 
veiy intcrcistini;; i;.s an indication of the probable history of the 
evolution of CrJcarw. *l'he bifid ''*bill" of the duck is tl^e inwardly 
]>rojcclint^ central of ihe pouch: tlie bad^A^ard point of the bead is 
the ti]i of the petid ; nnd possibly the "cars'' aic the svidcM part of 
the lamina.) 

5. The sl^g^is has a distinct though short sbdk nr style. Ta 
me. this mdicate$ forgeifnlness of *'vvhal is expected in th'!^ family." 
The degeneracy uaiount> lo a departure from ome characteristic 
■r>\ an orchid. The rObtcllum, a.s might be expected with no anthers, 
is a mere rudimenc (or vestig^e) To hint that F.v.M. would set up 
•ri Species (HI a iijaliurmed flower may be herc&y : but the suggestion 
has bp.en at least th(jugUt-]jr:ivolang, Doubtlc&s, Mi^b Baufield^ Mr, 
Smfih and Mr. Fraser will he fnund at dawn, like sliootei*. i«i 
'^'ipciiiniy day/' in their res]w.ctive hunting groundH, on New Yt^ir^s 
Day, 193S. For theaij and such others ;i.s may be in the Ctdcana 
■country, I wuuIJ suggest the folio wnig": 

(a) Lesive the plants intact us iar as po?5ibIt and mark tlie C. S^^^JHvowi 

!>>• a '•»'»loured cdluloid indicator for luiure observation from year to 

0) Are lie puudied labelhiMi, narrow coltimn, M.tll«^d stiRma, and acute 

Jaltral pelCth t»e3i<le ^^^ colwiWO ever A'SsncisiteH with :»ntlicrs cai"»ab1e 

o\' uirii^iioninEr'r' 
-fp) If not. i.v th-.n: any evjdttici? D? flowers willi only anthers mid uiide- 

vclo|n*<l alignia and ovary? 
(<iy Arc iliere ioytm oi hlx^him l.ictwrcn tht: deep cup of C S^tillivanii 

and toe duck's iicad of C. nnnorl' 
{c) Tft there any difference in soil, depth ol soil, tr.obture, or aspect* 

(f) Wbai insect is iittractcd; where does it ?3liKht; ir. H. eniang^c^i l(>r & 
short rjne on Hte r-urky papilli; is it cntr;iiii)cd withiii the dower by 
the flexed labfiUnm or only cHusecl t<i make a iraiUic c.\U from narrow 
Muurtcrs; )= it (juitiLly lowereo while it& altentiou ie on tik red papilli 
to brush cigdulil tilt ^ligina? The leisurely tnovemcnt in C mvwr 
suggest the la**; [In riiy e->Jper;cncc the movement 15 invariably 
blisrp. — ^V-H-Nd ^y a double movtMncnt, the "head" i;; , gently tilled 
forwarcl to a -=>barii nngU*;, ind th.c "neck" evttn more sluwly ; and 
l.ttoT. bows so thai dir ti:-yi 0/ the hend, with iHl ijapilJi, /aa'S the 

i^'-j-y' J NiCHUi.i.s, A Botimkal Problem WF- 

{g') Is there any fleSnit*^ rcJalion between the modifications of labellum 
:»nt] column? The reduction of the ivauch and papilli goRS contrary 
to the petaloid modificaliCxiS ot the part of the column which should 
Iwar pollen. 
Ch) Is C. Snlimanii ever found far from C. mmorr [No. — ^W.H.N.] 
(i) is ih^re ati,v \-amt?oi\ m one )o<:a)ity of flower parts of auihcnlic 
C. iniiiorf I found them very tuiilorin, This somewhat discounts the 
"freak" conjecture. [No.— W.H.N J 


pig. A. C. major — Column from alKvve, 

„ B. „ Lalscllum from side. 

„ C- „ Labcliuai from rear. 

„ iX „ Pollen masses. 

,. la. H Typical specimen. 

,, F- C. inuior — Columti from above. 

^, G. „ Lahf;lium from side. 

^1 H a Glands from lamma of labcllum. 

jj I. „ Labcllum-Iamiiu froji) above. 

0^ J- r. Typical specimen. 

^ K- C, SitHivann — Column from above. 

,; L, „ Glands from laiuina of laf>ellmu 

,, M. ,. Lahellum fronti side. 

„ N. „ Labcllum ironi bciow. 

„ O. „ Sf>edmen from Moystoii West. 

„ P. C. Nnbimgij — Column from above. 

„ Q. ,. 1-abcMum from side. 

„ K. M Gland front lamina oi labellimi. 

,. S. ,. Labelliini-lann'na from above. 

„ T. „ Typical specimen. 

J, U. C. nigrito — Column from side. 

„ Y. „ Labcllum from side. 

., W. „ habcllum-lamina from above. 

,j X „ Typical specmien. 

jVoie: Figures B, G, M, Q ^^nd V show the labeHa in <he same relative 

•position. ^^ 

That the Tree Sparrow {Passer inontana) is fatrLy numerous 
■around Melbourne is the opinion of several good observers; though 
others, notably Mr. Robert Hall, have stated thnt it prefers to 
avoid the town and keeps more or less to open country. Probably 
ihe urban population of Tree Sparrows has increased in recent 
years; but still the House Sparrow (Passer domestiais) is the 
dominant species in tlic metropoHtan area, and much more 
lauinerous than its ally in some localities. 

Mr, E. H. Hanks mentions that Tree SparroAvs. which are plenti- 
ful in Coburg district, in Uie autumn *'flock" much more than do 
House Sparrows. Mr^ George Mack:, of the National Museiim, 
luitil .shown specimens by Mr. Hanks, liad not seen the Tree Spar- 
tow in Victona, and the sj>ecies is not represented in the Museum 

1«6 J0Mt StiMind Ivoi:L3iL 


The deaths at an advanced age, of Mi*. Jtjhu Sikkhrnj, has 
removed anolher of tHe piojieers of Uie Cluh, he Jiavinisf joined it 
in Noveivib»:r, 1880, six months after us inauguratiom. Durjmg nil 
the lengthy period oi his mpmhtrsPiip he was a regular ^^tlenclnr 
at meeting and excursions, Au<\ maintained an unllaggingf niicrcst 
m the Chib's activities, Mt'dling terms of office, and. by jriuans of 
papers and exhibits, doing a full share towards for weirding the 
study of natural objects, winch J5, lU spcdfir aim. 

Mr. Stickland'.s specral interest was the study of microscopic 
fonns of life. Some forty yaws ^go iFierc w^^ a dcv<iIopni<:'nt in 
the >vork of the Club in the <Urcction of investigating' the .stnutiirR 
and relationships of hH'in^ things, and this necessitated resort lo 
ihc micjoscofie hotli for the study of oigani^rns mo sniall for the 
tjnaided eye, and the interna] anatomy of ihjsc larger. A uuuibcr 
of very enthusiastic workers devoted themselves to the collection 
of forms of life in which the <ri-n<l of hinlngical .sciejice was -Stimu- 
latiinjC^ interest. Our late friend w;is one who joined in the^ic activi- 
ties and uUnnatf ly devoted liis attention to the Protozoa — Infusoria 
as they were then isiyled The 5ludy and identificadon oi these 
ininutft creatures calls for careful manipuLtion of the mictosc.ope, 
and much patient observation, ai)d he possessed the qualitJes neces^ 
Sary in no ajnall degreR, 

He wa& one of those whose relief front business affairs needs 
to be w)mcthing entirely disconneded from them, and who do not 
find in mere uniu.semcnt sufhcient satisfaction nrifl liirn to a held 
of thought requiring- jntellectuat effort, and atfording a prosix-ct 
o( adding to one's knowledge of *he world around Such a dispo- 
iiilioii evokes jcspect. On die excursions of ilie Club Johti Slick- 
land's collecting apparatus was always at hand, aitd later, hsrs of 
farms noted wxire supplied. Evidence of liis knowledge of the. 
Protozoa \$ the ILact that from June, 1915, to June, 1916, together 
with ivv'O other members of the Club, he syslcnviticaily, by fort- 
nightly visil^^ ^-eAixhed tlie lake in the Botanic Gardens and g^ave 
SI 111 fifiy-lwo forms which lie identihed In the Victorian 
NaturaHst (Vol. XL. p. 65, and Vol. XLI. p. 84) will be fotmd 
an r-irticle on "Tlie A(|uatic PrulOi^oa of the Melbourne District/* 
which amply demonstrates his knowledge of the subject, and appli- 
cation to it. 

He was uf a modest and unassuming character and could discuss 
a ditfercnce ol opinion with an evtdent desire to arrive at a correct 
conclusion re^ardle,N*i o( preconceived ideas- A]l those acquainted 
with him, both in the Field Naturalists' Club and the Microscopical 
Society, of whicli latter body he was also an active member, will 
deeply regret the io6s of so worthy an associate. 

J. SliliPHftRD. 


Hale XVII 


^^1 rUlltK The Birtis oi Mmiii Buffalo JR? 

By Blanche E. Miu-er 

Of the buds that frequent the higher altitudes to the north-east 
i^i the S*ai^. M'e haA^e scant information. Hiis is all rhe mo'*e sur- 
prising wlton ^'c cunsidcr the nun^bor oi papers ois \\\t alpine floi'a 
that have been published m aui" journal. 

Ou the occasion of tlie first o^cial visit of the FicUl Naiumlii-its' 
Club to Ml Buffalo. i.\v'enty-six species of birrls were recorded by 
Mis^s McIIaffit^ {\/k. Nat., Vol. XX, pi>. 148-150). The. hst gives 
an accurate idea of the buds that may be seen there lo-day, during 
llie summer months, the one rarity being the Green Leek (Potytchs 
b(f}ra?Mmli ) , vv hicl i Mi»-s McIIaffift mentioned ?jis ' '<een occa- 
sionnlly aniong:>t t))e stunted eucalypts ov near tlie creeks.'' 

Twerty-three ye^ir? later, the Buffalo Plateau was visited by 
the leile Mr L. L. Hodgson, who was at that time TTonox;try Secre- 
tary oi the Clul)- In a paper wliich he read, and which was subse- 
quently published [yicNat., Vol. XLiV, pp. J8S-11^), seventeen 
speacs of birds ^'-ere nienuoned, hat of these five only Jiad not been 
previously iLvorded. This brought the list to ihirly-onc — al[ sight 
ohscrvatcons. seeing that the use of firearms is nnt permitted tn 
ottr Xatirjn:il Parks. 

During the recau week-end exnirsion of the Club to Mt. Buffalo 
J was able to add twelve species to the list, t>ut by no means docs 
this exitaust the possibilities. Jnst why the two previous lists did 
not itidudc the names of fumihar and comparatively common birds 
sucli as the White-naped and White-plumed Iloneyeaters, the Little 
WaUle Kird, and the V/hile-rln rated Tree-r.reeper, is a matter fnr 
conjecture. No Cuckoo had been recorded for the Park until our 
recent visit ^ when we saw a Wliitc-browed Scmb-Wren indus- 
triously Ciidcavounng tn supply the needs of a voutig Fan-tailed 
CuckTM>. Seemini^ly^ they also arc served, who only sit and call 
incessantly I 

An ojuifhologist of fepule has staled that the names of several 
of the more common birds fom^ tiie key to the locality m which they 
were seen. Ml. Buffalu'b ^x would l>e: The Grey Curiawong, 
<lift'l^ing in the. lawns ui {rent of Uie Chalet, and elsewhere; the 
Flame Robin, abotit the rocks in the vicitiity of the Gorge — *iiin- 
mer visitors these, despite their appt:aiancc on the railway posters 
•depicting alpme sf>orts; the Crimson Rosella, which ha^ discovered 
an easy "design for a living" in the leed-hoJtes at thi^. stables; the 
Gaii^-gaiig, large companies of these querulous birds; Pardalotes, 
caHin^ continuously in die- snow gums: and ihe Yellow- facf.d 
Honeyeatei. Yet die two latter species liad not previously been 

We have long known Hmr the Lyrebird I;* «.juite at home on the 
4jranittc heighis uf the Buffalo^ ami h:is been seen at die picnic 

1«S MiLLKM. Thff Birds of Mount Buffolo [^ia. 1^5: 

ground, and close to che tennis courts. That the presence? thet^e 

ci Its commensal, the PiJot Bird, had not been nr^Ticid hitherto, is 
somewhac suT]>nii(Tg. Of restricted range, we are accustomed to 
find tU\^ small bro>vn bird wuli its rich, clnrjon cAll, in the dense^ 
dark guBieSr vet several members ni our party bolh saw and heard 
the bird on a flat which was very exposed^ altliough mostly covered 
whb Jow vegetation, and wintered by a tiny stream. Knowing that 
th*». Pilot Bii'd Is extremely local, we liad -ny) tvowble in again seeing 
and hcarnig at least nvo birds at the sauic spot on the succeeding 

Swifts flying so high ovi;r liie dialer tliat only occasionally could 
one be detected with the naked eye was a rather rai'e ^ight, at any 
rate, ior me, and added another species to tlic lic-t for (he BniFalo 
Platcsm Some doubt Kas been expre3i>ed as to the possibility of 
the Swifts finding food at such a bi^li altitude Ml'. F. K, Wilson, 
the President ot the Entomological Society of Victoria^ doef? not 
•doubt that, m favourable circun-istaaces, uuect life may reach a 
coiiSideraWe height, and points out chat it is the lieight above the 
ground that counts, not the height above sea-level - 

The Official Guide repotted the appearance of Yellow-tatled 
Black Cockatoos, which he considered to be very rare visitors. The 
late Mr_ Hodgson saw a fl-ock 'Svhe<?lmg and circling above the 
Gorge" on one occasion only. They do not" appcir on the first list. 
The scarcity of water-birds on Lake Catani is very disappointing. 
Earlier in the ye^r a Black Duck was seen with its brood The 
presence of a lone Coot at tlic farther end wh'^re the reeds grow 
in the sliallow water suggested that the avine population was 
greater than appeared to be the case. 

Both previous obser^'ers record the White-backed Magpie. Mi.^s 
McHaflie's note reads; "'Not particuJarly abundant, and did not 
observe any of the Black-backed variety," I feel confident that tl^c 
Magpies which we <aw last year were White-backs, but this year 
Jthcy imdoubtedly were Btack-I>ack!;- This circumstance is fuith(?r 
evidence that the noi'thern species, although sliglitly smaller, is 
Steadily encroacinng on ai\ias formerly inhabited exclusiA^ely by 
the southern VVkite-lK«cked Mogpie, With our knowledge of ho-A- 
jealously the MagjMe guards t"ts territory, even driving; out its own 
offspiing when grown, the hivasion and occupation by the northern 
Magpie becomes a matter of exceeding interest It seems to point to 
a complete reversal of rhe opinion helcf by Mathews that, eventually, 
the White-back will absorb the Blacl>I}ack Funhermore. it affords 
us an illustialion that it is still possible to mnke field notes on the 
ge;.gi*aphical distribution uf even sucla a common bird. How Irttle 
we really know; how much tlier^ in still to leavu ! 

J5J^' J MiiPV, DutriiiHtion of C'crfnin Ovr.hhU 18^ 



By the Rev. H. M. R, Ri;rr, Raymond Terrace, N.S-W. 

The title sounds rather "<Jry" it you 5ay it aloud; ncverlheless 
the subject of flistribulion {wherher of nj^chkls or of oilier pbnts) 
is a most (ascinating one. You find youtself continuiiily asking: 
"Why?" and you never use this little interrogative unless you are 
mtcrcsted In this article I propose to ask ''Why?" in rf-gatd to 
(he range and character of the habitat of a number <<f our native 
orchids; l>ut I do not propose to give the answer Even if I could 
— which in most oi the cases is extremely doubttul — my puipose 
in writing is not to try ru explain the reasons Jor d(stributi».>n, bat 
rather to suggest to the large and ever-increasing number oi orchid 
enthtjsaasts a field of study which has hitherto been little c\-|)'orcd. 

There must be many who. Ukc myself, are not ijatisiiecl vvilb 
the bai*e staremeiUs that a certain orcind occurs, in abundance, 
in one locality only; wliile another, closely allied and-with no im- 
mediately obvious superiority of conslitution. is spread over hvm- 
dreds of thousands of square inilc$. We want to know why — and 
there, must be a rational ani^wcr. 

The first species I propose to discuss is one {^miliar to orchid 
folks in every State of the Common\ve:rilth except Western Ans- 
traliii: Dipodtxtm pnuctainm, the Hvacmth Orchid Now this plant 
has an astonishing range of habitat, which cannot be satistactonly 
accounted lor by saying that its health and vitah'ty are mmsvjaUy 
dependent on ils assodaOon witii certain mycoirhizal fungi, ajid 
titat wherever dicsc exist the orchid \\'\\\ fiourish If th.:it i;c the 
whole cxjjlanation, it is cine which should make all ^scientific workers 
felt up and take notice. For if the symbiotic relation between the 
mycorrhiza and the orcbiti gives the latter power lo adapt itself to 
siicJi exiraordrnary diflferences in cltn>ate and envtrontncnt, may 
not such power be won tor higher organisms than orchids by 
wnalogoiis methods ? What is it which makes this Dipodmm etjually 
at home along the sivores of D'Enlrccastcaux Channel in southern' 
Tasmania, and at Alma Den, one hundred miles west of Cairns in 
tropical North Queensland? I have eoHccted it mvieli in the 
former of these localities, and liavc lately received a raceme of 
typical flowers from the latter. I have seen il gTOwing in ?ancj 
within a tew feet of salt-water estuaries on Uie New Soulh Wales 
coast, and have gathered it on heavy black soil near Glen Inncs 
at an aliilude oi nearfy «t,000 ieel, on country subject to wint^'i* 
snows. Wliat gives it this marvellous adaptability? And what is 
the secret oi its abimdancc in comparison with Uie rarity of the 
closely-allied D. Homiltomanum? Tlie latter is a very similar plant 
with similar habits, yet it has only been seen in New South Wales 
and southern Queensland. Though rare, it aeems to be cajiable of 

adapting ir.self to vyricd conditions, (or h extends Farther uito tlic 
<Jry nitenor that^ D- puiKtatum (CoonabaraUran, N.S.WJ. and has 
also l>ccu located near SydiKy (Epping), and on vlic:: high wesiem 
slopes of Mew Etigland Yet it (5 never plccitttul. VVlien 1 received 
sp^cunens from iwo JocalitJes in 1935, I liad not seen \i for ovtx 
tvvtioiy years. 

Then lalce the case of Cyinhhimn cifrfoliculnhivi. Here is anotlicr 
orchid — this linif- air epiphy?^. of ?jort.s — with an amazing range of 
hnbitat. T have c^unhTied (lie lerm cpiphylc because uur Cymbidiums 
are not epiphytes in ihcSiime'siin'SC'dh-xDcndyolnumot^ Sarcochilus 
is aii epiphyce The. rootr: do not grOw along tfte surracc o£ the 
bark of tlie host-, btit penerraJe i'Uo decayed hollows. T?n*.», is par- 
ticularly the -i-ase with \hc species in qucstioj^. lU mp>t ^.onthp.rly 
locahty hitherto recorded i?» the Forl^es district of ]Slew South 
Wales- Kroin fhere Jr extends right to Cape York, and from Cape 
Vurk it eontiiuies rotn>d the GuU connlry and at 1e;ist as far as 
Roebuck Day in the nor'-wcst of Western Australia. I have not 
heard ot it OL^Tr ihii coiist further sotith than [he- Hunter i^iver. but 
inland, as indicated above, it haft been traced to Forbes. North of 
the Hunter it seems equally happy on either side of tire Dividing 
Kange. and 1 h-3A^c seen ir at an altitude of 4,000 feet on Ml. 
KapiUar; yel it flonrishes. on (lie dry, wind-.swept plam? of the 
western country. Why it has not crept down to Victuna ai:d South 
Australia I cannot understand: it may yet he discovered there, of 
conrsc. Eiic^lyjjtb are its iuvourite host>j but I h?ive found it on 
Angophoi-as, cypress-pines, belahs. and other trees. It i& often a 
very bulky plant. 

In contrast to these, take the case of Dinns vcjiosa At about 
5,000 fftet on H-irnii^on Tops, 60 niilHs m>riJi of Newca<;ile, thi.> 
pretty little lilac hued terrestrial occuiis literally in myriads. Ko 
definite record can oe nbtaiiie<I of its existence anywhei-e else. 
Similar plaieaux to ihal of Earnngton Tops arc found elsewhere 
in New South Wales and other Slates, but they liavc been scoured 
in vnin — ac* far — for litis Diiiriw Why? Ii is *iO al<nnd£jnt, and it 
^reproduces it^df so prolifically, on the Barriuf^'tnns that one would 
expect It to npp^'dv in simflar situations. Evamples to this effect 
aie nor lacking^ itt that veiy locality. Chilcrfjhlti'f Cunnii ^lui Ptcro- 
slyhs jo-lcata have not been recorded for New South Wales, so far 
QS I atn aware, between liie KoiiCiui^ko highbitids and tlioSe of 
Barriiigton Tops, but both reai:r])car ou the latter ; and C. Gunuk 
hiis novr been traced for 40 inile^ north-east of Amnidale on the 
New England plateau. 

Another curious and intricfiing case is the distribution of ChUo- 
tjhilis jortmrijera So far as x^nstralia is concerned, this species 
appears to be fudcmic In New S'^ulli Wales; roughly speakings 
between the Shoalhaven and Hutiter Rivers. Yet it is found across 
the 1,200 miles of the Tasman Sea, in New Zealand 

Ptcrosiylis rnja was credilecl by lh€ older generations ok" bolairists 
with nccuri^ncd in every Stafc uF iLii: CoinMiMiwc^llh Thi^ ext?n» 
51 ve di Attribution is doubtful. a= more than one ^^pecies was for- 
merly inclufJed .m P. ritfa. Na sucb rloubt exists, however, in rlic 
<:asc of P i'uria, of wUkU 1 have acitial'y iLatitJlcd ^]>ecinKns from 
fvery Stiite. It is a far cry from the Atlicitou Tablflaivi io North 
Quecns]and to tijc south-west of Western Australia, yet sue!) is 
ttic rasig^e of tlvs Gi*e^»hood. wMcb also exl^^ndb. to Tasmania. /*. 
nutatis Jms alst» bccji rtpurtcJ Jruiii Western Austritlia; it is in :ill 
(be other States, but has not l)ccn seen far north of Krishane; but 
it is undoubtedly in N**w Zealand. 

Of miali interest is tlie appearance of co3n|>ai:atively rare species 
(located in and described fivmi limited areas.) in Jocabtics many 
Jmndi'eds oi miles away from that of the type. It is, of cotirsc, 
"not uubkely <bal the wide gaps moy be narrowed by the discovery 
of s])i*dmerii> tn between. Examples are CciaJaiio luiektta, a very 
uncommon species of South Australia am] western Victoria, which 
turned up unexjT'ecrerliy at Bnllalutelati, 70 milrs north of Nt.w- 
casde, "Nftw SouJh Wales; Thclymitnz fhaMnorfomaj of the ML 
Lofty foothills in Soiitli Australia, discovered on the South Maji- 
laiid Coalfields. New South Wales, in 1934; and LiJ>m-7S h^bi^yux- 
rtva, a little-knowTi tropical Qneenshtnd plant, which has lieen 
I'juiul on the north coast of New South Wales. 

I trust that itiew: soniewhcil bapha/aid jottings may set*Ve 1o 
stimulate! attcnbrwi to the jntercisling problems provided by the 


l^inc and coa) wcalhcc prtvAiksl for llic Otirfl oiri<"»n^ Club eACiii'sion to 
Mi Buii'^ilo National Park, unti in the limited ti'iie availaWt; during Hic 
AuijUrflw D<»y weelc-entj (Jan. 29 lo F^b. I) fiall opportiiivity wax taljfm 
l>> tlie nine menil*ct^ and iricnds rjomprisini; the ;>artj- tn visit as manj* 
points C'^ ifitere5,t on the Flatp.m as posiiblp.. The summer at thiB alliluAe 
is tlic cquivalttnt erf ihc spinii^ m thr. tower levels.; COiiiie<iiJ€iiUy. ihttc was 
no lack of boiariical sijetiniens 10 tJtainiae, Itiougb xht iiist Jldih oi Hk 
Hiring blc-isOMuiig: Kdod was jufl past These it^ tl>c furfy visiting the 
WDtiuuia for llie fiisl ttttie evt»res?.cd &urpri«- at the ^x^altfi of native flora, 
its VAriely an«l qi.wlit>. Witl\ ihe clo.^c jiroximity al many spetiw to the Qialet 

Snow Gunifi anrl ".cvcral othtT Eucalypts were itill in flower, and Uiis 
factor iKought under ntrtifc sonic oi ihc honey-ealing birds lioui Ihe lower 
level ffmssU. txcejiUonall}/ line speciinens oi Uie Crns^. Tri_e:Er«rT-pJatii aj-^J 
the Auairal bluebttl wc-xe rtiec wJlh everywhere. The "ftrhi- nutiDj; \,vn% 
around lljc iainoiis Gorge nt^d Iho on to Rep»Hs T.nnVotit, "whect* typical 
alpine flora was found SiTiin^c to *itirnc m^mtipr*^ fit thr jiarty were th« 
Tllotdty MtnJ-btjsti {Pn^itiyntncra WaUnr't), Mu unojinmori flower with a 
prolon^^'cd hlns^oniiiii^ i^crtod Ihat j.i>i>cAi^ lo be increasing o\er the Plateau; 
the Alpine Btironia; (lie Hilichrysustis: the attractive shrub. Poiuax wmivf- 
hita; the Derwtiit Spcodwetl ; the while Kunzea fcdtJ-mularis, scv\:rat spcuiei 
of Bm-chyccmc, and oOier species. The next walk, around LaJfc L-aiaiiv, 
revealed a bbxe of colour in the "tundra** flora; such speue^ as the Alpin* 

Alar»h-mari;,'alrl (Caltha intvitloba)^ Kuytsna Mu^thvi^ Phebtilinm podo- 
carp^iidtTSj Grcviif,a nlpifui, f^oriohpis lonn'\t>^'iinta. the Golden nverlastin^ 
(HrJichfysiiw tirai'tcatitift)^ i>aTriiularIy |\rraTj^e aiirl riaz^tliiit; in ridi oilrmr, 

m shades of blue and piMk. On this- wAik Mr- V. U. MiWry located the 
Bt^jong Lf^k-OrtlHd iPrJ^dijfiyilum cipnnm R.Br, /'r. Tadn>:liinn\vtn 
RoEew), so far as tan l>i: JLSCCJUiined. nut jjrtviojMy n*.pc>rtcH .from Mt. 
Buffalo. Other species aoud as coiuinon to iKc Iwalxly vvtsn. ilu: t'outo 
OrcJiitl (CfiUttodia ^csarmidts) ; and surely llic iviosi liciautilul oi all Vhn 
rori^n orchids, fhc Alpirtt Leck-ofcliid {Ftac-opUyihm Sntlaim'), vrlvch 
thrives in the open bcffgy spaces at the head of ibe'lake. 

Itie Htjct day a 5lt<ill vvas raicon in the <lirccT:icn of Bill5on's Lookout and 
tkt Hauolcd G)rfre where atrcntion wns divided between iJir supeib mon*>- 
lairt vi5tas arid f'irtlici cxAmplc-i oi h\a}) altitude bo^^ny. Here v;a.5 noted 
|1ie Tim' Gxccnbood (PUrtAstyHs pamf.or.^'), antl, nftcr x pTfrtrrtctcd scorch, 
tll/ce :^!!intf; oi Hie Hirninutive rare Elfciw.' Orcliifl (SpicitltTii H .'.•ntiaim) ^ 
d^covevnd !»*;*■ At"*r for chn first time near the ^ vicinity. TJic samii 
afternoon vvc- mailc tJ-io itvea mUfcs iiiuiur trip to thc: Horn, tjo highest point 
on the "Piatcspj, 5.ii45 Icet abuv^ &ea-level. Hert Che bolanJual iiilcrosl was 
CV«n iitiirc sLimula'iii^. The Hora Uht!.tTatcd liie tDzimtr iii whidi plaiUs- 
RorvivtnJ tiir Lai tie willi exixeiDC a^piac ojnidilsoni ni sm cjiposed :uiU sticm- 
fiigly inhospiialjli; rcgioo- IJie iiaiive- gi^ssc*: grow exu'ner^nlly and ibe 
dwarf, ituiited Sno> Ouing jiiafce s1c»w hut sure rtd^vcy af'.er dis^^lrous- 
files of sonii; 2^ yeat.s agn in tlir dc5.f.cnT Uom fht fiMinaclc al Hie Korji 
dou-ii U7e prcvip'ton^ W:tU ot Cliinn *rr4Ck, Vi'e *^ww tl'e ^'foit'ifain Plntn-j^lile 
(Podo{-(t:f>JU i/i^iKfi) rinurishin^ tifiwi'fin thr. gi-^nirc Ivinlttcrs. tUKl tliirk 
tnfN. vi^ Ttfs^-H:k-grAS'^ at d()i>rtovinuti:ly 5^(^00 (ooi alvrtvc: ;;0'j-lovt*] Tliif 
Cy>rw/'tspf-*fti-^ Mfxc ut ihe eight jpeci-'s ualivc to Vicloria^ gro^^s at liighcr 
^Ittl>(i1t!.<i ihsn any other shrul\ or tree ot^ tlit P'atcaii A )iii1c lower dnii/a 
[ilantv <if the Mountain AophyO were in hicoin, wliich, wliU the handsonni 
greyish {aliaj^e atid large \vliitp irnsset oi thc Atlpiiis Dai-iy-buOi, together 
vdlh lata flc\v^T£. of Dia-iiclfc tasnunvui:, niade ii delichlfui piclyrc. 

Tlie; imposing WooohtH not far from tlic Chalet was niso visited. The 
busli co»3l<iinc<t turtiicr fl'i-\ver3 >n ivrofti^'ii'm, notublj Oryhli'iV a^/Tf'r.i , 
t1l« Satin Evcrlisliiiy ijlclirhryt^um Unco^sidiiutii . C'>Dthnxa ycmtvhUi; 
Ji-ptivris paftuiasu , -and fhe rjiouDlatfi Hoaflt-nivrlle (Bccckta ujumm-ui) 
Travelling: down thtf ntountain on the return journey^ wc admired htii: cJiimus 
or the lovely blue Rock fsofoniri near Mackay'* f.ookout. mid lower down 
Irad glimpses ot veo" rnbust .^pcortienK ot the Tlyacinlh Orchid. 

Bird UCc in limited on accotint of thc: ttor^aJ uestjag scaiiOn uunodiufi' 
with ifiow aitd ice '.ouditioiii-. but during tlic \v-artiier weatl:cr (nniiv tyi>e-s 
o£ bitdo visit tlie hig"her altitudes in seatcli of food, chiefly iicclar I/oni thc 
inyriaM^us flowcra, li»gird> and Belong inorb$ a«d othtr iTiflecl$. On the 
slopes toward" thc "l.-ttdcr^rotmd Rfvej arc haunts of tltc Lyrebird. One 
or two ntountlT were, scs^n. auit rcccril stratchiiigs, while m tiie dir.laix*^ 
M«:iiarii's w-ocal rmuutry couJd be Heard; fcul tJic birds were too uix tlOwjl 
tht; juoumatu la l>t seen Mrs V, H. Miller noted s^v£j*<d speciet of hirds 
not pre\'lo'i5ly r.Korded ^ot the Plaicau, a.-none cben> the Bool>ooV Owl 
nixcU-harkcd Kfagpi^c were nhserv^^d in tiie iAdfti;ic)i at the back of Uic 
Chalet, wh<^re thc While-hacked variety wx'i noti-'d U^t year. Qti two 
iwcccteive days the Vilot-hird vpas bath aeen ind heard, and one mortilng^ 
3 lar^ liockot Si*;ilti. viiiblfttonly ihroi^h Geld-gla5<?e^ flew over (he Chalet. 

It was estimated thai al least a hundred naiive plants were in bloom, and 
had other pans of Lh.-^ mouniaan been v»si(cd the list would doulitless buve 
liecii extcfidcd. RcftrctluUy it svtts uoccd ibctt "bushftrcs h»d ^>^xn heavy toll 
of th** tr+ich and shruli^ jn rc*'ea< years ; atbO thjir ii h still nci:nsM«ry to o^*i 
alte National F'ark timber for the Ciislei lUcI /equtVc; merits. 


The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LIII.— No. 12 April ?> ^937 ^'o. 640 


The ordiuary meeiing of th« Club was held ?t the Royal Socieiv> 
Hall on Monday, March 8. 1937. The President. Mr, S. R. 
Mitchell, presided and about 100 members and friends attended. 


The subject for rhe evening was an illustrated lantern lectm-e 
on "Australian Wild Flowers/' given by Mr G. N. Hyain, th<.^ 
slides in natural colours having been prepared b>' Mr. H V. 
Reeves from his own photographs. 

Mr. Hynm commended many' plants for garden use, and gave 
Interesting notes on some natural hybrids iiUistiated, further he 
teuiarked on the advisability of forming a collection of pliolo- 
is:raphs. covering all phases oi natural history for the u.=e of 
writers and lecturers- 

Several members expressed their appreciation of the illnstra- 
tions, and tiw President, for the Club, thanked Messr*?- Rcevcv 
ajid Hyam. 


The President announced that the Treasurer. Mr J. Jngrarn. 
and the Assistant Librarian, Mr. W. H. Ingram, were leaving on 
the following Saturday for England, and on the members' behalf 
wished them bon voyage and a safe s-eturn. 


Preservation of the Koala. — Mr. Y. H. Milker srated that a 
deputation was to wait on the Chief Secretary qv\ a date to be 

Evenn->g Excursion to the Zoo.-^It was announced thai tins had 
i>een postponed until further notice. 

Vandalism al Mt. Buffalo. — The Secretary stated that the Com- 
mittee had decided to send a letter to the Chief Secretary v^'ith 
reference to this matter. 


Prom the Zoological Society of Victoria, inviting irn-nibershiii 
From Mr. R. Eadie, Badger Creek, jcgarding thu foithcominj 
Club e>;cursiQn. The President mentioned that 'Splash/' the. 

fainous Platypus, had just died. Mr. V, U. Millev suffgested thai 
a letter be sent lo Mr. Eadic expressing the Qub's regret. 


Hx<:ursitvii5 were rcj^oitcd on iis follows :—Yarra River trip. 
Mr. W, Hanks: atid Cheltenham, Mr. Charles Barrett for Mr, 
L. G. S- Burler 


On a show of hands. Miss F. R, Fau.l was elected as an 
Ordinary Member oi the Club, 


Mr. A. R. Varley mentioned ihai Platypus were common in the 
WeiTihee River at Vvcrribee. 


Mr. Charles Barrett a-sked for <{n exj)ression o'' opinion froni 
the Gcncnil Meeting in the matter of reprints being g^iven ro 
authnr5 of papers published in the Nninralisi. U was decided 
that the matt;.-r he reierred to the Committee for re-consideration. 


M'vs- Charie.s Barrett. — Ordiid (Dcn-drobtmn m,) from Kool- 
pinyab.. Northern Territory : and inarine sbelts, from Brunswick 
Heads, New South Wales. 

Mrs. Fenton Woodbiirn. — Eai-th Stars {Coaster fmthi'^^hts) 
from Batesford, Victoria. 

Miss .A- Cornish.— ]3eiKjrit!c markings from Lilydale. 

Mr. Charles Barretu — Satin-banded Spider {Arfjiope actnula), 
irom Balwyn. 

Mr, L. W, Cooper. — Dipodium l^unctaMmi (Hyacinth Orchid "), 
LaranihuE quandang (Grey Mistletoe). L. MiqifcJiJ (St-alkcd Mas- 
tletoe). and Dipsa<ns- fnllonmn (Fuller's Tca^d-). 

yjx, E W. Lang'tord. — Tertiary fossils, from Orhost. VirJ'oria. 

Mr. E. S. Hankc;. — Sperim^nfr of Tree Sparrows and House 

Mr. A. R. Varley.- Sponges and Polyxoa, 

Mr. V. H. Miller. — Stone Axes, etc., from the Melbourne fti^- 

Mr. V. S. Colli ver. — Common dendrjces from Lilvdale. and 
Dendritic Limonite from Rowsley. 

Master A W. Coltiver. — 'J'rap-door Spidcr'.s Nest, from Broken 
Hi'l New South Wales. ... 

mi J Chooks, Shtdks an Austtahan Aquatic Pkh^ 196- 

By Kathleen M. Crooks, 

In recent years, investigations have lieen carried out in different 
countries, ncrtably Great Britaiu, the Uniteii States, Germany and 
Denniaik, tc gscntain the r\ature ot the aquatic fungus flora. 
HiUierto, in Australia, the Attrition of workers has been confiiied 
to the terrestrial fungus flora, with the exception of records of 
Saprolcgnio- jeyax. in association with a disease in fish. 

A preliminary investigation of sOme of these aquatic i'ungj has 
been carried out, using the iDcthctcIs employed by workers in other 
countries. All the (onus collected belong to the group of fungi 
known as the Phycomycete*!?. composed of filamentous hyphoe with* 
out 5.eptn, allhougli sometimes Ihey are constricted at intervals. 

To obtain the fungi, fine wire-mesh baskets, contauiinf^ l)aits of 
various kinds, were placed in different locsHties — ponds, artiftcial 
or nalural, or in quiet running rivers. A long wire anchored the 
traps to the shore. 

The baits u^ed were chiefly fruits of various kinds — apples, 
plums, primes, grapes, oranges, banaius. Solcmum pscudo- 
capsicujn. Crnta-egus, Japonicc. Cotoncasicr, rose hips, also t\vig& 
of various kinds. The traps were submerged for varymg periods 
of three to eight weeks. At the end of this time, the fruits v»rere 
brought into the laboratory, and washed in running water for a 
day to r»;ronvc all tracts of mini They were ihen transferred lo 
dislxes coutainang: sterile distilled water, with loosely fitttng coveis. 
so 3S not to exclude the air. and kept at a low temperature. 
Examination of the baits was commenced immediately. 

In most cases, the fruit?., particularly apples, rose hips, 
Crata^(/ns and JaponUa fruits, were thickly dotted with white to 
yellowish patx^hes, representing pustules not more than 1 mm. in 
diameter. The fungi in these p-ustules were URually members of 
the I^ptomitaceac or P.lastpcJadiaceac^ the members of which arc 
rather tree-like i^i forni. They have a well-developed rhi5:oidal 
system, and the \ruuk i% oi tlic same oi grealv^r diameter than the 
biajicJ-ves. On the finer branches, the reproductive organs are 

The filamentous forms belonging to the Sapn>k'g!iiaceae, were 
not visible when the baits were first brought in to the laboratory, 
but after a few days, the ]ong hvphae commenced to grow out 
ftom chc twigs ur fruit. If boiled halved hemp seeds are placed 
m a dish will^ the baits, the filamentous forms will grow out 
readily on the hemp seeds. These latter forms can also be grown 
successfully on artificial media, but the forms wah a well-deve- 
loped rlnKQidal system cannot be successfully grown in culture- 
Twenty difl^erent specie;* were examined, and their systematic 
and physiobgicuS characters have been described Up to date; 


JID6 Crooks, SiudteA- on Austmlim At}untk Imgi Lvldli>m. 

only oiic new species* Blastodadia asf^fi-giUoidcs n.sp., and onti 
new vane.ty^ Aihiya imiencana, yar. mcgo^pemw, aov. vav., have 
been recorded. 

The life-history of these Aqu:itic forms h naturally adapted to 
the envirotunent, and consequently rhty reproduce in pare 
a^^xualiy. by the forniaiion of free-swimmitig zoospores. The 
?.oospore4. are formed witlun a spor*iiigiun) which, when mature, 
burst** to liberate the spores, which swim activdy by meaus ox 
dlia. Tiiese zoospruea are cither uni-cjiiate or bi-ciliate, and 
Oil geim'uiatioti, produce new plants. Sexual reproduction is v/eJI 
known tii the FGnns beTongmg to Ihc Saprolegniaceae. The male 
and female organs are different m structure — chc female a large 
spherical oogonium, which is fertilised by the male antheridinni-*- 
a tube-like structure adjacent to the oogonium. The result of 
EeitiUzarioii i8 the torniatiun of one Lo nianj' oospores. The 
germination of the oospores may occur soon aflcr maturity, or 
it may be preceded by a lengthy resting penod. 

In the Blastocladialcs. sexual reproduction has been described 
in only one genus — AUomyces, a form not yet recorded in Aus» 
tralia. In oonrrast to the Saprolegniales. tlie male and female 
organs are similar in ohape, but ditlcring in ci:>loiu and also in 
sixe, and huUi contain motile gametes. These gametes rcTsemhle 
zoospores, and are uniciliate, but the male are otily about half 
i]\ff 5;i7:e of th<^ feniMle. The inalc^ jjihI female- .fc^amctes unite 1u 
form zygotes, which germinate in three ly four hours to iomt 
new plants. 

However, in Bla^U^ocladur and Gomtf^odya, al&o niemberis of the 
Blastodadiales, sexual reproduction has tK'l been demonstrated 
with certainty. Large "rcsting-sporet" are found in BkiHor.hdia, 
and are regarded by some workers as oospores which liave deve- 
loped parthenogenetically, i-c.^ without being fcitilized by an 
antlien'dium. These re-sting-spores are capable of overwintering 
fur u lan^' pcrinH-^unlike ihe zoo>vpnre.« of Blnttrtclafifn^ vvfnch arc 
exticmely sensitive to environn>ental changes. 


This excxirsion was duty c^UTied oti^ afler Mie launch had 1v.*ice returned 
tj3 the wharf ti* pick ap latecomers. About 65 jnornbers and friends %v^ie 

The physiography i=- somcwliat difficuU, a? the M^cllx>tirne Harbour Trtut 
h«s alttfred th-e rh'er so much- However, Ihc- leader described the river and 
surroundings ^'^ 'Jkv usi;d ,to he, OOuUiitg out (Kc -^itc of lhe falls, the 
mouth of Fhr.abcth Street Creek, aird the sice of viirionfc tcad^i, intludinig 
thf Devil'^ Elhow caur-ed hv the jimrtion of tlif. ■Moone.e Pond^ Creek 
with tlifi Yatra, and Ih*; waters, -ni the Bay. IcirmiriEr n bar behind wluch 
the river was forced lowards Footscray, The Maribymnnfi; Rucx alao Wd5 
described; it 5« u» a tnore ratural state ihati the Yarr*. 

W- HAKK&. 


Cou.rvicM, Foxjil LoccHHas %n ^nd- ahont Melbourne 157 


By F. S. Cotr.iV'F.R 

Paj^t 111 — MooNBE Ponds Cj^t^PK. 

The best locality In this area is the old geological survey Section, 
just beyond the bridge over the ciX'ck at Orrnond Road. To 
reach there take cither a Brunswick or an Essendon tram, alight 
at Ormond Road, and walk straight down to the creek and along 
the bank un the Bmnsvvick side tor about 100 yards in the direc- 
tion of North Essendon; then climb down th« path leading to 
the creek bank. 

This excursion should not be undertaken in wet weather, the 
patli d(.»wn thd clitF ain he dangernus, as the snil is ciny Again, 
the cliffs are of sandstone, and in some parts ovorhang, <;o that 
care should be laken 1o inspect the position where it is desired 
io wurk, and make sure that no loose blocks are liable to fall 
ddtfjng operations. 

Close lo the path, just before it reaches th^ actual bank, will be 
Hccn a band oC friable sandstone, and if pieces o^' this are broken 
out with hammer and chiacl and examined ihcy will be seen to 
consist almost entirely ot" casts and impressions of shell:^, etc. 
Occasionally, however, a small shining black patch is noticed; \\ 
close cxaminaOon proves it to be a shell lypc» it probably is a 
LaTT>p Shell or Brachiopod of the genns Lingxda, allied types of 
which arc still living in Queensland seas, a^ at Mission Bay, near 
C'iirns. Thir- fossil has a ver>' lon^ tunc-ran^e. and an interesting 
po.nt h that this black patch consi.Ms of some of the original 
material practically unchanged; in this case it is not caicintn car- 
bonate, hwt an organic material allied lo hm-n 

Several other gentra nf r^Hm])-shp.llN may be 1'uund here, shd 
also a tew sheKs. both univalve.'? ^im\ bivalves. The Cephalopovis 
are repnesented by .straight Nautiloid shells ; si:arftsh are not lui- 
commoTJ. and triloI>*ncs i^oniellmes are found. Crinoids, Corals, 
etc.. are all to be found in this locality. 

With reference to the above list, the shells ar-e found as casts 
and impressions, and the crinoids, starfish and cofals in a stmilair 
stale: the triiobites mostly are collected as fraj^eiits, but some- 
times c<implc<c, for ejcamplc, a large alrnost i:>erl"ccl spcchT>en of 
HomoloiiMvs hQ>rrnom, McCoy, wa^ found during- the early surwy 
woi-k.'but very few have been ODllected since 

"The fauna! assemblage is typical of the Palaezoic. and partiai- 
larJy so of the Silurian age section, and these beds arc so well 
develnped xhoui Melbourne with their fossils similar nvcr the area 
that they are called the Melbournian Series. Thiy se.ries, being 
fhe oldest near Hie city, is futthpr called the B'^id-nick of Mel- 
bourne, and li not replaced by anything older inUil near Sunbury. 

ilSIf -rCotUVKR. Fossii F.ocaiHus in ond ahtmt Mi'Jhyunu^ [y 

All the malerial at this seclioi) may be termed fossiliferous, but 
specimens are far more rare in the upper heds. although generally, 
when fotjnd, they are better preserved. 

Before leaving the area it wili bi well to notice several interest- 
ing general geolofiiml features. Ar the pi'e^ent locahty, the vock 
wall shows a slight dip, and the bedding as a series of Iparallel 
I»nes; tliis is because the beds .are cut across the strilce. These 
two terms may l>e illustrated by holding a book up by the back 
so that the leaves fall apart, and stand out at an angle The 
iip'turned edges well represent the strike, and the angle the leaves 
form \^ith the horizontal is the dip. 

Walking back along the creek l)ank *.everal patches of shale 
will be noticed, and some o£ these will have a slight coating of 
white powder. Testing this with the tongue proves it to be 
alum. It ivS formed in rather an interesting way. The colour 
of the shale is due to pyrite, a sulphide of iron mineral, and with 
the break-down of this and liberation of sotne of the sulphur 
together with rain water a Jiltk sulphuric acid is fonned ; this 
m turn attacks the clay, which ^s mainly an hydroxide of 
aluminium and some sulphate of aluminium^ tlie parent of alum 
is formed. This fonns as a whitish powder on the rock faces. 

One other pomt of mterc-st is, that among the hill wash al tbi5 
'ocality, Dr. G. B. Pritchard, a Club member at the time, collected 
.several small crystals of amethystine quartz. These are rare., how- 
ever, for 1 have looked many times without 'finding a specimen. 

The following arc the commoner fossils from this area, and the 
majority o( these should reward che earnest seeker for a few 
htmrs' wOrk. 

Corals — Afollusca — 

Favoslles sp. Falocauello victoriae Cliap. 

Crinoids — \^ucuJUes fna^rcoyi^nas 

Sundry fragments. Chap. 

Starfisl\ — CydoneDw. sp. 

Promapalaeastfr meridion- Loxomma Sp» 

alls var. Murclusonh sp, 

Peira^ler smy^ftt. McCoy. Orfhoreras sp. 

Protaster brisiitfjoide^ Cychr&ras ibex Sovv. 

G regory. Trik )bites — 

Rrachiopods — H atmlonolu-s harriscfifii 

Lhigula sp. McCoy. 

Ciiniaroiocchia ticfnnplkata dmpy^r sgv. 

Orthis sp. ColymArr- xp. 


Plate XVIIl 

Photft by D. Dtckison 

Orange-winged Sitiella on nest 


By p. PfCKisoN ' - 

Though fK?tteT knowu as Tree- runner, the Orange-wingcd 
Sittelb 15 quite a common species in Victoria, and it ranges as 
far north as Southern Queensland, it i^ more or less a coas-tal 
form, but further inland its place la taken by the Black-capped 
Sittella. wh'ch is praclifally S"nilar in ap|)t*ci ranee except for^tlie 
darker featliers on the crown of the head. 

Through its habit of keeping to the tree-Tops, and being- so small 
in .size.. *^hc Sittella is not well known except to the bird sludetil, 
but its twittering notes as it ilies froni tree 10 tree may be loud 
enough at times to attract the attention of persons who are not 
bird lovers, For the greater part of the year this bird congregates 
ill MnaH no<;k<i of from eight to a dozen individuals, and even 
during the breeding period these small parties occasionally are 
seen. The Sittella is a most rcsUess bird. Flying into the top- 
most brandies of either a green or dead tree, if worki its- way 
rapidly down the branches to the trunk, and then flies oflE to 
another tree, to repeat the perfomiaiice. Its methods of scacdimg 
for food are in contrast to those of the tree -creepers, whitli work 
up the trunk of the tree to the branches. 

It is not usual to find the Orange-winged Sittella close to Mel- 
hourne, bur some years ago a. pair built a ne&t io a till Paper- 
bark tree growing on the banks of Gardners Creek, not /ar from 
the tlafit Malvern Station. On other occasions they have been 
seen m the eucalypts around Ashburton, but it is now a few years 
since any have beeti seeu out there- 
Male and female are pnictJcally alilce in appearance, but the 
female ha.^ the feathers on the crown of the head darker than the 
male. In the box timber bcyund Melton, specimens with the 
{eather!> b?adc on lhc head have Ixen noted on many occasions. 
but in all stich cases they have* l»een in small flocks with other 
birds, whose featliers on the lieads have been cither brown or 
black browm. It ftcenis hardly likely that the Black-capf^^d 
Sittella of the dry inland would ratigt so [ar ^outh, but at die f 
present I am inclined to consider the dark-headed specimeni to be *l 
mcrHy a form of maturity doe to age. , 

The nest, a I>cantiful example of bird archrtecture, is built 
of small chips of hark and woven together with cobwebs. It is 
always placed in a sharp fork of a dead hrTinch at any height 
from 10 ft. to SO ft. from ihe ;i^roun<l. Gerierallv three eggs form 
the clutch; they are thickly covered with black ?ind reddisii-brown 
markings. |>artknlarly at the larger end. Inenliation takes 

Vch l,Ul. 

thirteen clays, and ihc young ones remain in the nest for a similar 

The breeding season is at its height in the -latter part of October 
arid during November. In Southern Victoria sonic pairs build as 
early aH the ftrst weeV in September, but, as with most birds that 
nt:$t e^irly, tlio period of building the nest is extended over strveral 
weeks, which, is not the easf. later m die season. 

Male and fern^^le work together in building the ncs!. They arc 
quite fearless of the presence of -i huniati being near The nest, 
but it the nest is touched they will readily desert it, even though 
the eggs may he on the point of hatching. At other tjmes, when 
they have almost completed the building of the riest, and without 
being molested m any way. they will suddenly decide tn tear i]ic 
structure to pieces, and build elsewhere, and often the new ncal may 
be thr^e hundred yards away from the site of the old one. 

The Ivjst linie to photograph the Sitfella is either during the 
building period or when there are young ones in the nest. They 
will then come regularly to the nestj and a good picture oj the 
I>ird itbclf can Tie i>l>tainc'.d, ntherwse. if sirrintr on the egg's the 
bt'd is too deep down in the nest for photographic (Xirposcs. 

Hy Fran'K Robbtks, 

Tn June. IW5j while showin|f a city friend the famous Pipeclay 
Creek, Orbost, I noticed a cactus-Hke para?ite on the Lilly-pilly 
{HuQCiiia S-miihdi) there, Tliis was identified by tlic Government 
Bcitanist tts KorflhihcUo m-ticuhfo , Jointed Afistleroe, which be- 
lonjpi to the Loranthaceae^ but in k different section from Ihfi 
commoner Loranthus and Fkrygilanthus. Another loraittK, 
Nf-iMhLros .\-uhaur&m. Golden Mistletoe, closely reSated to tlie 
jointed 5*pecics, was found by Miss E. K. Tunier al Mallacoota 
{Vktorion Naturalist, Febnaary. 1935). The latter 5» always; 
paravitic on memher.s of its own family, in this case, on Phrv- 
g-ilan t hus e-f/c afypHfolius 

tronsiderable intercsc is attached to these discoveries, as the 
British P'iscum is very closely related, partiadarfy to NototMxos. 
and Ihcr^ ai-e no definite Victorian ixfcord*; of' spectes of this -sec- 
tion of tlie nii^.tletoes. A derailed descriptiun. with pbte5 of both 
these plants, i-s given by Blalfely tn his revision of the three geneva.. 
fC^fhohelh. Notvf'Mxos, and Vi^cum, of this section. Proc. Lintu 
Sqc. ofNS.W. (1928). Vol. 53; p. 31. vt seq. 

At Pipeclay Cri^ek. KorthaJsclln arUcidofa has been found ^row- 
\\yg only on the Lilly-pflly on about half x\ dozen trees, distributed 
half a mile from the mouth of the stream. The -plants arc mositly 
small. 6 inches or less, erect, caclus-iike. and very difficult to 

IflST J 

RoBBiNS, Two Mistletoes New to yicto} 


Mistltrtots new to Victoria. KorthaUclla orhcnlafa and Noh^lhixos 


tVic. Nat. 
Vol'. LIIl! 

detect amid the host^s foliag-e. The Jointed Mistletoe is rare in 
South Australia (one report. L. Eyre), West AustraUa (one 
report), and Queensland, (two reports, plants in. each case grow- 
ing ou Eugenia Smlfhii) ; Init is found in nmny places in New 
South Wales on more than six different hosts, including- the 
garden Peach. Frequently, it grtiws to a len^^th of 24 in. in pen*lu- 
lous, compact Two ,species of Ki>rthiils:eUa are known in 
Australia, and probably three from the Pacific Islands. 

The most striking feature of this plant is its unusual habit of 
growth, Being leafless, the function of leaves is performed by 
flat, ribbed, jointed stems or internodes, hence the cactus-Hke 
appearance. At the joints or nodes, the upper part of the inter- 
node is expanded into a socket-like floral cushion, which acts not 
only as a receptacle for flowers and fruit, but is also the point 
from which new shoots grow; usually, two shoots, but often 
three. In Viscum, this cushion is a mere band. On this ex- 
panded collar will be seen numerous closely-j>acked, sessile fruits 
and flowers, with dark-coloured short cilia between them. These 
ovoid fruits almost encircle the node, being thickest on the broader 

The flowers are unisexual, and very small, about 1 mm., the 
males being even smaller. I have observed the male flowers in 
November and January. They are three partite, with a globular 
centre (anthers), and very few are foimd. The female flower 
looks just like a fruit with a tiny three-lol>ed opening at the top. 
and a tiny stigma. The remains of the perianth can always be 
more or less distinctly seen on the top of the fruit. Inside each 
fruit there is a tiny kidney-shaped viscid seed, about ^ mm. diani. 
I do not know what disperses the seeds, but in November observed 
a number of seeds germinating on the parent,, c»f course, 
would soon die. I found no evidence of a disc, hut tlic shoot 
attaches itself to the host by a disc, and after losing the seed, 
the shoot soon shows the nodose branches with the dark cilia en- 
circling the nodes. 

There are ten species of Notothixos, four being Australian, and 
six belonging to the Pacific Islands, etc. They are usually golden 
stellate or hoary plants, usually parasitic on mcmljcrs of their 
own family. S^ololliixox .s'uhaiircits is very common nortli of 
Sydney to the Hawkesbury River, and also in parts of Queens- 
land, growing on nearly a dozen other members of its own family, 
atid rarely on plants of other families. In January. 1937, I 
observed ■ it at Mallacoota growing on PhrygUanihHS eucalypti' 
foHus, right in front of the hotel, and also in larger quantities 
near the ocean beach. PhrygUitnthus is very common there, 
growing chiefly on Acacia jnoIHssima and Aiujophora iutcrmcdio. 

The plant is compact and pendulous uj> lu 2 ft. in length, the 
ijvate three-nerved leaves, 2-4 cms. long, being dark glossy 

J 03 

« j RoiTBixs, Two Mistletoes New to P'trtorio 20.1 

gre^ii above, and denseiy covered below with ;i golden stellate 
tnin«nluiii, tliu^ niakiug the plant conspiciious amone; ibe oth<;r 
Ct>li'd[^c, The stemSj flowers and buds are also CA->v£rfcd with this 

The mflorescence is usually densely tomentose. wilh three tt.* 
flexed cyimiJes on a couiinon pe<^nncle- Kach cynnile is ?i sinfjle 
row of.sessik flowers: set in deep nut<:hc.v. Tile flowcra arc utii- 
stxiiiil and Coiir-parjitev and xvere ju^t hegnming to open about 
January 15. Most cynaute had s>cvcii flowers, the centroJ on€ 
licm^j; male and ntlicis kernalo. 

l*ig. I. — Koftlt^itsclla nriicniatn. -^^iiimii\ 3i:;e, showMig. w\'\6i\ ut)(ji ivmis. 
, 2. — Same, young plaitt. naUtral sue. bhowuig yoiinft' HI10CH& and itmo'i. 
^. ,>!.— FJorar baud wivh ffuits and n»itlc tJowcrs (Nov.) X J. 
V 3^).— Floral bat)d \v\i\^ ?omo fruiis tinO bwds — tt-ansvcrec -vi«^v irom 

^ 4, 5. — Male luid and flcuvor — aniJior;; unittd in i^ciitrc. '■; 
„ <} — h'ruit, showiirg remains of p<^ria»tb jbovtt. X 10. 
., 7, 8.-- -Feaialc ilovv<:rs from side and ibow. X 15 
.. 9.--Sced. X 3 
,, 10- — ^Germinating seed. 
„ 11. 32. — GermiJiatiiig seed — further sugtr^.-showiitg siKtorial disc, and 

young shoot Alter Blakeiy. 
A. — NotiVhixas stitjauri^thi with mfinrescence of ^ rymulti X 3v 
B^ C.' — Maie bud and flower Xnthcr-iettncluHl wtthin each petal. X 4.. 
I). E — Ftmak' bud and l^tiwcr X 6. 


Tlic ilal^^iicrtt itial spai/ovrs of two distinct species exist nbr-int Mellj<>urne 
soeiw; to have causc^^ some siirprisr to a number o( our nicmhers. Actu- 
ally xh*iTC is ronf.ir3craHlF clitTerence hetvvpen thf" Iwo birds. wlVirh an: crtstly 
irisii'ju:uii.licd in ihf. fieM (or Htc ftreet) by (liOse acQuamtt'd with Hittm 
So far a*? I am aware, ihey oevci itUerbfeed. 

Till- male of the Horrnc Spofow {Pit4X(^r d&rmi^tii^tus}, Oit doilimaot 
j.^»ecies- hero, ha^ a dark throji — nw.kfic it lia-^ hccn <nll**d — hui its iVivmlc 
Uy5 a jitain grey (hroa* and chest, "j'hcy havt: vcKow hills Ami Imvo a MD^ic 
palrW of white on each wiog, In ilio Tr«e Sparrow (J-'asscr mimUiJui) on 
the contrary, male and JcmaJc arc- siinilai. Thyy L-acli havt a dark paidi 
under the bilJ, chestnut hcAd .^ivd luiic, two .smnll whiit [j-TTdic^ on the 
wings, jiikJ a Waok hiJf. in addition, and best guidt^ marki f>t all, rdc Trrc 
.SjJSmnv has a whit<f |wtch on eacH side of tlic head, witli a smill 
dark ca("j>atch m lhc/.cntrc of it. This i«. nearly always visible if a side 
VK'w of ilie bird is oblaiiwfd. 

The nextinK habits are similar bolli sppdci- UuiMiufi jn cither tree* or 
houses. A I Cobnrfi \\t h-tvc- had a pan: of Tree Suarrows buildmg in ont 
Sjdii'.Of ihc '&pO»5liiig, and ^ pair M Tloiiie Sparrows in (he other Trw 
Spai't'OW-' «ttigreg,a<.: lO latfie flodcs in Ihe aufumn, I lin%H: noted up io 
6f). Whcxicv<:r t have observe*! a largo flock fii Sparrow?, they h.ivc |ir.>v<^d 
10 be Tre-i Spartowj;. thoiigit 1 havc^ at •ioies. fouiid a few House Spnrri->wi 
among tlieni. H'Ouse Sparrows scorn to (onfirre 'hemseJv'js fo -ntallcr 
liarit'cs of lip to n dozen. 

HRNrsT i5. Banks. 

204 .SV///f( nvri Wea^h^r LvJi. u"j. 


Tlip Sp»n€-taiJed S"\viff (^HiniVffapu^ rnuHarMtu.^-) which used lo 
appear in vety large mombers in the Mer^iey district. Tasnianuu 
thirty years ago, cf late seldom appears here^ although still occur- 
ring m flocU^ in other parts of the island. At tl^c tJnic they wei'e 
pimtiful I made marly observatioivs, mosi of which arc rer.ordcd 
in back vohimes ii£ The II mu, connecting' theii appearance, especi- 
ally vA'hen flying low iviiU approaching cyclonic disturbances 

Of tiic few records in recent yenrs. the following may be oi 
hjtei^st.— *At Mersey Bluff, on March 13. 1930. at 5" o'clock 
in the evcnuig, Spine-tailed Swifts were eoursin«r over the 5cn.ib* 
some as- low as 5 feet or 6 feet above thd g-ronnd- The evening- 
was overcast ;ind .sultry, al'ter rain a few hours previously. On 
March 16, at 5.30 p.m.. a large Tinmher af Swills passed over tlie 
Don Road (wlivre 1 live) a< u tair height, and heading north- 
wrst. Next day was fine wilh light ticith-wcst breeze, but oa 
the momitig of March 18 the weather became sfinally and wet.'* 
While motoring through' Deloraine ou March 29. I9i^2, J observed 
a Swift flying rather low towards ihc cast; Ihia was after a north- 
west ^ale with heavy rain. An observer in that district had 
shortly before noted a party of the birds appearing in advance 
of an atmosphenc diEturbance. 

The laic Mr, Clive Lord^ Director of the Tasnianian Museum. 
sent me a tiote confirming in a remarkable way the connection of 
Swifts with weather conditions On a beautifully cJear sonny 
ninrnin^ej he was metering from Hobart to Tasman's Peninsula 
when -d number of Swifrs appeared, flyini^ (pjire low. He re-- 
niarked to a friend in the car, "'Well, Stuart Dove is out of it thifi 
time, with regard to birds and weather!" Before tltey reached 
their <!e&tinnti<jTi. the sky hud become overcast, and the day turned 
out to be a "soaker.*^ 

H- STHAJtr Dovi? 

West Devonport. Tasmania. 


Lately specimens oi Millipedes have )?eeii icRt to vie. far irieiitifif.3tii)n. but 
\Mhn in Victoria is able to "iiaine" ihcse interesting little creatures? Ilicre 
is tto very sati-sfacforj,- svxt-cmatic work relating to thf Australian .^filU* 
pedt:s, excepting Oiat in whith Chatriljcrltn describes a nuiiiber ol species, and 
references to tba^ previously knCivri, but Omits ti;. ^^-Jvc Unys t*> sild in iHcnii- 
fi ration. 

All Ammcaii authority, ». F. Liooniis, Ruiv;au of Piant Judiisfry, U..S 
Uepartnictit nl Agricollnjre, has protiiined for tlic Naln-i'olisi a scnii-oopular 
r'aper on Mj|)ipc<ie*i ^''^nc.rally. t-le has !\o" to receive Australi.-iii ntatcfi."*!, 
it ictem)f!C;=tli'^n i)c (lesirtd. for the American roUcctioiis at hi?i di!>lJ05nl W'.!]. 
tin -^taleii. require a" tht tunc fhat tie can ticvolc lo Millipedes.